Fundamentals of Chemistry

Fundamentals of Chemistry : United States Edition

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For one-semester preparatory chemistry courses or general-purpose introductory chemistry courses.

This clearly written, well-illustrated, versatile textbook provides thorough coverage of chemistry with a balance of problem solving skills, real-world applications and an emphasis on critical thinking and the process of science. A supporting theme throughout the text continually emphasizes that chemistry is everywhere.
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Product details

  • Hardback | 746 pages
  • 200.66 x 254 x 35.56mm | 1,610.24g
  • Pearson
  • Upper Saddle River, NJ, United States
  • English
  • 4th edition
  • illustrations (chiefly colour) portraits (some colour)
  • 0130337196
  • 9780130337191
  • 2,146,830

Back cover copy

This clearly written, well-illustrated, versatile book provides thorough coverage of chemistry with a balance of problem solving skills, real-world applications and an emphasis on critical thinking and the process of science. A supporting theme throughout the book continually emphasizes that chemistry is everywhere. Chemistry is Everywhere. Matter and Energy. Fundamental Measurements. Elements, Atoms, and the Periodic Table. Atomic Structure. Names, Formulas, and Uses of Inorganic Compounds. Periodic Properties of Elements. Chemical Bonds. Gases. Liquids and Solids. Solutions. Acids and Bases. Oxidation and Reduction. Fundamentals of Nuclear Chemistry. Organic Chemistry. Biochemistry. For professionals in the health sciences needing a "refresher" in chemistry.
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Table of contents

Most chapters end with a Chapter Summary, Assess Your Understanding, Key Terms, and Problems section.

A Letter to the Students.

1. Chemistry is Everywhere.

Chemistry in Our World. Chemistry at Work: Chemistry and the Automobile Industry. A Scientific Approach to Solving Problems. Hypothesis to Theory: The Scientific Method. Searching for Answers: Applied and Basic Research. Chemistry in Our World: Chemistry and Deep-Sea Diving. Chemistry: A Central Science in Your Education.

2. Matter and Energy.

Matter. Matter Has States. Elements and Compounds. Pure Substances and Mixtures. Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes. A Closer Look: Properties of Sulfur. The Law of Conservation and Mass. Faces of Chemistry: Chemistry Becomes a Quantitative Science. Energy and Chemical Change. Chemistry in Our World: Getting Rid of Solid Waste. Chemistry in Our World: Photosynthesis and Metabolism. The Law of Conservation of Energy. The Conservation of Matter to Energy.

3. Fundamental Measurements.

Metric and SI Units. Metric Length Measurement and Approximations. Conversion Factors and Dimensional Analysis. Metric Volume Measurement and Conversions. Metric Mass Measurement and Conversions. Conversion of Metric and English Units. Uncertainty in Measurement. Significant Figures. Scientific Notation. A Closer Look: Counting Millions and Billions. A Closer Look: How Much is One Part Per Billion? Density and Specific Gravity. Measurement of Temperature. Temperature and Heat Energy.

4. Elements, Atoms, and the Periodic Table.

Elements: Ancient and Modern Theory. A Closer Look: Searching for the Elements. Names and Symbols. Abundant and Rare Elements. The Periodic Table of Elements. Physical Properties of Elements. Atoms: Democritus to Dalton. A Closer Look: Experimental Verification. Dalton's Atomic Theory. Atoms and Subatomic Particles. Isotopes. Atomic and Subatomic Particles. Isotopes. Atomic Masses of the Elements. Counting with Moles. Molar Masses and Chemical Formulas: An Introduction.

5. Atomic Structure: Atoms and Ions.

The Discovery of Atomic Structure. Faces of Chemistry: The Curies. The Electromagnetic Spectrum. Chemistry in Our World: Sunscreens and Sunblocks. Chemistry at Work: IR Spectrometers. Excited Electrons and Spectra. Chemistry in Our World: Fireworks and Flame Colors. Electrons in Atoms. Chemistry in Our World: Excited Electrons and Spectra. Faces of Chemistry: Niels Bohr. The Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom. A Closer Look: The Uncertainty Principle. Energy Levels of Electrons. Valance Electron and Lewis Symbols. Faces of Chemistry: Gilbert N. Lewis. Electronic Structure: Optional Additional Insights. Energy Sublevels and Orbitals. Energy Sublevels and the Periodic Table. Electron Configurations and Orbital Diagrams.

