Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology

Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology

5 (1 rating by Goodreads)
Editor-in-chief  , Edited by 

Free delivery worldwide

Available. Dispatched from the UK in 2 business days
When will my order arrive?

Description

Written by the world's leading scientists and spanning over 400 articles in three volumes, the Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology, Second Edition is a complete, highly structured guide to current knowledge in the field. Fully revised and updated, this encyclopedia reflects the key advances in the field since the first edition was published in 1999

The articles in this key work, heavily illustrated and fully revised since the first edition in 1999, highlight advances in areas such as genomics and food safety to bring users up-to-date on microorganisms in foods. Topics such as DNA sequencing and E. coli are particularly well covered.

With lists of further reading to help users explore topics in depth, this resource will enrich scientists at every level in academia and industry, providing fundamental information as well as explaining state-of-the-art scientific discoveries.
show more

Product details

  • Mixed media product | 3248 pages
  • 248 x 298 x 190mm | 10,039.85g
  • Academic Press Inc
  • San Diego, United States
  • English
  • 2nd edition
  • 0123847303
  • 9780123847300

Table of contents

Editor-in-Chief
Editor
Editorial Advisory Board
How to Use the Encyclopedia

Contents
Cross-references
Index


Foreword
Notes on the Subject Index
Article Titles

A

Acetobacter

Abstract
Characteristics of the Genus Acetobacter
Methods of Detection
Identification
Importance to the Food Industry
See also
Further Reading


Acinetobacter

Abstract
Introduction
The Genus
Acinetobacter Species
Ecology
Methods of Detection and Enumeration of Acinetobacters in Foods
Identification at the Genus Level and Metabolic Characteristics
Identification at the Genomic Species Level
Epidemiological Typing
Acinetobacters in Foods
Acinetobacters in Water and Soil
Acinetobacters in the Clinical Environment
Biotechnological Applications
See also
Further Reading


Adenylate Kinase

Abstract
General Introduction of Adenylate Kinase
AK as the Detection Target in ATP Bioluminescence Assay
Application of AK in ATP Regeneration for Ultrasensitive Bioluminescence Assay
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


AEROMONAS | Introduction

Abstract
Characteristics of the Genus Aeromonas
Clinical Relevance
Molecular versus Phenotypic Identification
Epidemiology
Virulence Factors
Virulence Genes and Complete Genomes
Detection of Virulence in Food Isolates
Preservation and Control
See also
Further Reading


AEROMONAS | Detection by Cultural and Modern Techniques

Abstract
Glossary
Detection by Culturing
Nonselective Approach to Culturing
Enrichment Techniques
Most Probable Numbers Technique
Identification of Aeromonas
Molecular Methods
Other Methods
Future Perspectives
See also
Further Reading


Alcaligenes

Abstract
Introduction
Biotechnological Applications of Alcaligenes
Relevance to the Food Industry
Food Microbiology
Detection Methods
Genomics
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


Alicyclobacillus

Abstract
Introduction
Characteristics of Alicyclobacillus Genus
Alicyclobacillus Species
Spoilage of Foods by Alicyclobacillus
Occurrence of Alicyclobacillus in Raw Materials, Ingredients, and Final Products
Inactivation of Alicyclobacillus in Foods
Detection and Quantification of Alicyclobacillus
Final Remarks
See also
Further Reading


Alternaria

Abstract
Introduction
Taxonomy
Secondary Metabolites Production by Alternaria
Ecophysiology
Occurrence of Alternaria and Alternaria Mycotoxins in Foods
See also
Further Reading


Arcobacter

Abstract
Characteristics of the Genus
Isolation Protocols
Importance of Arcobacter in Livestock and Foods
See also
Further Reading


Arthrobacter

Abstract
General Characteristics
Ecology
Culture Media
Metabolism and Enzymes
Genetics and Bacteriophages
Role in Foods
Vegetables
Meat, Eggs, and Fish
Milk and Cheese
Miscellaneous Biotechnological Potentialities
Biodegradation of Agrochemicals and Pollutants
Involvement in Clinical Specimens
See also
Further Reading


ASPERGILLUS | Introduction

Abstract
Introduction
Aspergillus flavus
Aspergillus oryzae
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


ASPERGILLUS | Aspergillus flavus

Abstract
Biology and Habitat of A. flavus
Diversity in A. flavus Populations
Evolution of A. flavus
Methods for Detection of A. flavus in Foods and Feeds
Economic Significance of A. flavus
Conclusion
See also
References
Further Reading


ASPERGILLUS | Aspergillus oryzae

Abstract
Characteristics of the Species
Importance in the Food Industry
Method for Detection and Identification of A. oryzae
Molecular Characterization of Nonaflatoxigenicity of A. oryzae
See also
Further Reading


ATP Bioluminescence: Application in Meat Industry

Introduction
The ATP Bioluminescence Reaction
See also
Further Reading


Aureobasidium

Abstract
Characteristics of the Genus
Method of Detection
Importance of Aureobasidium as Spoiler for Food Industry
Health Impact of Aureobasidium in Food
See also
Further Reading




B

BACILLUS | Introduction

Abstract
Introduction
Taxonomy
Genetics
Growth and Survival
Metabolism
Significance in Food Spoilage
Foodborne Disease
Insect Control
Probiotics
Enzyme Production
See also
Further Reading


BACILLUS | Bacillus anthracis

Abstract
Characteristics of the Species
Detection
Regulations
Importance to the Food Industry
Importance to the Consumer
See also
Further Reading


BACILLUS | Bacillus cereus

Abstract
Characteristics of the Species
Methods of Detection
Genomics
Regulations
Importance to the Food Industry
Importance to the Consumer
See also
Further Reading


BACILLUS | Geobacillus stearothermophilus (Formerly Bacillus stearothermophilus)

Abstract
Characteristics of the Species
Methods of Detection
Regulations
Importance to the Food Industry
Importance to the Consumer
Further Reading


BACILLUS | Detection by Classical Cultural Techniques

Abstract
Species - Scope
Choice of Tests
Test Procedures
Advantages and Limitations of Methods
Collaborative Evaluations and Validations
See also
Appendix: Formulations
Further Reading


BACILLUS | Detection of Toxins

Abstract
Introduction
Foodborne Illness
Bacillus cereus Diarrheal Syndrome
Bacillus cereus Emetic Syndrome
Factors Affecting Emetic Toxin Formation
Other B. cereus Toxins
Toxins of Other Bacillus Species
Detection of B. cereus Toxins
See also
Further Reading


BACTERIA | The Bacterial Cell

Introduction
Types of Morphology
Conclusions
See also
Further Reading


BACTERIA | Bacterial Endospores

Abstract
Problems and Advantages of Bacterial Spores in the Food Industry
Endospore Formation and Structure
Dormancy and Longevity of Endospores
Heat Resistance of Endospores
Resistance to Other Stresses
Spore Germination
Control of Spore-Forming Bacteria and Spores in Food
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


BACTERIA | Classification of the Bacteria: Traditional

Abstract
Phenotypic Analysis
Microbial Species
Classification and Nomenclature
Description of New Species
Bergey's Manual and The Prokaryotes
See also
Further Reading
Relevant Websites


BACTERIA | Classification of the Bacteria - Phylogenetic Approach

Abstract
Introduction
Ribosomal RNAs, Housekeeping Genes, and Genomes
Sequence Determination, Sequence Alignment, Treeing Methods, and Databases
The Limited Significance of Genes Sequences for Taxonomic Delineations
Links with `Traditional' Bacteriology
New Approaches for Delineating Taxonomic Ranks
See also
Further Reading


BACTERIOCINS | Potential in Food Preservation

Abstract
Introduction
Bioprotection or Biopreservation
Microbial Defense System
Bacteriocins
Classification
Mode of Action
Gram-Positive Bacteriocins
Gram-Negative Bacteriocins
Bacteriocins from Archaea
Nisin
Bacteriocins and Potential for Food Preservation
Application in Dairy Foods
Application in Poultry and Muscle Foods
Application in Seafood
Application in Other Foods and Beverages
Advantages of Bacteriocins as Food Additives
Limitations of Bacteriocins as Food Additives
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


