Designing and Deploying 802.11 Wireless Networks

Designing and Deploying 802.11 Wireless Networks : A Practical Guide to Implementing 802.11n and 802.11ac Wireless Networks For Enterprise-Based Applications

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Designing and Deploying 802.11 Wireless Networks Second Edition A Practical Guide to Implementing 802.11n and 802.11ac Wireless Networks For Enterprise-Based Applications Plan, deploy, and operate high-performance 802.11ac and 802.11n wireless networks The new 802.11ac standard enables WLANs to deliver significantly higher performance. Network equipment manufacturers have refocused on 802.11ac- and 802.11n-compliant solutions, rapidly moving older versions of 802.11 toward "legacy" status. Now, there's a complete guide to planning, designing, installing, testing, and supporting 802.11ac and 802.11n wireless networks in any environment, for virtually any application. Jim Geier offers practical methods, tips, and recommendations that draw on his decades of experience deploying wireless solutions and shaping wireless standards. He carefully introduces 802.11ac's fundamentally different design, site survey, implementation, and network configuration techniques, helping you maximize performance and avoid pitfalls. Geier organizes each phase of WLAN deployment into clearly defined steps, making the entire planning and deployment process easy to understand and execute. He illuminates key concepts and methods through realistic case studies based on current Cisco products, while offering tips and techniques you can use with any vendor's equipment. To build your skills with key tasks, you'll find several hands-on exercises relying on free or inexpensive tools. Whether you're deploying an entirely new wireless network or migrating from older equipment, this guide contains all the expert knowledge you'll need to succeed. Jim Geier has 30 years of experience planning, designing, analyzing and implementing communications, wireless, and mobile systems. Geier is founder and Principal Consultant of Wireless-Nets, Ltd., providing wireless analysis and design services to product manufacturers. He is also president, CEO, and co-founder of Health Grade Networks, providing wireless network solutions to hospitals, airports, and manufacturing facilities. His books include the first edition of Designing and Deploying 802.11n Wireless Networks (Cisco Press); as well as Implementing 802.1X Security Solutions and Wireless Networking Handbook. Geier has been active in the IEEE 802.11 Working Group and Wi-Fi Alliance; has chaired the IEEE Computer Society (Dayton Section) and various conferences; and served as expert witness in patent litigation related to wireless and cellular technologies. Review key 802.11 concepts, applications, markets, and technologiesCompare ad hoc, mesh, and infrastructure WLANs and their componentsConsider the impact of radio signal interference, security vulnerabilities, multipath propagation, roaming, and battery limitationsThoroughly understand today's 802.11 standards in the context of actual network deployment and supportPlan your deployment: scoping, staffing, schedules, budgets, risks, feasibility analysis, and requirementsArchitect access networks and distribution system for maximum reliability, manageability, and performanceMake the right tradeoffs and decisions to optimize range, performance, and roamingSecure WLANs via encryption, authentication, rogue AP detection, RF shielding, and policiesMaster design and site survey tools and methods for planning 802.11ac networks and migrationsEfficiently install and test any 802.11ac or 802.11n wireless networkEstablish specialized support for wireless networks, including help desk operationsSystematically troubleshoot connectivity, performance, and roaming issuesDesign efficient mesh networks and city-wide deploymentsshow more

Product details

  • Hardback | 512 pages
  • 186 x 234 x 36mm | 1,020.58g
  • Pearson Education (US)
  • Cisco Press
  • Indianapolis, United States
  • English
  • 2nd edition
  • 1587144301
  • 9781587144301
  • 536,155

About Jim Geier

Jim Geier has 30 years' experience planning, designing, analyzing, and implementing communications systems, wireless networks, and mobile devices. Jim is founder and principal consultant of Wireless-Nets, Ltd., providing wireless analysis and design services to product manufacturers. He is also president and CEO and co-founder of Health Grade Networks, providing wireless network solutions to hospitals, airports, and manufacturing facilities. Jim is the author of more than a dozen books on mobile and wireless topics, including Designing and Deploying 802.11n Wireless Networks (Cisco Press), Implementing 802.1X Security Solutions (Wiley), Wireless Networking Handbook (New Riders), and Network Re-engineering (McGraw-Hill). He has been an active participant in IEEE standards organizations, such as the IEEE 802.11 Working Group and the Wi-Fi Alliance. He has served as chairman of the IEEE Computer Society, Dayton Section, and various conferences. He has served as a testifying expert for patent litigation cases focusing on technologies dealing with wireless networking and cellular systems. You can e-mail Jim Geier at more

