Environmental Considerations Associated with Hydraulic Fracturing Operations
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Environmental Considerations Associated with Hydraulic Fracturing Operations : Adjusting to the Shale Revolution in a Green World

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A guide to environmental and communication issues related to fracking and the best approach to protect communities

Environmental Considerations Associated with Hydraulic Fracturing Operations offers a much-needed resource that explores the complex challenges of fracking by providing an understanding of the environmental and communication issues that are inherent with hydraulic fracturing. The book balances the current scientific knowledge with the uncertainty and risks associated with hydraulic fracking. In addition, the authors offer targeted approaches for helping to keep communities safe.

The authors include an overview of the historical development of hydraulic fracturing and the technology currently employed. The book also explores the risk, prevention, and mitigation factors that are associated with fracturing. The authors also include legal cases, regulatory issues, and data on the cost of recovery. The volume presents audit checklists for gathering critical information and documentation to support the reliability of the current environmental conditions related to fracking operations and the impact fracking can have on a community. This vital resource:



Contains the technical information and mitigation recommendations for safety and environmental issues related to hydraulic fracturing
Offers an historical overview of conventional and unconventional oil and gas drilling
Explains the geologic and technical issues associated with fracking of tight sand and shale formulations
Presents numerous case studies from the United States EPA and other agencies
Discusses issues of co-produced waste water and induced seismicity from the injection of wastewater

Written for environmental scientists, geologists, engineers, regulators, city planners, attorneys, foresters, wildlife biologists, and others, Environmental Considerations Associated with Hydraulic Fracturing Operations offers a comprehensive resource to the complex environmental and communication issues related to fracking.
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Product details

  • Hardback | 576 pages
  • 218 x 287 x 33mm | 1,850g
  • Wiley-Blackwell
  • Hoboken, United States
  • English
  • 1. Auflage
  • 1119336090
  • 9781119336099

Back cover copy

A guide to environmental and communication issues related to fracking and the best approach to protect communities

Environmental Considerations Associated with Hydraulic Fracturing Operations offers a much-needed resource that explores the complex challenges of fracking by providing an understanding of the environmental and communication issues that are inherent with hydraulic fracturing. The book balances the current scientific knowledge with the uncertainty and risks associated with hydraulic fracking. In addition, the authors offer targeted approaches for helping to keep communities safe.

The authors include an overview of the historical development of hydraulic fracturing and the technology currently employed. The book also explores the risk, prevention, and mitigation factors that are associated with fracturing. The authors also include legal cases, regulatory issues, and data on the cost of recovery. The volume presents audit checklists for gathering critical information and documentation to support the reliability of the current environmental conditions related to fracking operations and the impact fracking can have on a community. This vital resource: Contains the technical information and mitigation recommendations for safety and environmental issues related to hydraulic fracturing Offers an historical overview of conventional and unconventional oil and gas drilling Explains the geologic and technical issues associated with fracking of tight sand and shale formations Presents numerous case studies from the United States EPA and other agencies Discusses issues of co-produced waste water and induced seismicity from the injection of wastewater

Written for environmental scientists, geologists, engineers, regulators, city planners, attorneys, foresters, wildlife biologists, and others, Environmental Considerations Associated with Hydraulic Fracturing Operations offers a comprehensive resource to the complex environmental and communication issues related to fracking.
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Table of contents

