Fluid Mechanics: Advanced Applications
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Fluid Mechanics: Advanced Applications

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Description

Fluid Mechanics: Advanced Applications is print only.



Fluid Mechanics: Advanced Applications is
designed to cover a second course in fluid
mechanics by extending the basic knowledge
obtained in the companion text, Thermodynamics
and Fluid Mechanics: An Introduction.
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Product details

  • Paperback | 208 pages
  • 69 x 94 x 4mm | 418g
  • McGraw-Hill Education / Australia
  • Australia
  • English
  • ed
  • 0074704427
  • 9780074704424
  • 127,061

Table of contents

Contents
Preface .................................................................................................................................... v
Chapter 1 Reynolds number and flow regime.......................................................... 1
1.1 Fluid properties............................................................................................ 1
1.2 Principles of fluid flow................................................................................ 5
1.3 Flow regimes .. . . . ... .. ... ... ... ... . . .. .... .. .. ... .. ... .. ... .... ...... ........ .. .. .... .. ... . . ..... .. . .. ..... 7
1.4 Reynolds number......................................................................................... 10
1.5 Critical Reynolds number............................................................................ 12
1.6 Velocity profiles .. ..... ........ ........ . .. . ... .. ... . . .. ... . ... . .. . ... . . .. .. . .. ... ...... . ... .... ..... .. . .. . 13
Summary............................................................................................................... 14
Problems . . .. .. .. .. . ..... .. ...... ... .. .. ....... .. ........ .. ... .. .. . .. ... ...... .. ..... ....... .. ... . .. .. ... .. . .... .. ....... 15
Chapter 2 Head loss in pipes and fittings . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.1 Fluid head and the Bernoulli equation........................................................ 18
2.2 Relationship between fluid power and head ... ........ .. .. .... ... ... ..... ... ......... .. ... 21
2.3 Head loss in a pipe ...................................................................................... 21
2.4 Estimating the friction factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.5 Head loss in fittings .... ... ... ..... ... .. .. .. .. ... ...... ..... .. ... ... .... .. . . . .. .. .. .. ... .. .. ... .......... 30
2.6 Equivalent length ..................................................................................... :... 34
2.7 System head ................................................................................................. 34
2.8 Fluid power and pump power ... ....... ... .. ... ... . .. .. ... .. . ........ ...... ..... ... ............... 36
2.9 System head equation.................................................................................. 37
Summary............................................................................................................... 41
Problems . .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .... .. ... . .. ... .. ... ..... ... ... ..... ..... . ............ ........ .... ..... .. .... ....... . ........ .. .. 43
Chapter 3 Pipe flow ... .. . . .. ....... .. .. ....... ................. ... ......... .. .............. ...... .. ..... .. . ...... ....... 49
3.1 Flow through a single-diameter pipe (unknown flow rate)........................ 50
3.2 Flow through a single-diameter pipe (unknown pipe diameter) ................ 54
3.3 Pipes in series ...... ........... ...... ..... ..... ....... .. . .. .... .. ...... .. .. ....... ............... .. ..... .. .. 59
3.4 Equivalent length-series pipes .................................................................. 61
3.5 Pipes in parallel .... ... .............. .. ..... ... ............. ... ... .. ... .. .. ..... .. ... ... ....... .. ..... ... . . 65
3.6 Equivalent length-parallel pipes ............................................................... 69
Summary............................................................................................................... 75
Problems................................................................................................................ 76
Chapter 4 Channel flow .... .. ... ...... ......... .. .. ........ .. ... ........ .... ......... ..... .. ........... .. .. .. ... . .. . . 83
4.1 Channel flow-basic concepts .. .. ..... ....... .. ... ... ... .... ..... .. .. .. .... .. ... .. .. ... .......... 84
4.2 Channel flow using the Darcy formula....................................................... 86
4.3 The Chezy formula .. . ... .. . .. ......... .. ... .. ....... .. ...... .. .......... .... .. ...... ....... ..... ... ..... 90
4.4 Large-section channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
4.5 The Manning formula.................................................................................. 95
4.6 Optimum section shape . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
iii
iv Contents
Summary ............................................................................................................... 99
Problems .. . . . .. ... .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. . . . . .. . . . .. ... .. ... . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. ..... .. . . . . . .. .. .. .. ... .. . . . 101
