Environmental Biotechnology

Environmental Biotechnology : A Biosystems Approach

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Environmental Biotechnology: A Biosystems Approach introduces a systems approach to environmental biotechnology and its applications to a range of environmental problems. A systems approach requires a basic understanding of four disciplines: environmental engineering, systems biology, environmental microbiology, and ecology. These disciplines are discussed in the context of their application to achieve specific environmental outcomes and to avoid problems in such applications.
The book begins with a discussion of the background and historical context of contemporary issues in biotechnology. It then explains the scientific principles of environmental biotechnologies; environmental biochemodynamic processes; environmental risk assessment; and the reduction and management of biotechnological risks. It describes ways to address environmental problems caused or exacerbated by biotechnologies. It also emphasizes need for professionalism in environmental biotechnological enterprises.
This book was designed to serve as a primary text for two full semesters of undergraduate study (e.g., Introduction to Environmental Biotechnology or Advanced Environmental Biotechnology). It will also be a resource text for a graduate-level seminar in environmental biotechnology (e.g., Environmental Implications of Biotechnology).
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Product details

  • Hardback | 750 pages
  • 215.9 x 276.86 x 43.18mm | 2,313.31g
  • Academic Press Inc
  • San Diego, United States
  • English
  • Illustrations (some col.), maps (some col.)
  • 012375089X
  • 9780123750891
  • 1,763,266

Table of contents

Biochemodynamics: A Systems Approach to Environmental Biotechnology

Daniel A. Vallero, Ph.D.

Foreword Preface Acknowledgments

Chapter 1: Environmental Biotechnology: An Overview Biochemodynamics Assessing the Biotechnological Impacts Biotechnology and Bioengineering Discussion Box: Little Things Matter in a Chaotic World The Environmental Biotechnology Discipline Biotechnology and Society Risk and Reliability: Some Forethought Beyond Biotechnological Applications Terminology Eureka! Oh No! The Science of Environmental Biotechnology Boxes and Envelopes Review Questions Notes and Commentary

Chapter 2: A Question of Balance: Using versus Abusing Biological Systems Environmental Biomimicry Engineered Systems Inspired by Biology Environmental Biochemodynamics Biophile Cycling Sequestration Carbon Sequestration in Soil Active Sequestration Nitrogen and Sulfur Biochemodynamics Review Questions Notes and Resources

Chapter 3: Environmental Biochemodynamic Processes Cellular Thermodynamics Importance of Free Energy in Microbial Metabolism Dissolution Phase Partitioning Thermodynamics in Abiotic and Biotic Systems Volatility/Solubility/Density Relationships Environmental Balances Fugacity Sorption Volatilization Bioavailability Persistent Bioaccumulating Toxic Substances Discussion Box: The Inuit and Persistent Organic Pollutants Extrinsic Factors Biochemodynamic Persistence and Half-Life Fugacity, Z Values, and Henry's Law Advection Dispersion Aerodynamic and Hydrodynamic Dispersion Diffusion Overall Effect of the Fluxes, Sinks and Sources Biochemodynamic Transport Models Level 1 Model Level 2 Model Level 3 Model Review Questions Notes and Commentary

Chapter 4: Systems Biotechnological Systems Putting Biology to Work Scale Systems Synergies: Biotechnological Analysis Using Bioindicators Biosensors Relationship between Green Engineering and Biotechnology Review Questions Notes

Chapter 5: Environmental Risks of Biotechnologies Estimating Biotechnological Risks Dose-Response Exposure Estimation Discussion Box: Exposure Calculation Direct Bioengineering Risk Calculations Discussion Box: Cancer Risk Calculation Discussion Box: Non-cancer Risk Calculation Risk-based cleanup standards Discussion Box: Treatment by Genetic Modification Discussion Box: Risk-Based Contaminant Cleanup Discussion Box: Biotechnical Communications Review Questions Notes and Commentary

Chapter 6: Reducing Biotechnological Risks Case Study Box: Genetic Biocontrols of Invaders Discussion Box: Discussion Box: Biochemodynamics of Pharmaceuticals Risk Causes Biographical Box: Sir Bradford Hill Case Study Box: Managing Risks by Distinguishing between Progenitor and Genetically Modified Microbes Failure: Human Factors Engineering Utility as a Measure of Success Failure Type 1: Mistakes and Miscalculations Failure Type 2: Extraordinary Natural Circumstances Failure Type 3: Critical Path Failure Type 4: Negligence Failure Type 5: Lack of Imagination Bioterrorism: Bad Biotechnology Review Questions Notes and Commentary

