Elements of the Comparative Grammar of the Indo-Germanic Languages
This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can usually download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1888 edition. Excerpt: ...me more prudent not to separate the change gh: g from the cases hit: b and dh: d. With these it is hardly possible to start from a spirant, which is homogeneous with the V Aryan. 470. The difference between the Indg. forms of articulation was still preserved in the period of the Aryan prim, community. The palatals R, g, gh appeared as s-sounds: i, z, zh ( 396). Indg. d'dh) ( 469, 4) probably then became zd(h), e. g. dazdhi = Indg. ded'dhi give' imper., and thus fell entirely together with Indg. zah) ( 590. 591). See 476. The order med. asp. + t, s--which is etymologically to be postulated--was represented by med. (or voiced spirant)-fdh, zh ( 469, 6. 552): bdh, d'dh, gdh, idh and bzh, dzh, gzh, zzh. For the further history of these combinations in Aryan see 482. The Sanskrit separate development left the Indg. forms of articulation separate. In Iranian the mediae asp. became mediae and zh became z. These sounds thus fell entirely together with the Indg. mediae. Rem. 2. Indg.-st and Indg.-ft remained separate in Av. also when final. The former appears as-s (after a-vowels), the latter as-st, e. g. 3. sg. imperf. as 'erat' Skr. Ved. as prim. Ar. ast Indg. est (Gr. Dor. jj;), 3. sg. imperf. hisast fr. rt. sed 'sit' fr. Indg. si-set"t, that is, si-sed--t. Cp. Bartholomae Handb. 139-141, Ar. Forsoh. II 78 f. 3. Prim. Ar. k. Av. yuxta-'yoked: Skr. yuktd-. A v. suxra-'red' O.Pers. puxra-a proper name: Skr. Suk-rd-'bright, white'. For further examples see 447. 4. Prim. Ar. c was regular before no consonant except i. Av. &y O.Pers. sy. Av. iyao-pna-'deed, work' O.Pers. a-Siyavam-&iy-=-y-) 'I went, walked' Skr. cydv-a-te 'stirs, moves'. Cp. 448....
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