BACTERIA | Nisin

Abstract
Introduction
History
Structure and Biosynthesis
Solubility and Stability
Applications
Antagonistic Factors
See also
Further Reading


Bacteriophage-Based Techniques for Detection of Foodborne Pathogens

Abstract
Introduction
Bacteriophage Characteristics
Applications of Bacteriophages for the Identification of Bacterial Pathogens
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


Bacteroides and Prevotella

Abstract
Classification, Cultivation, and Genomics
Dominant Bacteroidetes Found in the Human Large Intestine
Changes in Bacteroidetes Populations in Humans with Diet, Obesity, and Life Stage
Fermentative Metabolism
Factors Likely to Influence Survival of Bacteroides and Prevotella in the Gut
Metabolism of Food Components and Host-Derived Products
Bacteriocins, Phages, and Gene Transfer
Bacteroides Interactions with Host Cells
Bacteroidetes in Health and Disease
Importance in Agriculture
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


Beer

Abstract
Introduction
Beer-Brewing Processes
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


Bifidobacterium

Abstract
Introduction
Historical Perspective
Enumeration and Isolation Methods
Intestinal Ecology
Prebiotics
Probiotics and Implied Health Benefits of Bifidobacteria
Bifid-Amended Foods and Beverages
See also
References
Relevant Websites
Further Reading


BIOCHEMICAL AND MODERN IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUES | Introduction

Abstract
Introduction
See also
Further Reading


BIOCHEMICAL AND MODERN IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUES | Enterobacteriaceae, Coliforms, and Escherichia Coli

Abstract
Introduction
Principles and Types of Commercially Available Tests
Conclusion
See also
References


BIOCHEMICAL AND MODERN IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUES | Food-Poisoning Microorganisms

Abstract
Introduction
Phenotypic Identification Methods
Genotypic Methods Identification Methods
Range of Food Applications
Conclusion
See also
References


BIOCHEMICAL AND MODERN IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUES | Food Spoilage Flora

Abstract
Biochemical Diagnostic Markers
Fungal Metabolite Profiling
Immunological Techniques
Evaluation of Commercial Techniques and Tests
Molecular Techniques
Electrophoretic Karyotyping
RFLP and DNA Amplification Techniques
Critical Evaluation of Techniques
Molecular over Biochemical
Advantages and Limitations of Biochemical over Other Techniques
See also
Further Reading


BIOCHEMICAL AND MODERN IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUES | Microfloras of Fermented Foods

Abstract
Introduction
Microbial Composition of Fermented Foods
Importance of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods
Parameters for the Study of Fermented Foods
Phenotypic Identification
Biochemical Identification
Modern or Molecular Identification
Culture-Dependent and Culture-Independent Techniques
See also
Further Reading


Biofilms

Abstract
Biofilm Formation
Extracellular Polymeric Substances
Physiological Status of Attached Bacteria
Reducing Biofilm Buildup
Cleaning and Disinfection
Biofilm Detection in Food-Processing Plants
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


Biophysical Techniques for Enhancing Microbiological Analysis

Basic Concepts
Particle Motion in Inhomogeneous AC Electric Fields: Dielectrophoresis
Particle Motion in Rotating Electric Fields: Electrorotation
Particle Motion in Traveling Wave Electric Fields
Conclusions
See also
Further Reading


Biosensors - Scope in Microbiological Analysis

Abstract
Introduction
Biosensor Introduction
Biosensor Definitions
Caveats
Assessment of the Future Use of Biosensors
See also
Further Reading


Botrytis

Abstract
Introduction
Taxonomy, Evolutionary Relationships, Genetic Characteristics
Culture
Identification
Detection and Assessment
Pathogenicity
Positive Relationship in Wine Production
Control
See also
Further Reading


Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)

Abstract
Introduction
BSE-Related Diseases
Diagnosis
See also
Further Reading


BREAD | Bread from Wheat Flour

Abstract
Bread
Bread Ingredients and Their Functions
Flour
Yeast
Bread-Making Technology
See also
Further Reading


BREAD | Sourdough Bread

Abstract
Introduction
History
Contemporary Use of Sourdough and Pattern of Consumption
Raw Materials and Methods of Production
Traditional Sourdough Fermentation
Microbiology
Biochemistry of Sourdough Fermentation
Technological Effects of Sourdough Fermentation on Bread Quality
Sourdough Starter Cultures
Related Cereal Fermentations
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


Brettanomyces

Abstract
General Characters
Physiological Properties
Genomic Analysis
Ecological Distribution
Implications in Fermented Food and Beverages
Methods of Detection
Interactions with Other Microorganisms
See also
Further Reading


Brevibacterium

Abstract
Introduction
Taxonomy and General Characteristics
Brevibacterium and Cheese
Further Reading


Brochothrix

Abstract
Introduction
Brochothrix thermosphacta Characteristics
Comparison of Brochothrix Species
Isolation and Enumeration
Alternative Rapid Detection of Brochothrix
International Guideline for Brochothrix Enumeration
Importance to the Food Industry
See also
Further Reading


BRUCELLA | Characteristics

Abstract
Brucella Species
Morphology and Physiology
Epidemiology of the Disease
Brucellae in Foods
Routes of Human Infection
Pathogenicity and Symptomatology
Detection Methods
Treatment of Disease
Disease Control and Prevention
See also
Further Reading


BRUCELLA | Problems with Dairy Products

Abstract
Factors Affecting Survival and Growth in Milk Products
Eradication and Control of Brucella in Foods
Brucellosis in Humans
See also
Further Reading


Byssochlamys

Abstract
Characteristics of the Genus
Methods of Detection
Importance to the Food Industry
See also
Further Reading




C

CAMPYLOBACTER | Introduction

Abstract
Introduction
Guillain-Barre Syndrome
Reactive Arthritides (Reactive Arthritis and Reiter's Syndrome)
Taxonomy
General Physiology
Ecology
Species Other than C. jejuni and C. coli
Pathogenicity
Typing of Campylobacter spp.
Methods of Control
Viable but Nonculturable Forms
See also
Further Reading


CAMPYLOBACTER | Detection by Cultural and Modern Techniques

Abstract
Introduction
Campylobacter Gastroenteritis
Sources of Infection
Detection of Campylobacteria
Methods of Generating Microaerobic Atmosphere
Selective Media
Membrane Filtration Method
Enrichment Media
Detection of Arcobacters
Microaerobic Atmosphere for Enrichment of Thermophilic Campylobacters
Isolation of Thermophilic Campylobacters from Foods
Isolation of Less Common Campylobacteria
Confirmation and Speciation
Rapid Detection Methods
See also
Further Reading


CAMPYLOBACTER | Detection by Latex Agglutination Techniques

Abstract
Introduction
Brief Principles and Types of Commercial Tests
Detailed Protocols of Tests and Their Points of Application in the Cultural Techniques for Campylobacter
Regulations, Guidelines, and Directives
Detection Limits
Advantages and Limitations of Latex Agglutination Tests and Other Techniques
See also
Further Reading


CANDIDA | Introduction

Abstract
Characteristics of the Genus Candida
Physiological Properties
Habitats
Pathogenic Yeasts of the Genus Candida
Methods of Isolation and Identification
Importance to the Food Industry
Food Spoiling
See also
Further Reading


CANDIDA | Yarrowia lipolytica (Candida lipolytica)

Abstract
Acknowledgments
General Characteristics
Methods for Identification in Foods
Isolation from Meat Products
Isolation from Dairy Products
Involvement in Spoilage of Foods
Conversion of Fats, Oils, and Hydrocarbons
Production of Enzymes, Organic Acids, and Lipids
Production of Specialty Chemicals
See also
Further Reading


Carnobacterium

Abstract
Introduction
Characteristics of the Genus and Related Species
Isolation, Enumeration, and Identification
Importance of the Genus and Individual Species in the Food Industry
See also
Further Reading


CHEESE | Cheese in the Marketplace

Abstract
Introduction
Definition and Classification of Natural Cheese
Fundamentals of Cheese Manufacture
Popular Cheese Groups
Cheese Composition
Process Cheese Products
Consumer Attributes of Cheese
See also
References


