Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Emmanuel Liais (15 February 1826-5 March 1900) was a French astronomer, botanist and explorer who spent many years in Brazil. He was born in Cherbourg, the son of a wealthy family in the shipbuilding industry. He was an amateur scientist and made some meteorological observations and wrote some papers. The astronomer Fran ois Arago took note of one of his papers written in 1852, which determined that the weather in his hometown was milder than that of Paris. He then went to Paris in 1854 and worked at the Paris Observatory. There he assisted Urbain Le Verrier in creating a telegraphic meteorological network. He went to Brazil to observe the solar eclipse of September 7, 1858 and ended up staying there for a long time. He became a close acquaintance of the Brazilian Emperor Dom Pedro II, and became the director of the Imperial Observatory at Rio de Janeiro from January to July 1871 and again from 1874 to 1881.