Essays Philological and Critical Selected from the Papers of James Hadley

Essays Philological and Critical Selected from the Papers of James Hadley

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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1873 edition. Excerpt: ...middle'has come tottsjust rights. The passive now has but two tenses of its own, its aorist and its future: for all the rest, for present and imperfect, perfect and pluperfect and future-perfect--this last being the "paulo-post future " of the old grammars--for all these it must acknowledge its dependence upon the middle. In other words, it is now ac knowledged that such forms as present Xovofiai, imperfect eKovofirjv, perfect Xeovfiai, pluperfect iXeXovfirjv, are primarily reflexive forms, and that their passive use is secondary: that in Xovofiai, for example, the first meaning was 'I wash myself, ' and the second ' I am washed, ' precisely as the Latin lavor, according to the explanation just given, must have meant ' I wash myself, ' before it meant ' I am washed.' Now the peculiarity of the Greek middle as compared with the active--its formal peculiarity--lies in its personal endings; it is the personal-endings which distinguish the middle voice as such. Thus, in the singular of the active, the original endings were /it, at, Ti: we see them in the verb 'to be'--1st person elfii (for ea-fii), 'I am, ' 2d ia-ai (Hom.), 'thou art, ' 3d eV-rt, 'he is.' It is obvious that fii, ai, Ti are pronouns, and express the subject of the verb: thus, e'a-/ii-=' is me' or ' I am; ' ef-al=' is thee ' or 'thou art;' ia-ri--' is that' or ' that (one) is, he is.' For fii, at, Ti, the middle has fiai, aai, rai; as in urrafiai, taraaai, "ararai. Why, then, should an active form become middle by simply changing /tt, ert, Ti to fiai, aui, rat? On this point there are two views, each of which has its adherents. According to one view, /tat, aai, iai are merely lengthened or strengthened forms of /it, at, Ti, and by their greater length indicate the more

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  • Paperback | 152 pages
  • 189 x 246 x 8mm | 286g
  • Miami Fl, United States
  • English
  • black & white illustrations
  • 1236604946
  • 9781236604941