CHEESE | Microbiology of Cheesemaking and Maturation

Abstract
Introduction
Typical Composition of Cheese Milk
Microbiological Quality of Milk
Principles of Cheesemaking
Starter Bacteria, Starter Adjuncts, and Nonstarter Lactic Acid Bacteria in Cheese
Microbiological Changes during Cheesemaking
Microbiological Changes during Cheese Maturation
Defects of Bacterial and Fungal Origin
See also
Further Reading


CHEESE | Microflora of White-Brined Cheeses

Abstract
Introduction
Microbiological Quality of White Cheese
Composition of Cheese in Relation to Starter Culture Activity
Contaminants in White-Brined Cheeses
Microbial Defects in White-Brined Cheeses
See also
Further Reading


CHEESE | Mold-Ripened Varieties

Abstract
Introduction
Diversity and History of Mold-Ripened Cheeses
Manufacture of Mold-Ripened Cheeses
Microbial Flora
Fungal Growth
Fungal Metabolism
Control of Ripening
Spoilage and Defects in Mold-Ripened Cheeses
See also
Further Reading


CHEESE | Role of Specific Groups of Bacteria

Abstract
Propionibacterium
Metabolic Activity during Eye Formation
Brevibacterium linens
Action of Brevibacterium during the Maturation of Smear-Coated Cheeses
See also
Further Reading


CHEESE | Smear-Ripened Cheeses

Abstract
Manufacture
Microbiology
Defined Cultures
Source of the Bacteria
Flavor Development
Color Development on Cheese
Pathogens
Control of Listeria
Further Reading


CHILLED STORAGE OF FOODS | Principles

Abstract
Introduction
Refrigerated Foods
Microbiology of Refrigerated Foods
Microorganisms and Growth Temperatures
Effect of Chilled Temperature on Microorganisms
Good Chilled Storage Practices
See also
Further Reading


CHILLED STORAGE OF FOODS | Food Packaging with Antimicrobial Properties

Abstract
Introduction
Packaging Containing Essential Oils
Packaging Containing Organic Acids
Packaging Containing Bacteriocins
Nanocomposite Systems as Food Packaging
Future Trend of Antimicrobial Packaging
See also
Further Reading


Cider (Cyder; Hard Cider)

Abstract
Introduction
Cider Production
The Microbiology of Apple Juice and Cider
Some Special Fermentation and Other Processes
Biochemical Changes during Cidermaking
See also
Further Reading


CLOSTRIDIUM | Introduction

Abstract
Introduction
Selected Clostridial Species
Recommended Methods of Detection and Enumeration in Foods
See also
Further Reading


CLOSTRIDIUM | Clostridium acetobutylicum

Abstract
Introduction
Description of the Species
Enrichment and Isolation
History of the ABE Fermentation Industry
The Industrial Fermentation Process
Physiology of the ABE Fermentation
Recent Progress in ABE Research
See also
Further Reading


CLOSTRIDIUM | Clostridium botulinum

Abstract
Introduction
Characteristics of C. botulinum
Control of C. botulinum in Foods
Clinical Features of Botulism
Properties and Detection of BoNT
Botulinum Toxin as a Pharmaceutical
See also
Further Reading


CLOSTRIDIUM | Clostridium perfringens

Abstract
Clostridium perfringens Food Poisoning
Characteristics of C. perfringens
Classification
Clinical Features of Disease
Mechanism of Intoxication
Detection and Enumeration
Enterotoxin Detection
Regulations to Control C. perfringens Hazard
See also
Further Reading


CLOSTRIDIUM | Clostridium tyrobutyricum

Abstract
Characteristics of the Species
Detection Methods
MPN Procedures
Antibody and DNA-Based Detection Methods
Importance in the Food Industry
See also
Further Reading


CLOSTRIDIUM | Detection of Enterotoxin of Clostridium perfringens

Abstract
Glossary
Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin and C. perfringens Food Poisoning
Importance of C. perfringens Food Poisoning
Identification of C. perfringens Food Poisoning
C. perfringens Enterotoxin Assays
Counterimmunoelectrophoresis
Latex Agglutination Tests
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays
Detection of Enterotoxigenic C. perfringens
Advantages and Limitations of the CPE Detection Methods
See also
Further Reading


CLOSTRIDIUM | Detection of Neurotoxins of Clostridium botulinum

Abstract
Introduction
See also
Further Reading


Cocoa and Coffee Fermentations

Abstract
Introduction
Cocoa
Nature of the Crop
Cacao Fruit
Harvesting
Fermentation
Procedures of Fermentation
Microflora Active in Cocoa Fermentation
Other Microorganisms Present During Fermentation and Drying
Effect of Fermentation on Product Quality
Flavor-Developing Compounds
Drying
Coffee
Nature of the Crop
Coffee Fruit
Harvesting
Fermentation
Procedure of Coffee Mucilage Removal
Biochemistry of Coffee Fermentation
See also
Further Reading


Cold Atmospheric Gas Plasmas

Abstract
The Nature of Gas Plasmas and Cold Gas Plasmas
The Biological Effects of Gas Plasmas
Gas Plasmas in the Food Industry
Future Prospects
See also
Further Reading


Confectionery Products - Cakes and Pastries

Abstract
What Are Cakes and Pastries?
Effects of Baking
Effects of Postbake Operation
Factors Affecting Microbial Growth
Foodborne Disease and Incidence of Pathogens
Spoilage
Preservation Methods
Microbial Specifications
See also
Further Reading


Corynebacterium glutamicum

Abstract
Acknowledgment
History
Taxonomy
Genome
Proteome
Metabolic Pathway for Glutamate Production by C. glutamicum
Anaplerotic Pathways in C. glutamicum
Metabolic Flux Distribution during Glutamate Synthesis
Leakage Model for Glutamate Efflux by C. glutamicum
Lysine Production Pathway in C. glutamicum
Industrial Application of C. glutamicum
Conclusion
See also
References


Costs, Benefits, and Economic Issues

Abstract
Costs
Benefits
See also
Further Reading


Coxiella burnetii

Abstract
Introduction
History of C. burnetii Discovery
Cultivation and Isolation of C. burnetii
Biology of C. burnetii
Epidemiology of Q Fever
Clinical Manifestations of Q Fever
Serological Tests for Diagnosis
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


Cronobacter (Enterobacter) sakazakii

Abstract
Introduction
Characteristics of the Species
Detection Methods
Importance to the Food Industry and Consumer
Conclusion and Future Studies
See also
Further Reading


Cryptosporidium

Abstract
Characteristics of the Genus
Species in the Genus
Life Cycle
Infectivity and In Vitro Culture
Detection and Identification
Foodborne Transmission
Methods of Detection in Food, Water, and Other Liquids
Nucleic Acid-Based Methods for Detection and Identification
Determination of Viability
Importance to the Food and Water Industries
Control and Disinfection
Importance to the Consumer
Regulations
See also
Further Reading
Relevant Websites


Culture Collections

Abstract
Introduction
The Mission, Scope, and Content of Culture Collections
Deposit, Access to, and Distribution of Strains
Preservation and Long-term Storage
The Impact of Legislation on the Handling, Storage, and Distribution of Organisms
Management and Operational Standards
Networking Collections: Improving Access to Strains and Addressing Common Challenges
See also
Further Reading


Cyclospora

Abstract
Characteristics of the Genus and Relevant Species
Methods of Detection in Foods
Importance to the Food Industry
Importance to the Consumer
See also
Further Reading




D

Debaryomyces

Abstract
Characteristics of the Genus and Relevant Species
Physiological and Biochemical Properties
Significance in Foods
Pathogenic Behavior
Enumeration, Detection, and Identification
See also
Further Reading
Relevant websites


Direct Epifluorescent Filter Techniques (DEFT)

Principles of the Test
Equipment
Procedures
Microcolony Count
Direct Viable Count (DVC)
Alternative DEFT Stains
Viability Stains
Ab-DEFT and Immunomagnetic Separation
Automated Methods
See also
Further Reading


Dried Foods

Abstract
Dried Foods
See also
Further Reading




E

ECOLOGY OF BACTERIA AND FUNGI IN FOODS | Effects of pH

Abstract
The Concept of pH and Its Relevance in Food Products
Effect of pH on Food Microorganisms
pH Homeostasis
Effect of pH According to the Physiological State
Use of pH as a Microbial Control Tool
Modeling of pH and Weak Acids Incidence on Microbial Growth
See also
Further Reading


