Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

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Environmental toxicology and chemistry have become subjects of intense academic and public interest. This book is the first text to tie them closely together. It presents their principles and applications through numerous illustrative examples and special topics highlighting current environmental concerns. Intended for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, the book will also interest anyone desiring an update in these timely subjects.show more

Product details

  • Hardback | 350 pages
  • 157.48 x 236.22 x 20.32mm | 589.67g
  • Oxford University Press Inc
  • New York, United States
  • English
  • numerous figures and tables
  • 0195117131
  • 9780195117134

Table of contents

Preface ; Contents ; Special Topics ; 1. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry ; 1.1 Poisons ; 1.2 Environmental Toxicology ; 1.3 Environmental Chemistry ; 1.4 Toxicity ; 1.5 Intoxication ; 1.5.1 Humans ; 1.5.2 Domestic Animals ; 1.5.3 Wildlife ; 1.5.4 Plants and Microorganisms ; 1.5.5 Ecosystems ; 1.6 Hazard and Risk ; 1.7 Major Toxic Hazards ; 1.8 Perspecive ; 1.9 References ; Special Topic 1: Ecotoxicology ; 2. Chemicals in the Environment ; 2.1 Chemicals in the Environment ; 2.2 Detection and Measurement ; 2.3 The Atmosphere ; 2.3.1 The Natural Atmosphere ; 2.3.2 Polluted Atmospheres ; 2.3.3 Indoor Air ; 2.4 Water ; 2.4.1 Natural Waters ; 2.4.2 Polluted Waters ; 2.5 Soils ; 2.5.1 Soil Composition ; 2.5.2 Toxic Waste ; 2.5.3 Pesticides ; 2.6 Biota ; 2.6.1 Toxic Organisms ; 2.6.2 Food ; 2.7 Chemicals in Everyday Life ; 2.8 References ; Special Topic 2: Pesticide Residues ; 3. Environmental Chemodynamics ; 3.1 Environmental Chemodynamics ; 3.2 Dissolution ; 3.3 Solvent Partitioning ; 3.4 Volitilization ; 3.5 Adsorption ; 3.6 Significance ; 3.7 References ; Special Topic 3: The Great Escape ; 4. Environmental Transport ; 4.1 Dissipation of Chemicals ; 4.2 Transport In and From Surface Water ; 4.2.1 Transport in solution ; 4.2.2 Transport between water and air ; 4.2.3 Transport on particles ; 4.3 Transport in Soil and Groundwater ; 4.3.1 Transport through soil ; 4.3.2 Transport in groundwater ; 4.4 Atmospheric Transport ; 4.4.1 Volatilization ; 4.4.2 Advection ; 4.4.3 Deposition ; 4.5 Commerical Conveyance ; 4.6 Global Transport ; 4.7 References ; Special Topic 4: Wind, Water, and Waves ; 5. Abiotic Transformations ; 5.1 Transformations ; 5.2 Photochemistry ; 5.2.1 Radiant energy ; 5.2.2 Photochemical recations ; 5.2.3 Solar energy ; 5.3 Oxidation ; 5.3.1 Radical oxidations ; 5.3.2 Atmospheric oxidants ; 5.3.3 Photochemical smog ; 5.3.4 Oxidations in water ; 5.3.5 Oxidations in soil ; 5.4 Reduction ; 5.4.1 Redox potentials ; 5.4.2 Reductions in soil ; 5.4.3 Reductions in water ; 5.5 Hydrolysis ; 5.5.1 Water ; 5.5.2 Hydrolysis in water ; 5.5.3 Hydrolysis in soil ; 5.6 Some Other Reactions ; 5.6.1 Alkylation ; 5.6.2 Beta-elimination ; 5.6.3 Chlorination ; 5.7 Summary of Abiotic Reactions ; 5.8 References ; Special Topic 5: Free Radicals and the Ozone Layer ; 6. Biotransformations ; 6.1 Biotransformations ; 6.2 Transformations by Microorganisms ; 6.2.1 Microorganisms ; 6.2.2 Oxidation ; 6.2.3 Cytochrome P450 ; 6.2.4 Reduction ; 6.2.5 Hydrolysis ; 6.2.6 Other transformations ; 6.3 Transformations in Animals and Higher Plants ; 6.3.1 Primary (Phase I) metabolism ; 6.3.2 Secondary (Phase II) metabolism ; 6.4 Comparative Metabolism ; 6.5 References ; Special Topic 6: Anatomy of an Oil Spill ; 7. Intoxication ; 7.1 The Intoxication Process ; 7.2 Absorption and Disposition ; 7.2.1 Absorption ; 7.2.2 Disposition ; 7.2.3 Elimination ; 7.3 Factors Governing Intoxication ; 7.3.1 Metabolism (Biodegradation) ; 7.3.2 Bioavailability ; 7.3.3 Individual and species differences ; 7.3.4 Other factors ; 7.4 Toxic Effects ; 7.4.1 "Poisoning" ; 7.4.2 The nervous system ; 7.4.3 The skin ; 7.4.4 The respiratory system ; 7.4.5 Blood and internal organs ; 7.4.6 The reproductive system ; 7.4.7 Genes ; 7.5 References ; Special Topic 7: Adaption ; 8. Quantitative Toxicology ; 8.1 Dose-Response Relations ; 8.2 Factors Affecting Quantitative Responses ; 8.3 Toxicokinetics ; 8.4 Toxicity Measurements and Endpoints ; 8.4.1 Measurements ; 8.4.2 Acute toxicity ; 8.4.3 Life-cycle tests ; 8.4.4 Other bioassays ; 8.4.5 Mutagenicity tests ; 8.4.6 Phytotoxicity ; 8.4.7 Toxiciy tests for pesticide registration ; 8.4.8 Ethics and alternatives ; 8.5 Data from Humans ; 8.5.1 Toxicity tests ; 8.5.2 Mortality statistics ; 8.5.3 Exposure data ; 8.5.4 Epidemiology ; 8.6 References ; Special Topic 8: Epidemiology ; 9. Intoxication Mechanisms ; 9.1 The Biochemical Lesion ; 9.2 Receptors and Targets ; 9.3 Mechanisms of General Toxicity ; 9.4 Animal-specific Mechanisms ; 9.4.1 Nervous system ; 9.4.2 Liver ; 9.4.3 Intermediary metabolism ; 9.5 Plant-specific Mechanisms ; 9.5.1 Photosynthesis ; 9.5.2 Amino Acid biosynthesis ; 9.6 Microbe-specific Mechanisms ; 9.6.1 Cell wall synthesis ; 9.6.2 Sulfhydryl groups ; 9.7 Perspective ; 9.8 References ; Special Topic 9: Chemical Carcinogens ; 10. Exposure and Risk ; 10.1 Hazard and Risk ; 10.2 Exposure ; 10.3 Risk Assessments ; 10.3.1 Occupational exposure ; 10.3.2 Exposure at home ; 10.3.3 Risk characterization ; 10.4 Ecological Risk ; 10.4.1 Toxicity data ; 10.4.2 Scaling ; 10.4.3 Ecosystem risk ; 10.5 Risk management ; 10.5.1 Regulations ; 10.5.2 Risk communication ; 10.6 References ; Special Topic 10: PBPK Models ; 11. Inorganic Toxicants ; 11.1 Inorganic Toxicants ; 11.2 Some Basic Chemistry ; 11.3 Nonmetallic Elements ; 11.4 The Metalloids ; 11.4.1 Metalloids ; 11.4.2 Arsenic ; 11.4.3 Selenium ; 11.4.4 Tin ; 11.5 Heavy Elements ; 11.5.1 The heavy metals ; 11.5.2 Mercury ; 11.5.3 Lead ; 11.5.4 Thallium and bismuth ; 11.6 Transition Elements ; 11.6.1 Transition metals ; 11.6.2 Copper ; 11.6 3 Other transition elements ; 11.7 Radioactive elements ; 11.8 Other Toxic Elements ; 11.9 References ; Special Topic 11: Methylation of Metals and Metalloids ; 12. Biotoxins ; 12.1 Biotoxins ; 12.2 Alkaloids ; 12.3 Toxic Glycosides ; 12.4 Plant Phenolics ; 12.5 Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins ; 12.6 Lactone Mycotoxins ; 12.7 Perspective ; 12.8 References ; Special Topic 12: Allelochemicals ; 13. Industrial Chemicals ; 13.1 Industrial Chemicals ; 13.1.1 Minerals ; 13.1.2 Petroleum ; 13.2 Petrochemicals ; 13.2.1 Sources ; 13.2.2 Major petrochemicals ; 13.3 Toxic Byproducts and Conversion Products ; 13.3.1 Origin ; 13.3.2 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) ; 13.3.3 Hex waste ; 13.3.4 Chlorinated dioxins ; 13.4 References ; Special Topic 13: Why Chlorinate? ; 14. Refractory Pollutants ; 14.1 Refractory Chemicals ; 14.2 DDT and DDE ; 14.2.1 Background ; 14.2.2 Toxicity ; 14.2.3 Transport and transformation ; 14.2.4 DDE ; 14.3 Chlorinated Alicyclics ; 14.3.1 Benzene hexachloride (BHC) ; 14.3.2 Cyclodienes ; 14.3.3 Other organochlorine insecticides ; 14.4 Chlorinated Dioxins ; 14.5 Polychlorinated Biphenyls ; 14.6 Phthalate Esters ; 14.7 Perspective ; 14.8 References ; Special Topic 14: Environmental Persistence ; 15. Reactive Pollutants ; 15.1 Reactivity ; 15.2 Alkyl Halides ; 15.3 Chlorophenols ; 15.4 Divalent Sulfur Compounds ; 15.5 Dithioarbamates ; 15.6 Nitroarenes ; 15.7 Amines and Their Derivatives ; 15.8 Esters ; 15.9 Carbon Monoxide and Cyanides ; 15.10 Perspective ; 15.11 References ; Special Topic 15: Hazardous Waste ; 16. Predicting Environmental Fate and Toxicity ; 16.1 Quantitative Prediction ; 16.2 Predicting Environmental Transport ; 16.2.1 Linear free energy relations ; 16.2.2 Octanol-water partition coefficients ; 16.2.3 Bioconcentration factors ; 16.2.4 Aqueous solubility ; 16.2.5 Volatilization ; 16.2.6 Soil sorption coefficients ; 16.3 Predicting Environmental Transformations ; 16.3.1 Reactions and products ; 16.3.2 Equilibria and rates ; 16.4 Modelling Environmental Fate ; 16.5 Quantitative Structure-activity Relations (QSAR) ; 16.6 Microcosms (Model Ecosystems) ; 16.7 References ; Special Topic 16: QSAR and Toxicity ; GLOSSARY ; INDEXshow more

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