Chapter 5 Fluid machinery .. .. .. .. .. . . . .. .. .. . ... . . .. .. .. .. . . .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. ... .... ...... ... .. . ... . ...... .. ...... 105
5.1 Basic concepts ............................................................................................. 107
5.2 Types of fluid machinery .. .. . .. .. . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... ... .. .. .. . .. .. . . . .. .. ....... .. .. ... . . .. . . . .. .. . 109
5.3 Types of positive-displacement pump ........................................................ 115
5.4 Types of rotodynamic pump ....................................................................... 124
5.5 Specific speed .............................................................................................. 128
5.6 Cavitation and net positive suction head .................................................... 131
5.7 Pump performance-basic concepts ....... .................................................... 134
5.8 Performance of positive-displacement pumps ............................................ 136
5.9 Performance of rotodynamic pumps .. . .. .. . . .. . .. . . . .. ... . . .. . . . ...... .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . . ... .. .. 139
5.10 Motors and turbines ... . .. . . . .. . . . .. ... . . . . .. . .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. ... .. . .. . . .. . .. ..... .. .. .. .. .. ... .... .. . .. 145
Summary . ..... ... .... ... ....... ........ .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... ... .. .. .. . . ... . .... .. . . . ..... .... .. ... .. . . .. . .. . ... .. ... .... 146
Problems ................................................................................................................ 147
Chapter 6 Pumping systems........................................................................................ 153
6.1 System head equation.................................................................................. 153
6.2 Duty point.................................................................................................... 157
6.3 Selecting the type of pump to be used in a system.................................... 159
6.4 Selecting a rotodynamic pump . .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . .. ... .. . .. .. .. .. . .. ..... .. .. ..... .. . . .. .. . . . . . .. .. 160
6.5 Flow control using a valve.......................................................................... 162
6.6 Placement of a pump in a system .. .. .. . . . . .. ... ... .. .. ... .. ..... .. .. . . . .. .. ... . .. . . ... .. .. .. ... 163
6.7 Calculating the NPSHA ............................................................................... 166
6.8 System with different diameter suction and discharge lines...................... 169
6.9 Selecting a positive-displacement pump ..................................................... 173
Summary ............................................................................................................... 175
Problems ................................................................................................................ 176
Solutions to self-test problems ... . .. . . .. ...... .. .. .. ... . .. .. .. .... .. .. .. .. ... .. . .. ... .. ..... .. .. . ... . .. ..... ... ... .. ..... .. 184
Appendixes . ......... .. . .... .. . ... .. ..... .. .. ... .. .. .. .. . . .. . . . .. .. ..... .. . . .. ...... .. . .. . . . .. ... .. ... .. .. .. .. . .. . . ..... .. .. .. .. .. ... .. . 203
1 List of principal symbols . ... .. ..... .. . .. . .. .. ... . . . . ...... .. .. ... .. ..... .. ..... .. .. ... ... . .. .. .. .. . .. 205
2 List of principal formulas . .. .... ... . .. . . ..... .. ... .. ... .. .. . .. ... .. . . ... .. ..... .. .. ... .. .. ... .... .. .. 207
3 Viscosity variation with temperature, for some common fluids ................ 210
4 Absolute roughness of various common pipe materials . ..... .. .. .. .. ... .. ....... ... 211
5 Moody diagram............................................................................................ 212
6 Simplified table of K factors for common fittings..................................... 213
7 Series pipes.................................................................................................. 214
8 Parallel pipes ................................................................................................ 215
9 Manning coefficient . .. .. .. ... ... .. .. . ........ .. .. .. . . . ....... ... ..... .. .. ........ .. .. .. ..... .. .. .. .. . .. . 217
10 Performance of a gear pump running at constant speed (1450 rpm)......... 218
11 Performance of a centrifugal pump running at constant speed (1450 rpm) 219
12 Performance of a centrifugal pump with various impeller diameters at
constant speed ( 1450 rpm) ....... ..... .. .. .. . .. ... ....... .. .. .. ... .. . . .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .... .. . .... .. .. 220
13 Density, viscosity and saturation vapour pressure of water....................... 221
14 Range chart for centrifugal pumps.............................................................. 222
Index ....................................................................................................................................... 223
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