ECOLOGY OF BACTERIA AND FUNGI IN FOODS | Influence of Available Water

Abstract
Introduction
Concept of Water Activity and Available Water
Factors Affecting Water Activity
Levels in Typical Foods
General Responses of Bacteria, Yeasts, and Mycelial Fungi
Effect of Water Activity on Intracellular Structures and Chemical Composition of Cells
Compatible Solutes
Summary
See also
Further Reading


ECOLOGY OF BACTERIA AND FUNGI IN FOODS | Influence of Redox Potential

Abstract
Acknowledgments
Introduction
The Concept of Redox Potential
Redox Potential Determination in Biological Systems
Redox and Microbial Growth
Redox Potentials in Foods
Applications of Redox Potential in Food Microbiology
Bacterial Redox Homeostasis
See also
Further Reading


ECOLOGY OF BACTERIA AND FUNGI IN FOODS | Influence of Temperature

Abstract
Introduction
Microbial Ecology of Foods: Evolution of Specific Microbiota
Effect of Temperature on Microbial Growth
Interpretation of the Effect of Temperature on Microbial Growth
Effects of Temperature on Metabolism
Summary
See also
Further Reading


EGGS | Microbiology of Fresh Eggs

Abstract
Structure and Composition of Fresh Eggs
Antimicrobial Defense Systems
Contamination of Eggs with Salmonellae
Implications for Human Health
Reducing Infection of Flocks and the Risks in Storage
See also
Further Reading


EGGS | Microbiology of Egg Products

Abstract
Effects of Processing on Microorganisms
Pasteurization of Liquid Egg
Dried Eggs
Glucose Removal
Product Innovation
Processed Egg Products
See also
Further Reading


ELECTRICAL TECHNIQUES | Introduction

Abstract
Impedance, Conductance, and Capacitance
Indirect Impedimetry
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


ELECTRICAL TECHNIQUES | Food Spoilage Flora and Total Viable Count

Abstract
Nonspecific Impedance Technique: TVC
Estimation of Food Spoilage Microorganisms
See also
Further Reading


ELECTRICAL TECHNIQUES | Lactics and Other Bacteria

Abstract
Range of Food Applications
Electrical Media
Techniques and Protocols
Interpretation and Presentation of Results
Advantages and Limitations of Electrical Techniques
Recent Development of ET
See also
Further Reading


Enrichment

Abstract
Introduction
Primary Enrichment (Pre-enrichment)
Secondary Enrichment (Selective Enrichment)
Universal Selective Enrichment Broth
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


Enrichment Serology: An Enhanced Cultural Technique for Detection of Foodborne Pathogens

Abstract
Introduction
Original Enrichment Serology Method
Commercial ES Methods
Conclusion
See also
References


ELECTRICAL TECHNIQUES | Enterobacter

Abstract
Introduction
Nomenclature
Physiological Description
Environmental Niches
Clinical Implications
Detection
Control
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


ENTEROBACTERIACEAE, COLIFORMS AND E. COLI | Introduction

Abstract
Enterobacteriaceae
See also
Further Reading


ENTEROBACTERIACEAE, COLIFORMS AND E. COLI | Classical and Modern Methods for Detection and Enumeration

Abstract
Introduction
Definitions
Classical Methods
Most Probable Number
Membrane Filtration Methods
Hydrophobic Grid Membrane Filter
Presence-Absence with Enrichment Step
Petrifilm
Fluorogenic and Chromogenic Media
Rapid Automated Method (Growth-Based Methods)
Molecular Methods
See also
Further Reading


Enterococcus

Abstract
Introduction
Taxonomy and Physiology
Habitat
Ecology in Foods
Functional Properties of Enterococci in Foods
Enterococci: Health Issues
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


Enzyme Immunoassays: Overview

Abstract
Immunoassay
Components of Immunoassay
Immunoreaction
Methods of Immunoassay
Enzyme Immunoassay
Application of Immunoassays
Immunoassay in Food
Advantages and Disadvantages of ELISA for GMO Testing
Modifications of Standard Immunoassay
Current Advances in the Field of Immunoassay
Radioimmunoprecipitation Assay
Optoelectronic Immunosensor-Based Assays
Application of Computer-Assisted Molecular Modeling in Immunoassay
See also
Further Reading


ESCHERICHIA COLI | Escherichia coli

Abstract
Characteristics of the Species
Serology
Virulence
Toxins
Other Toxins
Genomics
Foodborne Illness
Detection of E. coli
Use of E. coli as a Fecal Indicator
See also
Further Reading


ESCHERICHIA COLI | Pathogenic E. coli (Introduction)

Abstract
Introduction
Intestinal Pathogenic E. coli
Extraintestinal Pathogenic E. coli
Isolation and Identification of Pathogenic E. coli in Food
See also
Further Reading


ESCHERICHIA COLI | Detection of Enterotoxins of E. coli

Abstract
ETEC Enterotoxins: Genetics and Epidemiology
Diagnostics
See also
Further Reading


ESCHERICHIA COLI | Enteroaggregative E. coli

Abstract
Overview
Virulence Factors
Genomics
EAEC: Pathogen in Search of a Disease
Outlook
See also
Further Reading


ESCHERICHIA COLI | Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), Including Non-O157

Abstract
Introduction
Pathogenicity
Symptoms of Infection
EHEC Serogroups
Detection
Sources
EHEC Carriage in Cattle
EHEC and the Environment
EHEC in Foods
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


ESCHERICHIA COLI | Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli: Introduction and Detection by Classical Cultural and Molecular Techniques

Abstract
The Pathogen
Pathogenesis
EIEC in Foods
Detection of EIEC from Foods
See also
Further Reading


ESCHERICHIA COLI | Enteropathogenic E. coli

Abstract
Acknowledgment
Introduction
Clinic and Pathology
Adherence
Translocation
Genomics
Diarrhea Mechanisms
Diagnosis
Epidemiology
Atypical EPEC
Transmission and Reservoirs
Food Safety
Outlook
See also
Further Reading


ESCHERICHIA COLI | Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC)

Abstract
Acknowledgments
Escherichia coli
Virulence Groups
ETEC
ETEC Infection
ETEC Diarrhea
The Enterotoxins
LT
STs
Prevention
Treatment
Vaccine
Recent Outbreaks of ETEC
Bioassays
See also
Further Reading


ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157 | E. coli O157:H7

Abstract
History and Origins
Clinical Features
Sources of E. coli Infection
See also
Further Reading


ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157 | Escherichia coli O157 and Other Shiga Toxin-Producing E. coli: Detection by Immunomagnetic Particle-Based Assays

Abstract
Introduction
Detection and Isolation of E. coli O157 and Non-O157 STEC Using IMS Technology
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157 | Detection by Latex Agglutination Techniques

Abstract
General Principles
Procedures
Advantages and Limitations
See also
Further Reading
Relevant websites




F

FERMENTATION (INDUSTRIAL) | Basic Considerations

Abstract
Introduction
Types of Fermentation
Factors Influencing Fermentations
Submerged Fermentations
Solid-State Fermentations
Safe Fermentation Practice
See also
Further Reading


FERMENTATION (INDUSTRIAL) | Control of Fermentation Conditions

Abstract
Introduction
Control Systems
Measuring Equipment
Biomass Concentration
Biosensors
Indirect Measurement
Neural Networks
Control Systems
Solid-State Fermentations
Submerged Fermentations
Future Perspectives
See also
Further Reading


FERMENTATION (INDUSTRIAL) | Media for Industrial Fermentations

Abstract
Introduction
Sources of Utilizable Carbon
Sources of Utilizable Nitrogen
Sources of Inorganic Ions
Sources of Growth Factors
Design and Preparation of Food Fermentation Media
Inocula Preparation
See also
Further Reading


FERMENTATION (INDUSTRIAL) | Production of Amino Acids

Abstract
Acknowledgments
Introduction
Production of L-glutamic Acid
Production of L-lysine
Production of L-threonine
Production of L-isoleucine
Production of Aromatic Amino Acids
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


FERMENTATION (INDUSTRIAL) | Production of Colors and Flavors

Abstract
Colors from Fermentation
Flavors from Biotechnology
See also
Further Reading


