Corrosion and Conservation of Cultural Heritage Metallic Artefacts

Corrosion and Conservation of Cultural Heritage Metallic Artefacts

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The conservation of metallic archaeological and historic artefacts is a major challenge whether they are ancient bronzes or relics of our more recent industrial past. Based on the work of Working Party 21 Corrosion of Archaeological and Historical Artefacts within the European Federation of Corrosion (EFC), this important book summarises key recent research on analytical techniques, understanding corrosion processes and preventing the corrosion of cultural heritage metallic artefacts.After an introductory part on some of the key issues in this area, part two reviews the range of analytical techniques for measuring and analysing corrosion processes, including time resolved spectroelectrochemistry, voltammetry and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. Part three reviews different types of corrosion processes for a range of artefacts, whilst part four discusses on-site monitoring techniques. The final part of the book summaries a range of conservation techniques and strategies to conserve cultural heritage metallic artefacts.Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts is an important reference for all those involved in archaeology and conservation, including governments, museums as well as those undertaking research in archaeology and corrosion more

Product details

  • Hardback | 640 pages
  • 164 x 234 x 42mm | 1,079.98g
  • Woodhead Publishing Ltd
  • Cambridge, United Kingdom
  • English
  • New.
  • 1782421548
  • 9781782421542
  • 494,901

About Philippe Dillmann

Dr Philippe Dillmann is Head of the Archaeological Materials Laboratory at the Institut de Recherche sur les Archeomateriaux within the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CNRS/CEA). David Watkinson is Professor of Conservation at Cardiff University, UK. Emma Angelini is Professor of Applied Physical Chemistry at the Politecnico di Torino, Italy. Professor Annemie Adriaens works within the Department of Analytical Chemistry at Ghent University, more