6. Names, Formulas, and Uses of Inorganic Compounds.

Monatomic Ions. Polyatomic Ions. Names and Formulas of Ionic Compounds. The Use of Parentheses in Chemical Formula Writing. Determining the Names of an Ionic Compounds from Its Formula. Names and Formulas of Binary Compounds of Nonmetals. Chemistry in Our World: Nitric Oxide, Memory, and Aging. Oxidation Numbers of Atoms in Polyatomic Compounds. Nomenclature of Acids and Their Salts. Chemistry in Our World: Sodium Nitrate, a Closer Look. Hydrates. Some Chemicals and Their Uses. Chemistry in Our World: Sodium Carbonate, a Key Chemical.

7. Periodic Properties of Elements.

Making Order Out of Chaos: Discoveries of Periodicity. The Periodic Table Today. Atomic and Ionic Size. Ionization Energy. Melting Point and Boiling Point Trends. Density and Conductivity Trends. A Survey of Elements by Groups. Chemistry in Our World: "Buckyballs" Discovery Merits 1996 Nobel Prize. Transition Metals. Inner Transition Metals.

8. Chemical Bonds.

Ionic Bonds. Covalent Bonds. Electronegativity. Polar Covalent Bonds. Metallic Bonding. Conductivity, Solubility, and Other Clues to Chemical Bonding. Writing Lewis Electron-Dot Formulas. Chemistry in Our World: Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide. Shapes of Molecules: Balloon Models and Electron Pair Repulsion. Chemistry in Our World: Free Radicals and Ozone Layer Depletion. Water: A Bent Molecule. Ammonia: A Trigonal Pyramidal Molecule. Ammonium Ions and Coordinate Covalent Bonds. Methane: A Tetrahedral Molecule. Molecular Structures and Periodic Table. Hydrogen Bonding.

9. Chemical Quantities.

Formula Weights and Molecular Weights. Moles and Molar Masses. A Closer Look: How Big Is Avogadro's Number? Composition Calculations. Mass and Mole Conversions. Calculations Involving Avogadro's Number. Molarity. Empirical Formulas and Molecular Formulas. Determination of Empirical Formulas.

10. Chemical Reactions.

Chemical Reactions and Chemical Equations. What Balanced Chemical Equations Tell Us. Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations. Classifying Reactions. Combustion. Chemistry in Our World: Combustion, Carbon Dioxide, and the Greenhouse Effect. Synthesis (Combination) Reactions. Decomposition Reactions. Reactions of Metals. Reactions of Nonmetals. Double-Replacement Reactions. Ionic and Net Ionic Equations. Chemistry in Our World: Chemical Reactions in Limestone Caves. Neutralization: A Double-Replacement Reaction.

11. Stoichiometry: Calculations Based on Chemical Equations.

Mole Ratios. Mole-Mole Calculations. Calculations Involving Moles and Masses. Calculations Involving Molar Solutions. Limiting Reactant Calculations. Percent Yield. Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions.

12. Gases.

The Atmosphere. The Kinetic Molecular Theory. A Closer Look: Gas Pressure Units. Atmospheric Pressure. Boyle's Law: Gas Pressure and Volume. Charles's Law: Gas Volume and Temperature. Gay-Lussac's Law: Gas Pressure and Temperature. Chemistry in Our World: Popcorn and the Gas Laws. Standard Temperature and Pressure. The Combined Gas Law. Avogadro's Law: Gas Volume and Moles. Molar Volume and Gas Density at STP. The Ideal Gas Law. Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures. Gas Stoichiometry: Putting It All Together.

13. Liquids and Solids.

Gases, Liquids, and Solids: Some Generalizations. Interionic and Intermolecular Forces. The Liquid State. Vaporization and Condensation. The Solid State. Melting and Freezing. Heating and Cooling Curves. Water: A Most Unusual Liquid. Chemistry in Our World: Flash Freezing.