FERMENTATION (INDUSTRIAL) | Production of Oils and Fatty Acids

Abstract
Introduction
Lipids
Commercial Oils and Fats
Oleaginous Microorganisms
Biochemistry of Oleaginicity
Metabolic Pathway
Patterns of Lipid Accumulation in Fermentations
Substrates for Oleaginous Fermentation
Fatty Acids, Soap Stocks, and Oils
Other Substrates
Microbial Production Systems
Fermentation Media for Lipid Biosynthesis
Fermentative Production Processes
Factors Influencing Lipid Biosynthesis
Growth Rate
Substrate Concentration
Growth Substrate
Temperature
Oxygen
pH and Salinity
Genetic Engineering
Metabolic Engineering
Other Factors
Recovery and Purification
Oil Extraction
Oil Refining
Commercial Importance
See also
Further Reading


FERMENTATION (INDUSTRIAL) | Production of Some Organic Acids (Citric, Gluconic, Lactic, and Propionic)

Abstract
Citric Acid
Gluconic Acid
Lactic Acid
Other Organic Acids Produced by Fermentation
See also
Further Reading


FERMENTATION (INDUSTRIAL) | Production of Xanthan Gum

Abstract
Introduction
Structure
Properties
Applications
Microbial Production of Xanthan Gum
Economics
Some Important Manufacturers of Xanthan Gum
See also
Further Reading
Relevant Website


FERMENTATION (INDUSTRIAL) | Recovery of Metabolites

Abstract
Introduction
Disintegration of Microbial Cells
Recovery of Metabolites
See also
Further Reading


FERMENTED FOODS | Origins and Applications

Abstract
Introduction
History, Development, and Uses of Fermented Foods
Benefits and Importance of Fermented Foods
Applications of Fermentation
See also
Further Reading


FERMENTED FOODS | Beverages from Sorghum and Millet

Abstract
Introduction
Raw Materials
Storage
Millets
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


FERMENTED FOODS | Fermentations of East and Southeast Asia

Abstract
Introduction
Alcohol Fermentation
Vegetable, Fruit, and Cereal Fermentation
Fermented Condiment
Fermentation of Fish and Marine Products
Meat Fermentation
Fermented Milk
Other Fermented Food
See also
Further Reading


FERMENTED FOODS | Traditional Fish Fermentation Technology and Recent Developments

Abstract
Introduction
Basics of Fermented Fish
Important Fermented Fish Products and Developmental Scenario
Beneficial Factors Associated with Fermentation
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


FERMENTED FOODS | Fermented Meat Products and the Role of Starter Cultures

Abstract
Introduction
Ecology of Fermentation
Functional Properties of Bacterial Starter Cultures
Safety of Bacteria Involved in Meat Fermentation
See also
Further Readings


FERMENTED FOODS | Fermented Vegetable Products

Abstract
Introduction
Microbiota of Raw Vegetables and Fruits
Fermentation of Vegetable Products
Main Fermented Vegetable Products
Lactic Acid Fermentation of Vegetable Juices
Innovative Vegetable-Based Fermented Products
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


FERMENTED MILKS | Range of Products

Abstract
Introduction
Classification of Fermented Milks
Mesophilic Lactic Fermentations
Thermophilic Lactic Fermentations
Milks Fermented with Selected Intestinal Bacteria
Yeast-Lactic Fermentations
Mold-Lactic Fermentations
Derived Products
Aims and Benefits of Fermented Milks
See also
Further Reading


FERMENTED MILKS | Northern European Fermented Milks

Abstract
Introduction
Microorganisms in Northern European Fermented Milks
Metabolism of Mesophilic Starter Cultures in Milk
Fermented Milk Products
Ropy Fermented Milk Products
Drained Fermented Milk Products
See also
Further Reading


FERMENTED MILKS | Products of Eastern Europe and Asia

Abstract
Introduction
Kefir
Koumiss
Tarhana
See also
Further Reading


FERMENTED MILKS | Fermented Milks and Yogurt

Abstract
Introduction
Definition, Characteristics, and Legislation
History
Yogurt Manufacture
Recent Developments in Yogurt-Related Products
Conclusion and Outlook
See also
Further Reading


FISH | Catching and Handling

Abstract
Anatomy and Physiology of Fish
Composition of Body Tissues
Microbiology of Fish
Flora of Newly Caught Fish
Role of Handling on Bacterial Spoilage
High-Pressure Processing
See also
Further Reading


FISH | Spoilage of Fish

Abstract
Introduction
Role of Autolysis, Lipid Oxidation, and Microorganisms
Fish as Substrate for Microbial Growth and Metabolism
Spoilage of Different Types of Fish Products
See also
Further Reading


Flavobacterium spp. - Characteristics, Occurrence, and Toxicity

Abstract
Characteristics of Flavobacterium Species
Occurrence
Toxicity
See also
References


Flow Cytometry

Abstract
Introduction
History of Flow Cytometry and Microbiological Applications
Advantages of Flow Cytometry as a Whole-Cell Technique
Flow Cytometric Analysis
Data Analysis, Formatting, and Reporting
Multiparameter Analysis
Enumeration of Cells
Cell Sorting
Fluorescent Stains
Nonspecific Fluorescent Stains
Cell-Specific Fluorescent Stains
Challenges
Selected Applications of Flow Cytometry in Food Microbiology
Commercially Available Instruments
Next-Generation and Specialized Instrumentation
Conclusion and Future Perspectives
See also
Further Reading


Food Poisoning Outbreaks

Abstract
Introduction
Epidemiology and Control
Investigation of Foodborne Disease
Reporting of Foodborne Disease
See also
Further Reading


Food Safety Objective

Abstract
Food Safety Objective Concept
FSO Terminology
Risk Analysis
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


FREEZING OF FOODS | Damage to Microbial Cells

Abstract
Effect of Freezing on the Microbial Environment Provided by Foods
Injury of Microorganisms by Freezing and Thawing
Cryoprotectants
Effects of Freezing on Microorganisms in Foods
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


FREEZING OF FOODS | Growth and Survival of Microorganisms

Abstract
Temperature and Microbial Growth
Prefreezing Operations and Microbial Growth
Effect of Freezing on Microbial Growth
See also
Further Reading


FRUITS AND VEGETABLES | Introduction

Abstract
Introduction
Overview of Fruits and Vegetables Disease Outbreaks
Main Sources of Contamination of Fruits and Vegetables by Foodborne Pathogens
Mechanisms of Fruits and Vegetables Contamination by Foodborne Pathogens
Survival and Growth of Pathogens in Fruits and Vegetables
Control of Contamination of Fruits and Vegetables by Foodborne Pathogens
See also
Further Reading


FRUITS AND VEGETABLES | Advances in Processing Technologies to Preserve and Enhance the Safety of Fresh and Fresh-Cut Fruits and Vegetables

Abstract
Introduction
Chemical Treatments
Cold Plasma
Irradiation
Ultraviolet Light
Modified Atmosphere Packaging
Conclusion
Acknowledgments
See also
Further Reading


FRUITS AND VEGETABLES | Fruit and Vegetable Juices

Abstract
Microorganisms Associated to the Contamination of Fruit and Vegetables Juices
Contamination of Vegetable Beverages by Microorganisms
See also
References
Further Reading


FRUITS AND VEGETABLES | Sprouts

Abstract
Introduction
Sprouts
Interventions during the Sprouting Process
Postharvest Treatments for Matured Sprouts
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


FUNGI | Overview of Classification of the Fungi

Features Used to Define a True Fungus
Features Used in Classification
Phylum Chytridiomycota
Phylum Zygomycota
Phylum Ascomycota
Phylum Basidiomycota
Mitosporic Fungi
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


FUNGI | The Fungal Hypha

Abstract
Acknowledgement
Introduction
The Fungal Cell
Special Vegetative Structures
See also
Further Reading
Relevant Website


FUNGI | Classification of the Basidiomycota

Abstract
General Considerations in the Classification of Life
Taxonomy, Systematics, and Classification of Basidiomycetes
Classification and the Origins of Fungi (Basidiomycetes)
Classification of Basidiomycota as a Phylum in Kingdom Fungi
Classification of Basidiomycetes
See also
Further Reading