Table of contents

Introduction xxvPart I: Fundamental ConceptsChapter 1 Introduction to Wireless LANs 1Wireless LAN Markets and Applications 1Retail 2Warehousing 2Healthcare 4Hospitality 5Voice over WLAN 5Video Surveillance 6Home and Small Office 7General Enterprise Systems 8Location-Aware Wireless Applications 8Benefits of Wireless Networks 10Mobility 10Installation in Difficult-to-Wire Areas 11Increased Reliability 11Reduced Installation Time 12Long-Term Cost Savings 12Productivity Gain Is the Answer 12Wireless LAN Technologies 14Initial 802.11 16802.11a 16802.11b 16802.11g 17Current Standards: 802.11n and 802.11ac 18Comparison of 802.11 Standards 19Wi-Fi Certification 19Wireless LANs: A Historical Perspective 21 The Early Days 21Initial 802.11 Standardization 22802.11n and 802.11ac Standardization 23Summary 25 Chapter 2 Radio Wave Fundamentals 27Radio Wave Attributes 27Amplitude 28 Frequency 28Phase 29RF System Components 29RF Transceiver 29RF Modulation 30 Amplitude-Shift Keying 31 Frequency-Shift Keying 32 Phase-Shift Keying 33 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation 33Spread Spectrum 33Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing 36RF Signal Propagation 36Attenuation 37 Free Space Loss 37 Physical Obstacles 38Multipath Propagation 39Noise and Signal-to-Noise Ratio 39RF Mathematics 41Converting Units 41Summary 42Chapter 3 Wireless LAN Types and Components 43Types of Wireless LANs 43Ad Hoc Wireless LANs 43Infrastructure Wireless LANs 45 Wireless Mesh Networks 48Wireless LAN Components 50Client Devices 50Client Radio 51 Industry Standard Architecture 53 Peripheral Component Interconnect 54 Mini-PCI 54 PC Card 54 ExpressCard 55 CompactFlash 55 Universal Serial Bus 55Access Points 56 Autonomous Access Points 56 Controller-Based Access Points 57Wi-Fi Routers 58Mesh Nodes 60Antennas 60RF Amplifiers 62Repeaters 63Bridges 64Network Infrastructure Components 65Network Distribution Systems 65 Switches 65 Optical Fiber 67Power over Ethernet 67Application Connectivity Software 70 Terminal Emulation 70 Browser-Based Approaches 71 Direct Database Interfaces 72 Wireless Middleware 72Summary 74Chapter 4 Wireless LAN Implications 75Security Vulnerabilities 75Passive Monitoring 76Unauthorized Access 79Unauthorized Access Leads to Compromise of Financial Data 82Denial-of-Service Attacks 83Radio Signal Interference 85Microwave Oven Interference 86Cordless Phone Interference 88Bluetooth Interference 90Neighboring Wireless LAN Interference 92Impacts of Multipath Propagation 95Roaming Issues 96Battery Limitations 97Interoperability Problems 98Installation Issues 98Summary 99Part II: The 802.11 StandardChapter 5 Introduction to IEEE 802.11 and Related Standards 101The Importance of Standards 101Types of Standards 102Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 103Benefits of the 802.11 Standard 104 Appliance Interoperability 104 Fast Product Development 105 Stable Future Migration 105 Price Reductions 106 Avoiding Silos 106The IEEE 802 LAN Standards Family 107802.11 MAC Sublayer 109802.11 Physical Layer 110 IEEE 802.2 110 Unacknowledged Connectionless Service 111 Connection-Oriented Service 112 Continuous ARQ 113 Stop-and-Wait ARQ 114 Acknowledged Connectionless Service 115IEEE 802.11 Features 116Station Services 117 Authentication 117 Deauthentication 118 Privacy 118Distribution System Services 118 Association 118 Disassociation 118 Distribution 118 Integration 119 Re-association 119Station States and Corresponding Frame Types 119Summary 121Chapter 6 IEEE 802.11 Medium Access Control (MAC) Layer 123Primary 802.11 MAC Layer Functions 123Data Delivery 124Medium Access 125 Distributed Coordination Function 126 Hybrid Coordination Function 127Error Recovery 129 Data Frame Acknowledgements 129 Dynamic Rate Switching 130Data Frame Aggregation 131 MSDU Aggregation 132 MPDU Aggregation 132Data Frame Fragmentation 132Encryption 134 Wired Equivalent Privacy 134 Temporal Key Integrity Protocol 135CCMP 136Multicasting 