Doing Philosophy : An Introduction Through Thought Experiments
"Doing Philosophy" helps students understand the nature and purpose of philosophical inquiry, by explaining what philosophical problems are, how they can be solved, and why searching for solutions is important. By acquainting students with philosophical theories and the thought experiments used to test them, this text fosters active learning and helps students become better thinkers.
- Hardback | 576 pages
- 190.5 x 236.22 x 25.4mm | 1,043.26g
- 01 Sep 2002
- McGraw-Hill Education - Europe
- Mayfield Publishing Co ,U.S.
- United States
- 2nd Revised edition
Table of contents
PrefaceCHAPTER 1 The Philosophical EnterpriseSection 1.1 Explaining the Possibility of the Impossible: Philosophical Problems and TheoriesPhilosophical ProblemsThe Stakes in Philosophical InquiryThe Mind-Body ProblemThe Problem of Free WillThe Problem of Personal IdentityThe Problem of Moral RelativismThe Problem of EvilThe Problem of SkepticismNecessary and Sufficient ConditionsSocrates and the Socratic MethodScience and the Scientific MethodLogical versus Causal PossibilitySection 1.2 Evidence and Inference: Proving your PointDeductive ArgumentsInductive ArgumentsInformal FallaciesSection 1.3 The Laboratory of the Mind: Thought ExperimentsHow Are Thought Experiments Possible?Criticizing Thought ExperimentsConceivability and PossibilityScientific Thought ExperimentsReadings:C. J. Ducasse, "The Place of Philosophy in a University Education"Brand Blanshard, "The Philosophic Enterprise"Robert Nozick, "Philosophy as an Art Form"CHAPTER 2 The Mind-Body ProblemSection 2.1 The Ghost in the Machine: Mind as SoulDescartes's DoubtI Think, Therefore I AmThe Conceivability ArgumentThe Divisibility ArgumentThe Causal Impotence of the MentalThe Causal Closure of the PhysicalThe Problem of Other MindsSection 2.2 You Are What You Eat: Mind as BodyEmpiricismLogical PositivismLogical BehaviorismThe Identity TheorySection 2.3 I, Robot: Mind as SoftwareArtificial IntelligenceFunctionalism and FeelingThe Turing TestIntentionalitySection 2.4 There Ain't No Such Thing as Ghosts: Mind as MythFolk PsychologySubjective KnowledgeSection 2.5 The Whole is Greater Than the Sum of Its Parts: Mind as QualityPrimitive IntentionalityMental DependenceDownward CausationReadings:Rene Descartes, "Meditations on First Philosophy: Meditations I and II"Richard Taylor, "Materialism vs. Dualism"Alan Turing, "The Imitation Game"David Chalmers, "The Puzzle of Concious Experience"Thomas D. Davis, "Strange Behavior"CHAPTER 3 Free Will and DeterminismSection 3.1 The Luck of the Draw: Freedom as ChanceHard DeterminismIndeterminismSection 3.2 The Mother of Invention: Freedom as NecessityTraditional CompatibilismHierarchical CompatibilismSection 3.3 Control Yourself: Freedom as Self-DeterminationThe Case for FreedomAgent-CausationReadings:Robert Blatchford, "The Delusion of Free Will"W. T. Stace, "The Problem of Free Will"Robert Nozick, "Choice and Indeterminism"Thomas D. Davis, "Please Don't Tell Me How the Story Ends"CHAPTER 4 The Problem of Personal IdentitySection 4.1 We Are Such Stuff as Dreams are Made On: Self as SubstanceAnimalismThe Soul TheorySection 4.2 Golden Memories: Self as PsycheThe Memory TheoryThe Reduplication ProblemSection 4.3 You Can't Step into the Same River Twice: Self as ProcessThe Brain TheorySplit BrainsClosest Continuer TheoriesIdentity and What Matters in SurvivalIdentity and What Matters in ResponsibilityExplaining the SelfReadings:John Locke, "Of Identity and Diversity"Thomas Reid, "On Mr. Locke's Account of Personal Identity"Derek Parfit, "Divided Minds and the Nature of Persons"Ray Kurzweil, "Live Forever"CHAPTER 5 The Problem of Relativism and MoralitySection 5.1 Don't Question Authority: Might Makes RightSubjective AbsolutismSubjective RelativismEmotivismCultural RelativismThe Divine Command TheoryAre There Universal Moral Principles?Section 5.2 The End Justifies the Means: Good Makes RightEthical EgoismAct-UtilitarianismRule-UtilitarianismSection 5.3 Much Obliged: Duty Makes RightKant's Categorical ImperativeRoss's Prima Facie DutiesRawls's ContractarianismNozick's LibertarianismThe Social ContractThe Ethics of CareMaking Ethical DecisionsSection 5.4 Character is Destiny: Virtue Makes RightThe Virtuous UtilitarianThe Virtuous KantianThe Purpose of MoralityAristotle on VirtueMacIntyre on VirtueVirtue EthicsReadings:W. T. Stace, "Are Ethical Values Relative?"Jeremy Bentham, "Of the Principle of Utility"Immanuel Kant, "Good Will, Duty, and the Categorical Imperative"John Rawls, "The Original Position and Justification"Ursula K. Leguin, "The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas"CHAPTER 6 The Problem of Evil and the Existence of GodSection 6.1 The Mysterious Universe: God as CreatorThe Traditional Cosmological ArgumentThe Kalam Cosmological ArgumentThe Teleological ArgumentThe Argument from MiraclesThe Argument from Religious ExperienceThe Ontological ArgumentPascal's WagerThe Meaning of LifeThe VerdictSection 6.2 When Bad Things Happen to Good People: God as TroublemakerThe Ontological DefenseThe Knowledge DefenseThe Free-Will DefenseThe Ideal-Humanity DefenseThe Soul-Building DefenseThe Finite-God DefenseThe Leap of FaithReligion Without GodReadings:St. Thomas Aquinas, "The Five Ways"David Hume, "Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion"B.C. Johnson, "God and the Problem of Evil"Michael Martin, "The Miracle Sleuth"CHAPTER 7 The Problem of Skepticism and KnowledgeSection 7.1 Things Aren't Always What They Seem: Skepticism about SkepticismCartesian DoubtCartesian CertaintyReasonable DoubtSection 7.2 Facing Reality: Perception and the External WorldDirect RealismRepresentative RealismPhenomenalismSection 7.3 What Do You Know? Knowing What Knowledge IsThe Defeasibility TheoryThe Causal TheoryThe Reliability TheoryThe Explanationist TheoryReadings:Rene Descartes, "Meditations on First Philosophy: Meditation IV"George Berkeley, "Of the Principles of Human Knowledge"Edmund L. Gettier, "Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?"Thomas D. Davis, "Why Don't You Just Wake Up!"NotesCreditsIndex