FUNGI | Classification of the Deuteromycetes

Abstract
Defining Features of the `Class'
Organizational Framework for Mitosporic Fungi
Genera Involved in Food Microbiology
See also
Further Reading


FUNGI | Classification of the Eukaryotic Ascomycetes

Abstract
Introduction
Defining Features of the Ascomycetes
General Features of Ascomycetes
Basis for Division of Ascomycetes
Commercial Importance of Ascomycetes
See also
Further Reading


FUNGI | Classification of the Hemiascomycetes

Abstract
Conidium Ontogeny
Saccharomycetales
Dipodascales
Ecological Importance
Kloeckera
Debaryomyces
Hansenula
Importance to the Consumer
See also
Further Reading


FUNGI | Classification of the Peronosporomycetes

Abstract
Introduction
Class Diagnosis
Features of the Class: Commercial Importance
Biochemistry
General Morphology: Characters Used in Taxonomy
Characteristics of the Subclasses and the More Important Orders
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


FUNGI | Classification of Zygomycetes: Reappraisal as Coherent Class Based on a Comparison between Traditional versus Molecular Systematics

Abstract
Nomenclatural Considerations
Morphological Considerations: Which Structures Exhibit Phylogenetic Relevance?
An Ordinal Structure of the Zygomycota: Historical Outline of Its Revision
References
Further Reading


FUNGI | Foodborne Fungi: Estimation by Cultural Techniques

Abstract
The Challenge of Quantifying Fungal Growth
Enumeration Techniques
Choosing a Suitable Medium
Techniques for Heat-Resistant Fungi
Techniques for Yeasts
Media Formulations
See also
Further Reading


Fusarium

Abstract
Characteristics
Methods of Detection
Methods of Identification
Regulations
See also
Further Reading




G

Genetic Engineering

Abstract
History
Basic Tools
Food-Grade Recombinant Bacteria
Microbial Products
Further Reading


Geotrichum

Abstract
Introduction
Importance of Geotrichium in the Food Industry
Methods of Detection and Enumeration
Pathogenicity
See also
Further Reading


Giardia duodenalis

Abstract
Introduction
Waterborne and Foodborne Transmission
Waterborne Giardiasis
Foodborne Giardiasis
Inactivation of Giardia Cysts in Water and Food
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


Gluconobacter

Abstract
Characteristics of the Genus Gluconobacter
Methods of Detection
Importance to the Food Industry
See also
Further Reading


Good Manufacturing Practice

Abstract
Introduction
Human Resources
Finance and Investment
Facilities
Materials and Food Ingredients
Manufacturing Control
Laboratory Control
Documentation
Transportation
New Product Development
Product Information and Consumer Awareness
Legislation and GMP
Future Developments
See also
Further Reading




H

Hafnia, The Genus

Abstract
Introduction
Taxonomy
Isolation and Identification
Epidemiology
Pathogenicity
Clinical Significance in Humans
Importance in Foods
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


Hansenula: Biology and Applications

Abstract
The Genus Hansenula: Taxonomy and Morphology
Hansenula Species Causing Human Diseases
Hansenula Species Involved in Food Production
Hansenula polymorpha: A Model Organism for Fundamental Studies
Hansenula polymorpha in Applied Research and Production
See also
References


HAZARD APPRAISAL AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) | The Overall Concept

Abstract
Introduction
The History of the HACCP System
Hazard Analysis
Critical Control Points
Monitoring
Verification and Documentation
The Role of HACCP
See also
Further Reading


HAZARD APPRAISAL AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) | Critical Control Points

Abstract
Determination of Critical Control Points
See also
Further Reading


HAZARD APPRAISAL AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) | Establishment of Performance Criteria

Abstract
Introduction
Prerequisite Programs
Implementation Steps of HACCP: Critical Limits
Microbial Criteria and Microbial Sampling
Risk-Based Food Safety Management: Process Criteria and Product Criteria
Sources of Information
See also
Further Reading


HAZARD APPRAISAL AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) | Involvement of Regulatory Bodies

Abstract
Introduction
Hazard Appraisal in the Context of Risk Analysis
Hazards of Concern in Foods
The Regulatory Bodies' Role in Hazard Appraisal
See also
Further Reading


HEAT TREATMENT OF FOODS | Action of Microwaves

Abstract
Introduction
EM Waves
Microwave versus Conventional Heating
Interaction with Food
The Microwave Oven
Microwave Heating Quantification
Microwave Phenomena
Microwaves and Microbiology
See also
Further Reading


HEAT TREATMENT OF FOODS | Principles of Canning

Abstract
Acknowledgment
Introduction
Microbiological Viewpoint
Canned Food Production
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


HEAT TREATMENT OF FOODS | Principles of Pasteurization

Abstract
Historical Origins
Basic Aims of Pasteurization
Thermal Death of Microorganisms
Modern Pasteurization Processes
Estimating the Lethality of a Pasteurization Process
See also
Further Reading


HEAT TREATMENT OF FOODS | Spoilage Problems Associated with Canning

Abstract
Introduction
The Canning Process
Spoilage of Canned Foods
Quality Assurance of Canned Foods
See also
Further Reading


HEAT TREATMENT OF FOODS | Synergy Between Treatments

Abstract
Introduction
Possible Combinations of Treatments
Evidence of Combination Effects
Effects on Microorganisms
Possible Applications
See also
Further Reading


HEAT TREATMENT OF FOODS | Ultra-High-Temperature Treatments

Abstract
Introduction
Review of Kinetic Parameters
Continuous Processing Options
Safety and Spoilage Considerations
Controlling the Process
See also
Further Reading


Helicobacter

Abstract
Introduction
Characteristics of the Genus Helicobacter
Methods to Test for H. Pylori
Routes of Transmission
Presence in Foods
See also
Further Reading


Helminths

Abstract
Introduction
Nematodes
Cestodes
Trematodes
Prevention and Cure of Infection with Foodborne Helminth Parasites
See also
Further Reading


High-Pressure Treatment of Foods

Abstract
Introduction
Nature of the Process
Applications in the Food Industry
Effect on Microbial Cells
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors Affecting Sensitivity
See also
Further Reading
Relevant Websites


History of Food Microbiology (A Brief)

Abstract
Methods
Toxins
Microbiological Control
Treatments
Summary
See also
Further Reading


Hurdle Technology

Abstract
Introduction
The Principles of Hurdle Technology
Multitarget Preservation Using Hurdle Technology
Applications of Hurdle Technology
Limitations to Hurdle Technology
The Future for Hurdle Technology
See also
Further Reading


Hydrophobic Grid Membrane Filter Techniques

Abstract
Introduction
Principles of HGMF
Counting Colonies on HGMF
Ensuring Validity of MPN
Calculating MPN per Gram
Precision of MPN
History of HGMF
Applications of HGMF to Food Microbiology
Culture-Based Applications
Coliform and E. coli Count
Yeast and Mold Count
Salmonella
Immunological and Colony Hybridization Applications
Other Possible Applications
Advantages and Limitations of HGMF
See also
Further Reading




I

Ice Cream: Microbiology

Abstract
Raw Materials: Major Components and Additives
Production Process
Microbial Changes During Storage
Ice Cream and Foodborne Diseases
See also
Further Reading


IDENTIFICATION METHODS | Introduction

Abstract
Why Identification?
Types of Microorganisms to be Identified in Food
Identification Approaches in Food Microbiology
Biochemical Identification
Molecular Identification
Strain Typing
Culture-Independent Identification
See also
Further Reading


IDENTIFICATION METHODS | Chromogenic Agars

Abstract
Introduction
See also
Further Reading


IDENTIFICATION METHODS | Culture-Independent Techniques

Abstract
Recent Trends in Food Microbiology
The Culture-Independent Methods
Applications in Food Microbiology
High-Throughput Sequencing and Metagenomics
Future Perspectives
See also
Further Reading


IDENTIFICATION METHODS | DNA Fingerprinting: Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis for Subtyping of Foodborne Pathogens

Abstract
Introduction
Restriction Fragment-Length Analysis
Technical Overview of Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis
Contour-Clamped Homogenous Electric Field
Basic Principles
Reproducibility and Standardization
Documentation of Data and Interpretation PFGE Patterns
Relevance in Foodborne Disease Investigations and Surveillance
See also
Further Reading


