While public-private partnerships in education in the United States have received a lot of attention, research on such partnerships elsewhere has been limited-even though such partnerships have been steadily gaining prominence, particularly in developing countries. Aiming to fill this gap, this book presents fresh, technically sound empirical evidence on the effectiveness and cost of various public-private education partnerships from around the world, including voucher programs and faith-based schools. The evidence on the impact in terms of school performance, targeting, and cost of public-private partnerships is mixed. Some evidence suggests that voucher schools outperform public schools, but the difference between both types of schools is not as large as one might think, and is often smaller than simple statistics suggest. Evidence on faith-based schools tends to show slightly better performance than public schools, but this is not the case in all countries. While in some countries faith-based schools reach the poor better than public schools, in other countries the reverse is observed. As for the private costs of education, evidence shows that costs depend on the systems in place in each country, but that when school choice is limited, parents can still influence the performance of their children through private expenditure for tutoring. More rigorous studies on such partnerships, particularly in developing countries, are necessary.