14. Solutions.

What Is a Solution? Solubility Terminology. The Solubility of Ionic Compounds. The Solubility of Covalent Compounds. Solubility Equilibria. Effects of Temperature and Pressure on Solubility. Solution Concentration Expressions. Chemistry in Our World: Lead: How Much Is Too Much? Colligative Properties of Solutions. Colloids. Osmosis and Dialysis (optional).

15. Reaction Rates and Chemical Equilibrium.

Reaction Rates: Collision Theory. Factors That Control Reaction Rates. Chemistry in Our World: Body Temperatures. Chemistry at Work: Reaction Mechanisms. Chemistry at Work: Automobile Catalytic Converters. Reversible Reactions and Equilibrium. Le Chatelier's Principle. Chemistry at Work: Ammonia Synthesis. The Effect of a Catalyst on a System. The Equilibrium Constant Expression.

16. Acids and Bases.

Acids and Bases: The Arrhenius Theory. Strong and Weak Acids. Chemistry at Work: Sulfuric Acids. Strong and Weak Bases. Reactions of Acids. Chemistry in Our World: Acid Rain. Chemistry in Our World: Is There Acid in Your Dough? Reactions of Bases. Chemistry in Our World: Antacid Chemistry. Bronsted-Lowry Definitions of Acids and Bases. Lewis Definitions of Acids and Bases. The Self-Ionization of Water. The pH Scale. Hydrolysis: Salts in Water. Buffers: Controlling the pH. Chemistry in Our World: Buffers in the Blood. Acid-Base Titrations.

17. Oxidation and Reduction.

Oxidation Numbers: A Review. Oxidation and Chemical Properties of Oxygen. Chemistry in Our World: Oxygen. Reduction and Chemical Properties of Hydrogen. A Closer Look: Hydrogen. Some Important Oxidizing Agents. Chemistry at Work: Hydrogen Peroxide. Chemistry in Our World: Antiseptics and Disinfectants. Some Important Reducing Agents. Chemistry at Work: Bleaching and Stain Removal. Chemistry in Our World: Photography. Oxidation and Reduction Half-Reactions. Electrolytic Cells. Voltaic Cells. A Closer Look: Corrosion.

18. Fundamentals of Nuclear Chemistry.

Natural Radioactivity. Half-life. Measuring Radiation: The Units. Radiation Detectors. Background Radiation. Chemistry in Our World: Radon-222 in Our Lives. Artificial Transmutations. Induced Radioactivity. Chemistry at Work: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scans. Practical Uses of Some Radioisotopes. Chemistry at Work: Dating the Shroud of Turin. Nuclear Fission: Splitting Atoms. Nuclear Power Plants. A Closer Look: Nuclear Power. Nuclear Fusion. A Closer Look: Nuclear Energy.

19. Organic Chemistry.

General Properties of Organic and Inorganic Chemicals. Alkanes: The Saturated Hydrocarbons. Using Structural Formulas. The Universal Language: IUPAC Nomenclature. Chemistry at Work: Gasoline and Octane Ratings. Alkenes and Alkynes: Unsaturated Hydrocarbons. Chemistry in Our World: Two Polyethylenes. Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Alcohols. Chemistry in Our World: Ethyl Alcohol. Phenols. Ethers. Aldehydes and Ketones. Carboxylic Acids and Esters. Amines and Amides.

20. Biochemistry.

Carbohydrates. Lipids. Chemistry in Our World: Saturated and Unsaturated Fats in Your Diet. Amino Acids and Proteins. Nucleic Acids. Chemistry in Our World: Genetic Engineering. Some Vitamins and Hormones.

Appendix A: Metric and English Conversions and Some Physical Constants.

Appendix B: Basic Algebra Operations.

Appendix C: Exponential Notation.

Appendix D: Using Conversion Factors to Solve Problems.

Appendix E: Glossary.

Appendix F: Solutions to Exercises and Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems.

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