IDENTIFICATION METHODS | DNA Fingerprinting: Restriction Fragment-Length Polymorphism

Abstract
Overview
Genetic Basis of RFLP
RFLP Fingerprinting of Chromosomal DNA
RFLP Fingerprinting of Chromosomal DNA with Probe Hybridization
RFLP of PCR-Amplicons
Applications for RFLP Fingerprinting
Conclusion and Future Perspectives
See also
Further Reading


IDENTIFICATION METHODS | Bacteria RiboPrint (TM): A Realistic Strategy to Address Microbiological Issues outside of the Research Laboratory

Abstract
Introduction
Manual Ribotyping
Automated Ribotyping
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


IDENTIFICATION METHODS | Application of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms-Based Typing for DNA Fingerprinting of Foodborne Bacteria

Abstract
Introduction
Hybridization-Based SNP Typing
Primer Extension-Based SNP Typing
Other Types of Assays
Examples of SNP-Typing Applications in Food Microbiology
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


IDENTIFICATION METHODS | Identification Methods and DNA Fingerprinting: Whole Genome Sequencing

Abstract
Introduction
Microbial Functions Fingerprinting
Strain Fingerprinting
Species Fingerprinting
Genome In Silico Reconstruction from Metagenomic Data
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


IDENTIFICATION METHODS | Multilocus Sequence Typing of Food Microorganisms

Abstract
Design of an MLST Scheme
Isolate Collection
Housekeeping Gene Selection
Oligonucleotide Design
Isolate Characterization Using MLST
MLST Databases
Advantages and Limitations of MLST Typing Schemes
Population Studies
MLST in Food Microbiology
Foodborne Pathogens
Bacteria Involved in Food Fermentation
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
See also
Further Reading


IDENTIFICATION METHODS | DNA Hybridization and DNA Microarrays for Detection and Identification of Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens

Abstract
Introduction
Principle of Microarrays and Hybridization
Fabrication and Types of Microarrays
Printed Microarrays
Suspension Bead Arrays
In Situ Synthesized Oligonucleotide Microarrays
Experimental Procedure
Applications of DNA Microarray for the Detection of Foodborne Pathogens
Applications of DNA Microarrays for Gene Expression Studies in Foodborne Bacteria
See also
Further Reading
Relevant Websites


IDENTIFICATION METHODS | Immunoassay

Abstract
Introduction
Types and Uses of Immunoassays for Microbial Detection
Conclusion
Disclaimer
See also
Further Reading


IDENTIFICATION METHODS | Identification of Clinical Microorganisms with MALDI-TOF-MS in a Microbiology Laboratory

Abstract
Introduction
MALDI-TOF-MS
Identification by MALDI-TOF-MS in the Routine Medical Microbiology Laboratory
Outlook and Development
See also
Further Reading


IDENTIFICATION METHODS | Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis

Abstract
Introduction
MLEE Principle and Methodology
Contribution of MLEE in Population Genetics and Epidemiology of Microorganisms
Identification and Strain Typing of Pathogens by MLEE
Present Scenario of MLEE in the Molecular Era
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


IDENTIFICATION METHODS | Real-Time PCR

Abstract
Introduction
Real-Time PCR Detection Strategies
Principles of qPCR-Based Quantitative Detection
Diagnostic Real-Time PCR Parameters
Implementation of Real-Time PCR in Food Microbiology Diagnostics
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


Immunomagnetic Particle-Based Techniques: Overview

Abstract
Introduction
Principles of Immunomagnetic Separation Systems
Types of Magnetizable Particles
Immobilization of Antibodies and Types of IMS
Blocking Proteins and Antibody Immobilization
Magnetic Particle Concentrators
Factors Affecting the Performance of Immunomagnetic Separation Systems
Incubation During IMS
Washing During IMS
Principles of Combination Techniques for Foodborne Pathogens
Food Sample Preparation
Water Sample Preparation
Detection Methods
Advantages and Limitations
Future Perspectives
See also
Further Reading


Indicator Organisms

Abstract
Introduction
Target and Role of Indicator Microorganisms
Indicator Microorganisms for Food Quality
Indicator Microorganisms for Food Safety
Most Commonly Used Indicator Organisms in Foods
Other Indicators
Indicator Microorganisms Used in Microbiological Laboratories
Surrogate Microorganisms
See also
Further Reading


Injured and Stressed Cells

Abstract
Introduction
Injury of Microorganisms
References
Further Reading


Intermediate Moisture Foods

Abstract
Principles Behind Formulation of IM Foods
Traditional and Commercial IM Foods
Advantages of IM Foods
Processing Technologies of IM Foods
The Future
See also
Further Reading


International Control of Microbiology

Abstract
Introduction
Enforcement and Control Agencies and Their Role
Standardization
Future Development
See also
Further Reading




K

Klebsiella

Abstract
Background
Definition and General Physiological Properties of Klebsiella spp.
Isolation and Identification
Description of the Diseases
Occurrence of Klebsiella in Humans, Foods, Waters, and Environments
Role in Foodborne Outbreaks
Selected Virulence Factors of Klebsiella
Other Virulence Factors
Industrial Importance of Klebsiellae
Antimicrobial Resistance
Acknowledgments
See also
Further Reading


Kluyveromyces

Abstract
Characteristics of the Species
Biotechnological Importance of Kluyveromyces
See also
Further Reading




L

Laboratory Design

Abstract
Introduction
Design Objectives for the Food Microbiology Laboratory
Design Documentation
Laboratory Layout
Essential Services and Equipment
Other Types of Equipment
Management Organization
Personnel Requirements
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


Laboratory Management Systems: Accreditation Schemes

Abstract
Introduction
Accreditation Standards and Legislation
Benefits and Drawbacks of Laboratory Accreditation
Implementation of Laboratory Management Systems
See also
Further Reading


LACTOBACILLUS | Introduction

Abstract
Characteristics of the Species
Genomics
Importance to the Food Industry
Importance to the Consumer
See also
Further Reading


LACTOBACILLUS | Lactobacillus acidophilus

Abstract
Introduction
Taxonomy
Metabolism and Products
Identification and Differentiation
Genomics
Growth and Culture Conditions
Probiotic Capacity of Lactobacilli
Selection Criteria
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


LACTOBACILLUS | Lactobacillus brevis

Abstract
Taxonomy
Methods of Detection and Enumeration of L. brevis in Foods
Culture Maintenance and Conservation
Importance in the Food Industry
Importance for the Consumer
See also
Further Reading


LACTOBACILLUS | Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus

Abstract
Taxonomy
Methods of Detection and Enumeration of L. bulgaricus in Foods
Culture Maintenance and Conservation
Importance in the Food Industry
Importance for the Consumer
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


LACTOBACILLUS | Lactobacillus casei

Abstract
General Characteristics of the Species
Metabolism and Enzymes
Genetics and Bacteriophages
Application in Food Fermentations
Food Spoilage
Probiotics
See also
Further Reading


LACTOCOCCUS | Introduction

Abstract
Characteristics
Genomics
Importance to the Food Industry
See also
Further Reading


LACTOCOCCUS | Lactococcus lactis Subspecies lactis and cremoris

Abstract
Introduction
General Information
Ecological Considerations
Health, Disease, and Safety
Taxonomy, Genetic, Genomic, Transcryptomic, and Proteomic
Metabolism of Lc. lactis
Growth Conditions in Milk, Culture Media
Roles of Lc. lactis in Technology
Conclusion
See also
Further Reading


Lasers: Inactivation Techniques

Abstract
Introduction
Applications
Laser Characteristics
Protocols, Methodologies, and Results
Scanning Laser Beams
Laser Inactivation and Substrate Material
Effect of Environmental Parameters on Laser Inactivation
Laser and Combined Treatments
See also
Further Reading


Leuconostocaceae Family

Abstract
Introduction
Taxonomy of the Leuconostocaceae
Leuconostocaceae in their Natural Environment
Detection and Enumeration of Leuconostocaceae in Beverages and Foods
Importance of Leuconostocaceae in the Food Industry
See also
Further Reading


LISTERIA | Introduction

Abstract
Characteristics of the Species
Genome
Methods of Detection
Regulations
Importance to the Food Industry
Importance to the Consumer
See also
Further Reading


