The Encyclopaedia Britannica; A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and General Literature, with New Maps and Original American Articles by Eminent Writers Volume 11
This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can usually download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1895 edition. Excerpt: ...refuge one cable-length, which would give about four vessels per acre. Captain Calver allows three vessels per acre for a small sheltered harbour of refuge. At Cardiff Flats there were at one time 224 vessels anchored as close tc each other as they could well be, in an open roadstead, and occupying a space of 560 acres, which would give 0'4 vessel per acre. ' Tidal Harbours. We have hitherto been considering outer brealrwatsrs erected in deep water, and which are constantly exposed to the waves; we now turn to piers and sea-walls which are placed within the range of the breaking surf, and which are exposed to its force for a limited period only, being sometimes left nearly or altogether dry by the receding tide. In dealing with waves which are admitted by all to exert _a true percussive force, the question arises as to how this force may be best resisted--whether by opposing to it dead weight, or a comparatively light structure, the stability of which is dependent on strong fixtures connecting it with the bottom. On this subject the late Mr Alan Stevenson made the following remarks, in relation to lighthouse towers, but his views are equally applicable to piers and breakwaters: -' "Aprimary inquiry inregard to towers in an exposed situation is the question-whether their stability should depend upon their strength or their weight, or, in other words, on their cohesion or their inertia? In preferring weight to strength we more closely follow the course ointed out by the analogy of nature, and this must not be regarded as a more notional advantage, for the more close the analogy between nature and our works the less diiliculty we shall experience in passing from nature to art, and the more directly will our observations on natural...
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