Focus on the Language Learner

Focus on the Language Learner

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The authors describe ideas, techniques, and procedures which will enable the practising language teacher to better identify the local needs of particular groups of second language learners, and then work towards meeting those needs. It is full of illustrative examples and practical exercises which teachers can adapt and use in their own more

Product details

  • Paperback | 214 pages
  • 154 x 230 x 14mm | 340.2g
  • Oxford University Press
  • Oxford, United Kingdom
  • English
  • halftones, line illustrations
  • 0194370615
  • 9780194370615
  • 2,039,733

Table of contents

Preface; Acknowledgements; PART ONE: BASIC ISSUES; Introduction; 1. The learning part; The learning process; Learners' aims; Learners' expectations; The eclectic approach; 2. The language part; Linguistic analysis; Rules and explanations; Communicative competence; 3. The analysis part; The inevitable numbers; The research question; Further reading; PART TWO: WHAT LEARNERS NEED TO KNOW; Introduction; Analysis in terms of communicative competence; Analysis from the 'inside' perspective; Analysis of needs at four levels of generality; 4. Global needs analysis; A welfare case; An agricultural case; An engineering case; Involving the learners; 5. Grammatical-rhetorical needs analysis; 1. Form and function in native speaker performance; For special purposes: written language; For special purposes: spoken language; 2. Inherent variability in native speaker performance; Eyewitness accounts; Native speakers aren't perfect; 6. Review of techniques; Further reading; PART THREE: WHAT LEARNERS DO AND DO NOT KNOW; Introduction; 7. Grammatical competence; 1. Investigating grammatical competence; Stating the rules; Discrete-point and integrative measures; Grammaticality judgments and making corrections; 2. Variability in learner language; Degrees of accuracy; The influence of cohesion and communicative pressure; 8. Sociolinguistic competence; 'What would you say if ...'; On teaching speech acts; 1. Investigating learners' sociolinguistic skills; Taking turns; Have we got the right script?; 2. An alternative approach; Fostering interactive learning; The four components; Frameworks for reflection; 9. Strategic competence; 1. Using a task-based methodology; 'The three legs'; 'The arm of the chair is ... when you use for to write'; 2. Communication strategies; 3. Fostering strategic competence; Classroom activities; Identifying the essential structure; Maintaining a balance; 10. Some methodological issues in investigating learner language; The addressee; The topic; The task; The data analysis; Further reading; PART FOUR: GETTING THE LEARNERS' VIEWS; Introduction; Questionnaires; Diaries, observations, and interviews; 11. The confidence factor; Very confident wrong answering; Individual self-monitoring ability; Accuracy and self-monitoring; 12. The perception of improvement; Measuring change over time; What improves when accuracy doesn't? ; Conclusion and speculations; Further reading; Bibliography; Appendices; 1 Informal needs assessment; 2 Supermarket story; 3 Grammaticality judgment exercise (relative clauses); 4 Tape-recording interaction by learners; 5 Description tasks; 6 Assembly tasks; 7 Narrative tasks; 8 Communication strategy classwork; 9 Exercises used for self-monitoring study; Indexshow more

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