List of Figures xvii


List of Tables xxvii


Foreword xxxi


Acknowledgments xxxiii


1 Introduction 1


1.1 Energy and the Shale Revolution 1


1.2 Cultural Influences 3


1.3 Conventional Versus Unconventional Resources 4


1.4 Well Simulation 5


1.5 Hydraulic Fracturing in the United States 16


1.6 Environmental Considerations 17


1.7 Exercises 22


References 22


Suggested Reading 23


2 Historical Development from Fracturing to Hydraulic Fracturing 25


2.1 Introduction 25


2.2 Explosives and Guns (1820s-1930s) 26


2.3 The Birth of the Petroleum Engineer (1940s-1950s) 38


2.4 Going Nuclear During Peak Oil (1960s to Mid?1970s) 39


2.5 The Rise of the Unconventionals (Mid?1970s to Present) 45


2.6 Exercises 49


References 50


Suggested Reading 51


3 Geology of Unconventional Resources 53


3.1 Introduction 53


3.2 Oil Shale Nomenclature 54


3.3 Oil Shale Classification 54


3.4 Types of Shale Formations Based on Production 56


3.5 Geology of United States Shale Deposits 60


3.6 The Role of Natural Fractures 75


3.7 Exercises 76


References 77


Suggested Reading 79


4 Overview of Drilling and Hydraulic Fracture Stimulation Techniques for Tight Oil and Gas Shale Formations 81


4.1 Introduction 81


4.2 Phase 1: Prospect Generation for Unconventional Oil and Gas Targets 85


4.3 Phase 2: Planning Phase 92


4.4 Phase 3: Drilling 94


4.5 Brief Overview of Hydraulic Fracturing 109


4.6 Operators and Contractors 111


4.7 Phase 4: Completion 111


4.8 Overview of Hydraulic Fracturing Process 115


4.9 Single?Stage Treatment 119


4.10 Fluid Recovery and Waste Management 123


4.11 Oil and Gas Production 123


4.12 Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) 126


4.13 Workshop #1: Gas Well Economic Limit 128


4.14 Workshop #2: Oil Well Economics 129


4.15 Well Destruction 129


4.16 Summary 131


4.17 Exercises 131


References 132


Suggested Reading 134


5 Overview of Impacts from Tight Oil and Shale Gas Resource Development 137


5.1 Introduction 137


5.2 Potential Impacts and Risks of Spills 137


5.3 Significance of Impacts 137


5.4 Overview of the Five Main Resource Categories 138


5.5 Primary Wastes Generated 146


5.6 Site?specific Impact Analysis 146


5.7 Summary of Resources and Issues 163


5.8 Summary 174


5.9 Exercises 176


References 177


Suggested Reading 179


6 Surface and Groundwater Risks, Resource Quality Management, and Impacts 183


6.1 Introduction 183


6.2 The Hydraulic Fracturing Water Cycle 183


6.3 Potential Impacts on Drinking Water Resources 188


6.4 Public Water System (PWS) Sources 189


6.5 Underground Injection Control 190


6.6 Case Histories 196


6.7 Exercises 198


References 198


Suggested Reading 199


7 Induced Seismicity 203


7.1 Introduction 203


7.2 Measuring Earthquake Severity 204


7.3 Anthropogenic?Induced Earthquakes 208


7.4 Mechanics of Anthropogenic?Induced Earthquakes 210


7.5 Induced Microseismicity and Microseismic Monitoring 212


7.6 Exercises 212


References 213


Suggested Reading 213


8 Air Quality Resources and Mitigation Measures 215


8.1 Introduction 215


8.2 Unconventional Resource Extraction and Air Quality 215


8.3 Sources of Air Emissions 215


8.4 Worker Safety 220


8.5 Gas Leaks and Vapor Sampling 230


8.6 Biogenic and Thermogenic Hydrocarbon Gases 232


8.7 Gas Leaks 233


8.8 Soil Vapor Intrusion Overview 234


8.9 General Approach to Evaluating Soil Vapor Intrusion 237


8.10 Summary 248


8.11 Exercises 249


References 249


Suggested Reading 253


9 Land Use Resources and Socioeconomics 255


9.1 Introduction 255


9.2 Community Concerns and Land Use Planning 255


9.3 Environmental Justice 259


9.4 Land Disturbance 259


9.5 Light Pollution 261


9.6 Noise 263


9.7 Odor 270


9.8 Socioeconomics 271


9.9 Transportation and Traffic 272


9.10 Visual Aesthetics 277


9.11 Worker Safety 278


9.12 Cumulative Impacts 278


9.13 Exercises 279


References 279


Suggested Reading 281


10 Ecological Resources 283


10.1 Introduction 283


10.2 Ecosystem Resources 283


10.3 Ecosystem Resources 283


10.4 Interim Reclamation 286


10.5 Summary 295


10.6 Exercises 295


References 296


Suggested Reading 297