136Connectivity 138Scanning for Networks 138Authentication 140 Open System Authentication 140 Shared Key Authentication 141 IEEE 802.1X Port-Based Authentication 142Associating with the Access Point 1434-Way Handshake 145Timing and Synchronization 145Short IFS 146PCF IFS 146DCF IFS 147Extended IFS 147RTS/CTS 147Power Management 149802.11 MAC Frame Structures 150Protocol Version Field 150Type Field 150 Subtype Field 151To DS Field 152From DS Field 152More Frag Field 152Retry Field 153Power Management Field 153More Data Field 153Protected Frame Field 153Order Field 153Duration/ID Field 153Address 1, 2, 3, and 4 Fields 154Sequence Control Field 154QoS Control Field 155HT Control Field 155Frame Body Field 155Frame Check Sequence Field 155MAC Frame Types 156Management Frames 156 Association Request Frame 156 Association Response Frame 156 Re-association Request Frame 157 Re-association Response Frame 157 Probe Request Frame 157 Probe Response Frame 157 Beacon Frame 157 ATIM Frame 159 Disassociation Frame 159 Authentication Frame 159 Deauthentication Frame 160 Action Frame 160 Action No ACK Frame 160 Management Frame Body Contents 160Control Frames 162 Control Wrapper Frame 162 Block ACK Request Frame 162 Block ACK Frame 162 Power-Save Poll Frame 162 Request-to-Send Frame 162 Clear-to-Send Frame 162 Acknowledgement Frame 163 Contention-Free End Frame 163 CF End + CF ACK Frame 163Data Frames 163Interoperability 164Summary 165Chapter 7 IEEE 802.11 Physical (PHY) Layers 167802.11 Physical Layer Architecture 167PLCP Sublayer 168PMD Sublayer 168802.11 Physical Layer Functions 169Carrier Sense Function 169Transmit Function 169Receive Function 170Legacy 802.11 Physical Layers 170Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum PHY 170Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum PHY 172Infrared PHY 175Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing PHY (802.11a) 175High-Rate Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum PHY (802.11b) 178Extended-Rate PHY (802.11g) 180High-Throughput (802.11n) 180MIMO Concepts 180 Transmit Beamforming 180 Spatial Multiplexing 181Channel Bonding 183802.11n Modulation 184Interoperability 188Very High-Throughput 6 GHz (802.11ac) 188RF Channel Bandwidth 188Multi-User MIMO 189Interoperability 189Summary 190Part III: Wireless Network DesignChapter 8 Planning a Wireless LAN Deployment 191Project Management Principles 191Wireless LAN Deployment Planning Steps 193Step 1: Defining the Project Scope 194 Project Charter 194 Assumptions 194 Constraints 194Step 2: Developing the Work Breakdown Structure 196 Requirements Definition Phase 196Design Phase 197Implementation Phase 199Operations and Maintenance Phase 201Step 3: Identifying Staffing 204Step 4: Creating a Schedule 206Step 5: Developing a Budget 207 Preliminary Requirements and Design 207Hardware and Software Costs 208 Deployment Services Costs 211 Ongoing Operations and Maintenance Costs 212Step 6: Evaluating Risks 215Step 7: Analyzing Feasibility 217 Costs 217 Benefits 218 Impacts on Users 218 Impacts on Existing Systems 219 Making the Decision to Proceed 219 Executing the Project 221 The Kickoff Meeting 222Evaluating the Outcome of the Project 223Summary 225Chapter 9 Defining Requirements for a Wireless LAN 227Requirements Attributes 227Requirements Definition Steps 228Step 1: Gathering Information 229 Interviewing Users 229 Interviewing IT Staff 230 Reviewing the Existing Infrastructure and Systems 230Step 2: Analyzing Requirements 231 Application Requirements 231 Client Device Requirements 233Signal Coverage Requirements 234 Utilization Requirements 236 Mobility Requirements 238 Security Requirements 240 Scalability Requirements 243 Existing Network Infrastructure Requirements 244 Environmental Requirements 245 Aesthetic Requirements 248Step 3: Documenting Requirements 248Step 4: Obtaining Requirements Approval 249Summary 250Chapter 10 System Architecture Considerations 251Architectural Considerations 251Wireless