Introduction. Part 1: A New Technology for the 20th Century. High Pressure Industrial Chemistry: The First Steps, 1909-1913, and the Impact; A.S. Travis. Part 2: The Impact and Burden of World War I. Chemistry for King and Kaiser: Revisiting Chemical Enterprise and the European War; R.M. MacLeod. `Productive Collateral' or `Economic Sense?': BASF under French Occupation, 1919-1923; L. Meinzer. Part 3: Science and Industry. Basic Research in Industry: Two Case Studies at I.G. Farbenindustrie AG in the 1920s and 1930s; C. Reinhardt. Ambros, Reppe, and the Emergence of Heavy Organic Chemicals in Germany, 1925-1945; P.J.T. Morris. The Development of Chemical Industry in Sweden and the Contribution of Academic Chemistry after 1900; A. Lundgren. Selling Science: Dutch Debates on the Industrial Significance of University Chemistry, 1903-1932; G.J. Somsen. Part 4: Different Routes to Competitive Advantages. Modernizing Industrial Organic Chemistry: Great Britain between Two World Wars; A.S. Travis. Scaling Up: The Evolution of Intellectual Apparatus Associated with the Manufacture of Heavy Chemicals in Britain, 1900-1939; C. Divall, S. Johnston. The Use of Measuring and Controlling Instruments in the Chemical Industry in Great Britain and the USA During the Period 1900-1939; S. Bennett. Norwegian Capitalists and the Fertiliser Business: The Case of Hafslund and the Odda Process; K. Sogner. The Swiss Pharmaceutical Industry: The Impact of Industrial Property Rights and Trust in the Laboratory, 1907-1939; J. Tanner. Part 5: State Intervention and Industrial Autarky. Technical Change in the Italian Chemical Industry: Markets, Firms and State Intervention; R. Petri. The Frustrated Rise of Spanish Chemical Industry Between the Wars; N. Puig. The Take-Off Phase of Danish Chemical Industry, ca. 1910 1940; H. Kragh. Neglected Potential? The Emergence of the Finnish Chemical Industry, 1900 1939; T. Myllyntaus. Contributors. Abbreviations. Index.