The Federal Role in Improving Elementary and Secondary Education

The Federal Role in Improving Elementary and Secondary Education

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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1993-01-01 edition. Excerpt: ...that this occurred during the 1980s. In addition, some research indicates that smaller class size is related to student achievement, especially in the early elementary school years. But overall reductions in class size as a strategy to improve student achievement have been criticized for not being cost-effective, because large reductions are needed to achieve relatively small gains in proficiency.8 The fraction of school personnel who are administrators or support staff--as opposed to teachers-stabilized in the 1980s (see Figure 8. See Allan Odden, "Class Size and Student Achievement: Research-Based Policy Alternativea," Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, vol. 12 (1990). pp. 213-227. 15). (Administrative and support personnel include school district administrators, principals, guidance counselors, psychological personnel, and various other instructional staff such as curriculum specialists, as well as secretarial and clerical personnel, transportation staff, food service workers, and plant operation and maintenance, health, recreation, and various other staff.) After increasing in the 1960s and 1970s, the share of all school staff who were administrative or support personnel remained at about 47 percent during the 1980s. The public's increasing concern about the condition of education during the 1980s fostered rising revenues along with various reforms to improve the schools. Total spending rose significantly during the decade, while the average salary of teachers increased and the average number of pupils per teacher declined. As schools received additional resources to carry out their mission, the characteristics of students and their families were also changing. Characteristics of Students and Their Families A...show more

Product details

  • Paperback | 38 pages
  • 189 x 246 x 2mm | 86g
  • Rarebooksclub.com
  • Miami Fl, United States
  • English
  • black & white illustrations
  • 1236543386
  • 9781236543387