Access Networks 252Autonomous Access Point Architecture 253Controller-Based Access Point Architecture 254Mesh Network Architecture 256Ad Hoc Architecture 2582.4-GHz Versus 5-GHz 259 Geographic Location Considerations 260 Performance Considerations 260 Existing Client Device Considerations 260 Facility Size Considerations 260 Radio Signal Interference Considerations 261 Hybrid Frequency Band Considerations 261Common Infrastructure Considerations 262Migration Considerations 264Redundancy Considerations 264Controller Redundancy 264Access Point Redundancy 267Distribution Systems 269Switch Considerations 269PoE Considerations 269Voice over WLAN Systems 271Single-Site Architecture 271Multisite WAN with Centralized Call Processing 272Multisite WAN with Distributed Call Processing 274Application Connectivity 277Terminal Emulation Considerations 277Browser-Based Connectivity Considerations 279Direct Database Considerations 280Wireless Middleware Considerations 282Summary 285Chapter 11 Range, Performance, and Roaming Considerations 287Range Versus Performance 287Range Considerations 288Signal Coverage Requirements 288 Radio Frequency Bands 289Transmit Power Settings 290Transmission Channel Settings 291Data Rate Settings 292Antennas 294Amplifiers 295Repeaters 296Physical Obstacles 297Radio Signal Interference 297Performance Considerations 299Throughput Versus Data Rate 299Radio Frequency Bands 300Transmit Power Settings 300Transmission Channel Settings 301Data Rate Settings 302Antennas 302Amplifiers 303Radio Signal Interference 304Channel Width Settings 304Signal Coverage 305Fragmentation Settings 305RTS/CTS Settings 306Bandwidth Control Mechanisms 306Microcell Deployment Strategies 307Roaming Considerations 309Roaming Levels 309 Access Point Roaming 310 Subnet Roaming 310 Wireless ISP Roaming 312Wireless IP Phone Roaming 312Mobility Settings 313Summary 313Chapter 12 Radio Frequency Considerations 315Frequency Band Selection 3152.4-GHz Frequency Band 3155-GHz Frequency Band 316Transmission Channel Settings 316Manual Channel Settings 316 Single-Level Facilities 317 Multilevel Facilities 319Adaptive Channel Settings 321Difficult-to-Cover Areas 321Signal Coverage in Elevators 322Signal Coverage in Stairwells 324Signal Coverage in Parking Areas 324Radio Signal Interference Reduction 325Summary 326Chapter 13 Security Considerations 327Security Elements 327Encryption 328Authentication 330EAP Methods 331Authentication Servers 332Guest Access 333Rogue Access Point Detection 334RF Shielding 335Wireless Security Policies 337Summary 339Part IV: Wireless Network Installation and TestingChapter 14 Test Tools 341Tool Considerations 341Spectrum Analyzers 342Real-Time Fast Fourier Transform 342FFT Duty Cycle 344Swept Spectrogram 345Active Devices 345Recording Spectrum Data 346Signal Coverage Testers 346Heat Maps 346Positioning 347Passive Versus Active Modes 349Simulation 349Free Signal Coverage Tester: NetStumbler 349Wireless Protocol Analyzers 350Filtering Frames 351Recording Traces 352Free Protocol Analyzer: WireShark 352Summary 354Chapter 15 Performing a Wireless Site Survey 355Wireless Site Survey Considerations 356Reviewing Requirements 357Selecting Site Survey Tools 358Obtaining Floor Diagrams 359Inspecting the Facility 360Assessing the Existing Network Infrastructure 360Communications Rooms 360Switches and Power over Ethernet 361WAN 361Identifying Potential Radio Signal Interference 361Defining Signal Values for Acceptable Signal Coverage 364Minimum Received Signal Strength 364Minimum SNR 364Uplink Versus Downlink Signal Values 365Identifying Optimum Access Point Antenna Installation Locations 367Propagation Testing 367 Test Access Point Configuration 367 Antenna Considerations 368 Identifying Test Locations 369 Measuring Test Signals 371Assessing Propagation Test Results 372Cell Overlap Considerations 374Annotating Access Point Antenna Installation Locations 375Writing an RF Site Survey Report 376Summary 377Chapter 16 Installing and