The Elements of Physical Chemistry

The Elements of Physical Chemistry

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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can usually download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1908 edition. Excerpt: ...calculations see Bodenstein and Pohl (Zeit. f. Elektrochem., 11, 373, 1905, and Lewis (Jour. Am. Chem. Soc, 28, 1380, 1906). B. Chemical K1netics 63. Application of the law of mass action.--Thus far we have only considered the equilibrium which is attained afler the reaction has come to rest, i.e., after the two sides bear a constant relation to one another. The question now arises as to the progress of a reaction toward this state, and the factors upon which the time necessary to attain it depends. By aid of the law of mass action, it is possible to find an answer to both portions of this question. Since chemical action at any time, according to it (p. 238), is proportional, for constant temperature, to the active masses of the substances present, i.e., to those portions which are free to act, then, when we have two substances reacting, the concentrations being a and a2 moles per liter, dx jj-k(ai-x)(a2-x), where x is the fraction of a mole of each which decomposes in the time /. The term k in this equation is known as the speed constant of the reaction, and is constant at any one temperature for any value of x in the reaction in question. Suppose we have the reversible reaction Ai+Aa Ai'+Aa', which after a time attains a state of equilibrium in which all four products are present. The relative amounts of these are dependent upon the value of Kc for this reaction at this temperature according to the relation If we start with ai moles of Ai and a2 moles of A2, then dx? where-7-is the velocity in the opposite direction. Starting with the substances on either side, then, those on the other will exert an ever-increasing influence upon the velocity due to the initial substances, and this velocity must decrease continually. Finally, more

Product details

  • Paperback | 112 pages
  • 189 x 246 x 6mm | 213g
  • United States
  • English
  • black & white illustrations
  • 1236769546
  • 9781236769541