LISTERIA | Detection by Classical Cultural Techniques

Abstract
Introduction
Detection of L. monocytogenes by Cultural Methods
Implementation of Detection and Enumeration of L. monocytogenes in Food
See also
Further Reading


LISTERIA | Detection by Colorimetric DNA Hybridization

Abstract
Introduction
Principle of the DNAH Assays for the Genus Listeria and for L. monocytogenes
Protocols for the DNAH Detection of Listeria Species or L. monocytogenes and Point of Application in the Cultural Techniques
Advantages and Limitations of the Colorimetric DNA Hybridization Method Compared with other Techniques
Validated Results
Summary
Acknowledgment
See also
Further Reading


LISTERIA | Detection by Commercial Immunomagnetic Particle-Based Assays and by Commercial Enzyme Immunoassays

Abstract
Introduction
Methods of Detection
Immunosensors for Listeria Detection
Future Trends
Acknowledgment
See also
Further Reading


LISTERIA | Listeria monocytogenes

Abstract
Characteristics of the Species
Virulence
Occurrence in Food
Foodborne Illness
Detection of L. monocytogenes
Serology
Other Typing Methods
Genomics
See also
Further Reading


LISTERIA | Listeria monocytogenes - Detection by Chemiluminescent DNA Hybridization

Abstract
Principle of the Gen-Probe Assay for L. monocytogenes
Protocol for the Detection of L. monocytogenes and Point of Application in the Cultural Techniques
Advantages and Limitations of the Chemiluminescent Probe Compared with Other Techniques
Results and Reported Data on Collaborative Evaluations and Validations
See also
Further Reading




M

MEAT AND POULTRY | Curing of Meat

Abstract
Introduction
Historical Background
Curing Reaction in Meats
Mechanism of Action against Microorganisms
Processing Methods
Naturally Cured Products
Preservation of Cured Meat Products
Shelf-Stable
Cured Meat and Human Health
See also
Further Reading


MEAT AND POULTRY | Spoilage of Cooked Meat and Meat Products

Abstract
Introduction
Heat Processed Meat
Processed Meats
Packaged Meat Products
Chemical Spoilage
See also
Further Reading


MEAT AND POULTRY | Spoilage of Meat

Abstract
Introduction
Special Problems Associated with Meat
Further Reading
Relevant Websites


METABOLIC PATHWAYS | Lipid Metabolism

Abstract
Lipids in Fungi and Bacteria
Major Lipid Classes
Biochemical Mechanisms of Uptake
Transformations Within the Cell
Incorporation of Fatty Acids into Triglycerides and other Intracellular Structures
See also
Further Reading


METABOLIC PATHWAYS | Metabolism of Minerals and Vitamins

Abstract
Introduction
Uptake of Minerals by Bacteria
Mechanisms for Incorporation of Minerals into Enzymes
Heavy-Metal Efflux Systems and Metallothionein
Biosynthesis and Uptake of Vitamins
See also
Further Reading


METABOLIC PATHWAYS | Nitrogen Metabolism

Abstract
Introduction
Inorganic Nitrogen Metabolism
Amino Acid Metabolism
Nucleotide Metabolism
See also
Further Reading


METABOLIC PATHWAYS | Production of Secondary Metabolites of Bacteria

Abstract
Introduction
The Effect of Secondary Metabolites on Food Products and Foodborne Illness
Beneficial Effects of Bacterial Secondary Metabolites
Assembly of NRP Molecules
Type I Polyketide Synthases
Type II Polyketide Synthase
Type III Polyketide Synthase
Shikimate Pathway
ss-Lactam Ring Synthetic Pathways
Conclusion
Disclaimer
Acknowledgments
See also
Further Reading


METABOLIC PATHWAYS | Production of Secondary Metabolites - Fungi

Abstract
Introduction
Characteristics of Secondary Metabolites
Metabolic Pathway for Secondary Metabolites
Transformation within Cells
Antibiotics
Penicillins
Synthetic Pathway and Regulation of Penicillin Formation
Industrial Production of Penicillin
Cephalosporins
Synthetic Pathway of Cephalosporins in Fungi
Industrial Production of Cephalosporins
Fusidic Acid
Biosynthetic Pathway of Fusidic Acid
Applications of Fusidic Acid
Griseofulvin
Biosynthesis of Griseofulvin
Commercial Production
Applications of Griseofulvin
Pleuromutilin (Tiamulin)
Production of Pleuromutilin
Applications of Pleuromutilin
Other Secondary Metabolites
Fungal Secondary Metabolites in Fermented Foods
Meat Products
Production of Secondary Metabolites in Meat Products
Cheeses
Secondary Metabolites in Cheese
Secondary Metabolites in Soy Sauce
See also
Further Reading


METABOLIC PATHWAYS | Release of Energy (Aerobic)

Abstract
Introduction
Transport into the Cell
Active Transport: Symport of Sugars
Group Translocation: PTS
EMP Pathway
ED Pathway
Pentose-Phosphate (PP) and Pentose-Phosphoketolase Pathways
Pentose-Phosphoketolase Pathway
Glycolytic Pathways in Archaea
Energy Balance and Distribution of the Glucose-Degrading Pathways
Oxidation of Pyruvate to Acetyl-Coenzyme A
The Citric Acid Cycle
Other Substrates as Sources for Metabolic Activity
See also
Further Reading


METABOLIC PATHWAYS | Release of Energy (Anaerobic)

Abstract
Metabolism and Microorganisms
Bacterial Growth during Fermentation
Substrates Utilized by Bacteria and Fungi
Mechani
show more

Review Text

"...a multi-author comprehensive treatise on the very specific field of food microbiology--the preparation of fermented foods, food preservation, and the analysis and prevention of food spoiling. Substantial articles or groups of articles are devoted to each of the different groups of microorganisms involved, each of the various analytical and preparative techniques, and each of the various foods...Clear and authoritative presentations cover the expected topics..." -D. Goodman in CHOICE (September 2000)

"Food microbiology is a topic of increasing concern to the general public; everything from the genetic modification of crops to food safety in packing plants is now in the news. This three-volume encyclopedia pulls it all together for those with a casual interest in how cheese is produced to those looking for information on the effectiveness of ultrasound in killing salmonella on chicken skin...Essential for any library supporting the food industry or related research fields; larger public libraries that have the budget should also acquire." -Eric D. Albright, Duke Medical Center Library, for LIBRARY JOURNAL (April 2000)
"...a multi-author comprehensive treatise on the very specific field of food microbiology--the preparation of fermented foods, food preservation, and the analysis and prevention of food spoiling. Substantial articles or groups of articles are devoted to each of the different groups of microorganisms involved, each of the various analytical and preparative techniques, and each of the various foods...Clear and authoritative presentations cover the expected topics..." -D. Goodman in CHOICE (September 2000)

"Food microbiology is a topic of increasing concern to the general public; everything from the genetic modification of crops to food safety in packing plants is now in the news. This three-volume encyclopedia pulls it all together for those with a casual interest in how cheese is produced to those looking for information on the effectiveness of ultrasound in killing salmonella on chicken skin...Essential for any library supporting the food industry or related research fields; larger public libraries that have the budget should also acquire." -Eric D. Albright, Duke Medical Center Library, for LIBRARY JOURNAL (April 2000)
show more

Review quote

"...this marvellous, comprehensive, bang up-to-date, publication sets a new standard for text books and is a must for any library...it will be an invaluable resource for microbiologists and students everywhere. I tried it out on a range of subjects and it nearly always came up trumps...If you are a food microbiologist, serious consider obtaining this book. Seemingly expensive, the amount of use it will get compared with other books makes it good value."
- Microbiology Today

"Essential for any library supporting the food industry or related research fields; larger public libraries that have the budget should also acquire."
- Library Journal
show more

About Carl A. Batt

Editor-in-Chief of Academic Press Food Microbiology.
show more

Rating details

1 ratings
5 out of 5 stars
5 100% (1)
4 0% (0)
3 0% (0)
2 0% (0)
1 0% (0)
Book ratings by Goodreads
Goodreads is the world's largest site for readers with over 50 million reviews. We're featuring millions of their reader ratings on our book pages to help you find your new favourite book. Close X