Configuring a Wireless LAN 379Wireless LAN Installation Considerations 379Planning the Installation 380Developing an Installation Plan 380 Points of Contact 380 Safety Tips 381 Installation Procedures 381 Required Facility Changes 382 Tools 382 References to Design Documentation 382 Schedule 383 Resources 383 Budget 383 Risks 383Coordinating the Installation 383Staging the Components 384Installing Access Points 386Mounting Practices 386Antenna Alignment 387Configuring Access Points 387Configuration Setting Access 388Firmware 388Access Point Configuration Settings 388 802.11n/ac Enable 388 SSID 389 Beacon Interval 389 Radio Frequency Bands 390 Transmit Power 390 Transmission Channel 391 Data Rates 392 Antenna Diversity 392 Channel Width 393 Fragmentation Threshold 394 RTS/CTS Threshold 394Testing the Installation 395Documenting the Installation 395Summary 396Chapter 17 Testing a Wireless LAN 397Wireless LAN Testing Considerations 397Signal Coverage Testing 398Wireless Site Survey Coverage Testing 398As-Installed Coverage Testing 399Considering Beacon Rates 399Performance Testing 400Association Tests 401Registration Tests 401 Authentication Tests 401 Network Connection Tests 402 Application Connection Tests 402Application Tests 402Load Tests 403In-Motion Testing 404Security Vulnerability Testing 405Security Settings Verification 405Penetration Testing 405 Private-Side Testing 405 Public-Side Testing 406Acceptance/Verification Testing 407Simulation Testing 408Prototype Testing 409Pilot Testing 409Test Documentation 410Summary 411Part V: Operational Support ConsiderationsChapter 18 Managing a Wireless LAN 413Operational Support Considerations 413Help Desk 414Connection Problems 414Poor Signal Coverage 415Poor Performance 415System Status 415Additional Considerations 415Network Monitoring 416Performance Monitoring 416Access Point Monitoring 416Configuration Monitoring 417Security Policy Management 417 Installation Control Policies 417 Monitoring Policies 418 Periodic Testing Policies 418Maintenance 418Inoperative Access Points 418Poor Performance 418Poor Signal Coverage 419Broken Hardware 419Firmware Updates 419Signal Coverage Verification 420Access Point Inspections 420Troubleshooting 420Sparing 420Engineering 421Advanced Problem Resolution 421Coverage Expansion 421Capacity Increases 422Firmware Review 422Technology Upgrades 422Design Review 422Configuration Management 422Change-Control Processes 423Security Management 424Reviewing Existing Security Policies 424Reviewing the System Architecture 425Reviewing Management Tools and Procedures 425Interviewing Users 425Verifying Configurations of Wireless Devices 425Investigating Physical Installations of Access Points 426Identifying Rogue Access Points 426Performing Penetration Tests 426Analyzing Security Gaps 427Recommending Improvements 427Trouble Ticket Coordination 427Help Desk Group 428Desktop Support Group 428Network Support Group 428Preparing for the Transfer to Operational Mode 429Summary 429Chapter 19 Troubleshooting a Wireless LAN 431Troubleshooting Methodology 431Identifying the Problem 431Identifying the Underlying Cause of the Problem 432Fixing the Problem 432Connection Problems 432Insufficient Signal Coverage 433Radio Signal Interference 434Access Point Failure 434Incompatible Client Radio 434Faulty Firmware 435Incorrect Client Radio Configuration 435Performance Problems 436Insufficient Signal Coverage 436Radio Signal Interference 436Faulty Firmware 437Non-optimal Client Radio Configuration 437Non-optimal Access Point Configuration 437Misaligned Antennas 438High Utilization 439Summary 439Chapter 20 Preparing Operational Support Staff 441Support Staff Considerations 441Availability of Existing Staff 442Experience Requirements 442Education and Training Requirements 443Vendor-Neutral Training 443Vendor-Specific Training 443College Education 444Certifications 444Staffing Sources 445Summary 445Glossary 447Index 455show more

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