Chapter 7: Applied Microbial Ecology: Bioremediation Systematic View of Oxygen Biodegradation and Bioremediation Biochemodynamics of Biodegradation Off-site Treatment Digestion Discussion Box: Biochemodynamic Films Aerobic Biodegradation Trickling Filter Activated Sludge Aeration Ponds Anaerobic Biodegradation Multimedia-Multiphase Bioremediation Phytoremediation Biomarkers Bioengineering Considerations for Genetically Modified Organisms Discussion Box: Measuring Biodegradation Success Nitric Oxide as an Indicator of Degradation Humility in Biotechnological Modeling Developing an Indirect, Chemical Model of Microbial Activity Model Comparison to Laboratory Study for Toluene Degradation Review Questions Notes and Commentary

Chapter 8: Biotechnological Implications: A Systems Approach Systematic View of Biotechnological Risks Applied Thermodynamics Predicting Environmental Implications Environmental Implications of Engineering Organisms Genetic Engineering Basics Conventional Breeding Approaches Modification of Organisms without Introducing Foreign DNA Modification of Organisms by Introducing Foreign DNA Transfected DNA Vector-borne DNA Environmental Aspects of Cisgenic and Transgenic Organisms Foreign DNA in Plants Biochemodynamic Flow of Modified Genetic Material Review Questions Notes and Commentary

Chapter 9: Environmental Risks of Biotechnologies: Economic Sector Perspectives Industrial Biotechnology Production of Enzymes The Organism Health and Safety Regulations Environmental Implications Medical Biotechnology Discussion Box: Patenting Life Bio-Uptake and Bioaccumulation Discussion Box: Hormonally Active Agents Determining Estrogenicity Environmental Fate of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds Treatment of EDCs in Drinking Water - UV applications Modeling the UV/H2O2 Process Environmental Implications Animal Biotechnology Agricultural Biotechnology Discussion Box: "King Corn or Frankencorn" Genetic Modification Gene Flow Review Questions Notes and Commentary

Chapter 10: Addressing Biotechnological Pollutants Cleaning Up Biotechnological Operations Intervention at the Source of Contamination Intervention at the Point of Release Intervention during Transport Intervention to Control the Exposure Intervention at the Point of Response Thermal Treatment of Biotechnological Wastes Calculating Destruction Removal Other Thermal Strategies Nitrogen and Sulfur Problems Review Questions Notes and Commentary

Chapter 11: Analyzing the Environmental Implications of Biotechnologies Discussion Box: Biological Agent: Stachybotrys Life Cycle as an Analytical Methodology Revisiting Failure and Blame Environmental Accountability Life Cycle Applications Utility and the Benefit/Cost Analysis Predicting Environmental Damage Analysis of Biotechnological Implications Checklist for Ethical Decision Making Review Questions Notes and Commentary

Chapter 12: Managing Biotechnologies Bioengineering Perspectives Systematic Biotechnology and the Status Quo A Few Words about Environmental Ethics Biotechnology Decision Tools Accountability Value Informing Decisions Green Engineering and Biotechnology Green Engineering and Biotechnology Discussion Box: Probability and Biotechnology Risk Homeostasis and the Theory of Offsetting Behavior Artifacts Review Questions Notes and Commentary Glossary Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Index
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About Daniel Vallero

Dr. Daniel A. Vallero is an internationally recognized expert in environmental science and engineering. His four decades of research, teaching and professional experience in hazardous waste engineering and management have addressed a wide range of human health risk and ecological issues, from global climate change to the release of hazardous wastes. His research has advanced the state-of-the-science of air and water pollution measurement, models of potential exposures to chemicals in consumer products, and environmental impact assessments. He established the Engineering Ethics program and is a key collaborator in the Responsible Conduct of Research Program at Duke University. These programs introduce students, from first-year through PhD, to the complex relationships between science, technology and societal demands on the engineer. The lessons learned from the cases in this book are a fundamental part of Duke's preparation of its future engineers to address the ethical dilemmas likely to be encountered during the careers of the next generation engineers. Dr. Vallero received a bachelor's degree from Southern Illinois University, a Master of Science in City & Regional Planning from SIU, a Masters in Civil & Environmental Engineering (Environmental Health Sciences) from the University of Kansas, and a PhD in Civil & Environmental Engineering from Duke.
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