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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can usually download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1911 edition. Excerpt: ...is exceedingly simple in construction. The mixture of air and ammonia obtained by sucking air through the ammonia water of gas works, to which lime has been added, enters at one extremity of a wide tube. It finds its exit through a narrower tube, open at the other extremity of the wider inclosing tube, extending through the entire length of the latter, in an axial line, and terminating in an absorption chamber. The catalytic material is placed in the inner tube. This arrangement, that of the reverse current, enables the air-ammonia mixture to regulate automatically the temperature of the reaction, and prevent it from becoming too violent. The air current is sucked through ammonia solutions of constantly increasing strength, so as gradually to exhaust them, and the heat of the reaction is transferred to these solutions. The temperature is kept at a dull-red heat. The construction is thus comparatively simple. The controlling factor is the rapidity of the gas current, which must be so regulated as to avoid, on the one hand, too long contact with the catalytic substance and a consequent formation of nitrogen and water, and on the other, an insufficient opportunity for nearly all of the ammonia present to participate in the reaction. Thus far it has not been possible to oxidize more than 85 per cent of the ammonia to nitrous and nitric oxides. Ostwald has found it advantageous to regulate the operation so that only one-half of the ammonia should be converted into nitric acid, and that this should combine with the remaining half to form ammonium nitrate, NH4NOa. This salt is admirably adapted for use as a fertilizer. It contains 35 per cent of nitrogen (ammonium sulphate, 20 to 21 per cent; Chile saltpeter, 15.5 per cent), and hence there is a...show more

Product details

  • Paperback | 178 pages
  • 189 x 246 x 10mm | 327g
  • Rarebooksclub.com
  • United States
  • English
  • black & white illustrations
  • 1236744225
  • 9781236744227