Excerpt from Educational Periodicals During the Nineteenth Century
School journals, in the restricted sense of periodicals for teachers as a class, could not exist before there was a well-defined and somewhat professionally minded teaching group. As in other social instrumentalities, progressive spe cialization is in evidence, and the origin of technical pedagogical literature must be sought in general works devoting a varying degree of attention to schools, teachers, and education. In looking for historical precedents for educational periodicals in the United States, it is possible to go back for beginnings at least a hundred years before any such publications were actually established in this country. A careful study of that phase of the subject would show that many characteristics of certain earlier works have persisted in their specialized descendants; even a brief survey may call attention to some of the inheritances. As most direct inﬂuence has come from England, Germany, and France, begin hings in these alone will be brieﬂy noted.
The first important periodical which showed a general educational purpose was the Tatler (1709 followed by the Spectator (1711 and later in England by a host of works of varying degrees of excellence, but usually lacking in the strong qualities of Steele and Addison. In rather direct imita tion of the early English periodicals of this class, similar publications (moral ische Wochenschriften) began to appear in Germany in and one writer has listed more than 500 published among German-speaking peoples before the nineteenth century was well begun. Frequently these were conducted by asso ciations of/ men devoted to literary and social betterment; they were exceedingly important in the intellectual progress of middle-class Germany. Many of them made use of catechetical and other didactic forms of discourse, letters, poetry, and highly moralized stories.
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