11 Legislative Trends Associated with Well Stimulation and Hydraulic Fracturing 299


11.1 Introduction 299


11.2 Federal Laws and Regulations 300


11.3 State Legislation and Regulations 304


11.4 Bans and Moratoriums 311


11.5 Exercises 313


References 313


Suggested Reading 314


12 Sampling, Exposure Pathways, and Site Conceptual Models 315


12.1 Introduction 315


12.2 Hypothetical Scenario 317


12.3 Overview of Sampling Procedures 322


12.4 Soil and Water Sampling 327


12.5 Field Screening and Analysis 329


12.6 Other Considerations 332


12.7 Fate and Transport 339


12.8 Summary 342


12.9 Exercises 342


References 345


Suggested Reading 347


13 Financial Issues: Real Estate Values and Selected Contracting Costs of Repairs, Assessment, or Mitigation Activities for Unconventional Oil and Gas Production Areas 351


13.1 Introduction 351


13.2 Valuation of Real Estate 351


13.3 Water Supplies 357


13.4 Other Mitigating Costs 358


13.5 Mitigation of Subsurface Impacts 362


13.6 Remediation Strategies 365


13.7 Budgeting for Costs 369


13.8 Summary 372


13.9 Exercises 373


References 374


Suggested Reading 375


14 Legal Considerations and Case Law 377


14.1 Introduction 377


14.2 Environmental Tort Litigation 382


14.3 Environmental/Citizen Action and Industry Challenges Litigation 383


14.4 Infrastructure?Related Litigation 384


14.5 Traditional Oil and Gas Issues in Nontraditional Forums 384


14.6 Fracking Bans and Moratoriums 384


14.7 Summary 386


14.8 Exercises 387


Reference 387


Suggested Reading 387


15 Spills, Forensic Evaluation, and Case Studies 389


15.1 Introduction 389


15.2 Spill Studies 389


15.3 Spill Settlement Case Study 392


15.3.1 Rail Case Studies 393


15.3.2 Bakken Crude Oil Characteristics: Two Studies 394


15.3.3 Summary of Bakken Crude Oil Spill Incidents 394


15.3.4 Fate and Transport of Spilled Crude 394


15.3.5 Combustion 398


15.3.6 DOT?117 Tank Car Design 398


15.4 Violations 399


15.5 Forensic Analysis 399


15.5.1 Gas Chromatograms 400


15.5.2 Tentatively Identified Compounds (TICs) 401


15.5.3 Piper Diagrams 401


15.5.4 Biomarkers 403


15.5.5 Chemical and Biological Transformations 404


15.5.6 Chemical Ratios 406


15.5.7 Geochemical Tracers 406


15.5.8 Isotopes 407


15.5.9 Forensic Isotope Analysis 408


15.5.10 Boron and Strontium Isotope Ratios 409


15.5.11 Radioactive Isotopes 410


15.5.12 Case Studies 411


15.6 Prospective and Retrospective Case Studies 413


15.6.1 US EPA Retrospective Case Study 414


15.6.2 US EPA Retrospective Study Approach and Sampling Activities 415


15.6.3 Main Findings 420


15.6.4 Summary of US EPA Retrospective Studies 438


15.7 Exercises 439


References 440


Suggested Reading 446


16 Conclusions 453


Appendix A Selected University Studies, State, and Federal Reports 455


Appendix B Glossary 461


Appendix C List of Acronyms and Abbreviations 467


Appendix D Conversions 473


Appendix E Summary of Potential Job Hazards During Hydraulic Fracture Stimulation Process 477


Appendix F Chemical Additives Used in the High?Volume Hydraulic Fracturing Operations 481


Appendix G Exposure Planning, Emergency Response, and Toxicity Tables 485


Appendix H Selected Sampling Methods and Documentation 493


Appendix I Environmental Checklists 503


Appendix J Metric Conversion of Table 3.4 (Metric Units in Bold italics) 523


Appendix K US Crude Oil Prices 1859-2016 525


Index 527
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About James A. Jacobs

JAMES A. JACOBS is Principal Resource Scientist and Hydrogeologist at Clearwater Group. He is a Fulbright Senior Scholar and co-author of four environmental books and has served as an expert in a variety of oil and gas valuation and environmental contamination cases.

STEPHEN M. TESTA is the former Executive Officer of the California State Mining and Geology Board and past president of the American Geosciences Institute, Environmental Geosciences and Energy Minerals Division of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, American Institute of Professional Geologists, and Los Angeles Basin Geological Society.
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