Experimental Characterization of Advanced Composite Materials

Experimental Characterization of Advanced Composite Materials

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Over much of the last three decades, the evolution of techniques for characterizing composite materials has struggled to keep up with the advances of composite materials themselves and their broadening areas of application. In recent years, however, much work has been done to consolidate test methods and better understand those being used. Finally, a consensus regarding the best available methods exists, and definitive recommendations can be made. Experimental Characterization of Advanced Composite Materials provides a concise, authoritative treatment of the best available methods for determining the mechanical properties, thermal expansion coefficients, and fracture and strength data for composite materials. With emphasis firmly on practical matters, it presents processing techniques, specimen preparation, analyses of test methods, test procedures, and data reduction schemes. Five chapters that cover specific aspects of lamina testing are followed by discussions that extend these principles to laminate responses. The treatment concludes by exploring composite durability issues with discussions on defects and fracture mechanics. With its concise format, detailed procedures, and expert assessments, this book is an outstanding resource for composites manufacturing and test engineers and lab technicians. It brings together all of the most appropriate and widely accepted test test methods developed to date.show more

Product details

  • Hardback | 256 pages
  • 158 x 247.9 x 19.6mm | 494.42g
  • Taylor & Francis Inc
  • CRC Press Inc
  • Bosa Roca, United States
  • English
  • Revised
  • 3rd Revised edition
  • 174 black & white illustrations, 13 black & white tables, 25 black & white halftones
  • 1587161001
  • 9781587161001

Table of contents

INTRODUCTION Background Laminate Orientation Code Influences of Material Orthotropy on Experimental Characterization Typical Unidirectional Composite Properties References ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS Constitutive Relations Micromechanics Laminated Plate Theory St. Venant's Principle and End Effects in Composites Lamina Strength Analysis Laminate Strength Analysis Fracture Mechanics Concepts Strength of Composite Laminates Containing Holes References PROCESSING OF COMPOSITE LAMINATES Processing of Thermoset Composites Autoclave Processing of Thermoplastic Composites Determination of Volume Fractions of Fibers, Resin and Voids References TEST SPECIMEN PREPARATION, TEST EQUIPMENT, STRAIN AND DEFORMATION MEASUREMENTS Cutting the Composite Laminate Tabbing Materials Tab Bonding Suggested Tab Bonding Procedures Hinge Attachment for DCB and MMB Specimens Specimen Conditioning Strain and Displacement Measurements Testing Machines References LAMINA TENSILE RESPONSE The Need for Lamina Testing Introduction to Tensile Testing Primary Concerns Specimen Configurations and Test Procedures Data Reduction References LAMINA COMPRESSIVE RESPONSE Shear-Loading Test Methods End-Loading Test Methods Combined Loading Compression (CLC) Test Methods Compression Test Procedures Failure Modes General Data Reduction Backing out Unidirectional Lamina Strength from a Test of a Cross-Ply Laminate Summary of Compression Test Methods References LAMINA SHEAR RESPONSE Iosipescu Shear Test Method (ASTM D 5379) Two-Rail Shear Test Method (ASTM D 4255) Three-Rail Shear Test Method (ASTM D 4255) [+-45]ns Tension Shear Test Method (ASTM D 3518) Short Beam Shear Test Method (ASTM D 2344) Summary References LAMINA FLEXURAL RESPONSE Testing Configuration Three-Versus Four-Point Loading Specimen Preparation and Flexural Test Procedures Data Reduction References LAMINA OFF-AXIS TENSILE RESPONSE Deformation and Stress in Unconstrained Specimens Influence of End Constraint Off-Axis Tensile Strength Test Procedure Data Reduction References LAMINA THERMOELASTIC RESPONSE Temperature Gage Sensing System Temperature Compensation Measurement of Thermal Expansion Data Reduction References LAMINATE MECHANICAL RESPONSE Data Reduction for Stiffness Properties Laminate Strength Analysis Test Specimen Preparation Test Procedures Data Reduction Example of a Typical Analysis: Axial Tensile Response of a Laminate References LAMINATE THERMOELASTIC RESPONSE Preparation of Test Specimens and Measurement of Thermal Expansion Data Reduction Analysis of Thermoelastic Response References OPEN-HOLE TENSILE AND COMPRESSIVE STRENGTHS OF LAMINATES Point and Average Stress Criteria Test Specimen Preparation Tensile Test Procedure and Data Reduction Standardized Open-Hole Tension Test Method Standardized Open-Hole Compression Test Methods References CHARACTERIZATION OF DELAMINATION FAILURE Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) Test End-Notched Flexure (ENF) Test Four-Point Bend ENF (4ENF) Test Mixed-Mode Bending (MMB) Test Edge-Cracked Torsion (ECT) Test References Appendix A: Compliance and Stiffness Transformations and Matrix Operations Appendix B: Preparation of Panels and Test Specimens Appendix C: Sample Laboratory Report Appendix D: Unit Conversions Indexshow more