Table of contents

Contributor contact details Series introduction Volumes in the EFC series Chapter 1: Introduction: conservation versus laboratory investigation in the preservation of metallic heritage artefacts Part I: Conservation issues: past, present, future Chapter 2: Conservation, corrosion science and evidence-based preservation strategies for metallic heritage artefacts Abstract: 2.1 Introduction 2.2 The structure of conservation research and practice 2.3 Conservation in practice 2.4 Corrosion control for conservation practice 2.5 Conservation and corrosion science in partnership 2.6 Preservation of heritage metals 2.7 Conclusion Chapter 3: Atmospheric corrosion of heritage metallic artefacts: processes and prevention Abstract: 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Historical perspectives on corrosion 3.3 Air pollution effects in the twentieth century 3.4 Current effects of air pollution on corrosion 3.5 Indoor environments and recent developments in standardisation 3.6 Future trends 3.7 Conclusion Part II: Analytical techniques for the study of cultural heritage corrosion Chapter 4: Analytical techniques for the study of corrosion of metallic heritage artefacts: from micrometer to nanometer scales Abstract: 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Methodology 4.3 Morphology observation 4.4 Composition analyses 4.5 Structural characterisation 4.6 Nanoscale investigations 4.7 Conclusion Chapter 5: The use of metallographic and metallurgical investigation methods in the preservation of metallic heritage artefacts Abstract: 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Methods for sampling artefacts 5.3 Metallographic examination of microstructure features 5.4 Successful uses of metallography and metallurgy to aid preservation 5.5 Conclusion Chapter 6: Analysis of corroded metallic heritage artefacts using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) Abstract: 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) fundamentals 6.3 Applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) on the analysis of corroded archaeological artefacts: corroded metal threads 6.4 Depth profiling of copper-based decorative artefact 6.5 Analysis of corroded Punic coins 6.6 Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of Roman silver denarii 6.7 Conclusion Chapter 7: Electrochemical measurements in the conservation of metallic heritage artefacts: an overview Abstract: 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Equipment for electrochemical techniques 7.3 Potential measurements 7.4 DC techniques 7.5 AC techniques 7.6 Conclusion Chapter 8: Electrochemical analysis of metallic heritage artefacts: time-lapse spectroelectrochemical techniques Abstract: 8.1 Introduction 8.2 The electrochemical cell (eCell) 8.3 Monitoring the stabilization process of cupreous artefacts 8.4 Monitoring the formation of a protective lead coating 8.5 Conclusion 8.6 Acknowledgements Chapter 9: Electrochemical analysis of metallic heritage artefacts: voltammetry of microparticles (VMP) Abstract: 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Electrode configuration 9.3 Electrochemical processes 9.4 Voltammetry of microparticles (VMP) and metal corrosion 9.5 Studies on corrosion processes 9.6 Applications for archaeometry, conservation and restoration 9.7 Conclusion Part III: Specific alteration processes Chapter 10: Artistic patinas on ancient bronze statues Abstract: 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Studying and characterizing patinas 10.3 Case studies: the Giambologna statues of the University of Genoa, and the Angel of Calcagno family grave from the Monumental Cemetery of Staglieno (Genoa, Italy) 10.4 Conclusion 10.5 Acknowledgements Chapter 11: Ancient silver artefacts: corrosion processes and preservation strategies Abstract: 11.1 Introduction 11.2 History of ancient silver 11.3 Corrosion of Silver 11.4 Morphology of atmospheric corrosion layers on silver 11.5 Silver embrittlement 11.6 Cleaning, anti-tarnishing and protection 11.7 Conclusion Chapter 12: Underwater corrosion of metallic heritage artefacts Abstract: 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Degradation processes and conservation strategies 12.3 In-situ preservation of artefacts 12.4 Conclusion Chapter 13: Long-term anoxic corrosion of iron Abstract: 13.1 Introduction 13.2 General methodology 13.3 Characterisation of the corrosion system: from the environment to the archaeological remains 13.4 Thermodynamic modelling 13.5 Corrosion behaviour: understanding the mechanisms 13.6 Estimation of the corrosion rate 13.7 Conclusion Chapter 14: Reactivity studies of atmospheric corrosion of heritage iron artefacts Abstract: 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Previous studies of corrosion diagnosis 14.3 Studying atmospheric corrosion mechanisms 14.4 Studying electrochemical reactivity 14.5 Stability indexes based on rust layer composition and electrochemical reactivity 14.6 Electrochemical study of ancient artefacts 14.7 Degradation diagnosis 14.8 Conclusion Chapter 15: Atmospheric corrosion of historical industrial structures Abstract: 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Industrial cultural heritage objects 15.3 Specific atmospheric conditions 15.4 Industrial culture heritage material specification 15.5 Atmospheric corrosion of industrial structures of cultural heritage 15.6 Degradation of surface treatment of industrial cultural heritage 15.7 Conclusion Part IV: On-site monitoring Chapter 16: Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for the in-situ analysis of metallic heritage artefacts Abstract: 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) fundamentals 16.3 In-situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements 16.4 In-situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measuring campaigns 16.5 Conclusion Chapter 17: Oxygen monitoring in the corrosion and preservation of metallic heritage artefacts Abstract: 17.1 Introduction 17.2 Equipment for oxygen monitoring 17.3 Measurement of oxygen consumption 17.4 Measurement of oxygen in the burial environment 17.5 Conclusion 17.6 Acknowledgements Chapter 18: Issues in environmental monitoring of metallic heritage artefacts Abstract: 18.1 Introduction 18.2 Metrological design of a monitoring system 18.3 Analogue and digital architectures for monitoring systems 18.4 Designing a monitoring system based on smart sensors 18.5 A case study of monitoring system deployment 18.6 Conclusion 18.7 Acknowledgements Part V: Protection mediums, methods and strategies Chapter 19: Alkaline desalination techniques for archaeological iron Abstract: 19.1 Introduction 19.2 Archaeological iron: chloride-induced corrosion 19.3 Conservation of archaeological iron 19.4 Desalination 19.5 The influence of chloride-bearing species on corrosion of iron 19.6 Deoxygenated alkaline desalination techniques: assessing action and effectiveness 19.7 Post-treatment corrosion risk 19.8 Deoxygenated alkali washing in conservation practice 19.9 Conclusion Chapter 20: The use of subcritical fluids for the stabilisation of archaeological iron: an overview Abstract: 20.1 Introduction 20.2 Determining treatment parameters 20.3 Equipment, process and operation 20.4 Conservation objectives, treatment rationale and risk management 20.5 Case studies 20.6 Conclusion 20.7 Acknowledgements Chapter 21: Monitoring, modelling and prediction of corrosion rates of historical iron shipwrecks Abstract: 21.1 Introduction 21.2 Coralline concretions, corrosion potentials and dissolved oxygen 21.3 Monitoring 21.4 Modelling 21.5 Prediction 21.6 Conclusion 21.7 Acknowledgements Chapter 22: The role of standards in conservation methods for metals in cultural heritage Abstract: 22.1 Introduction 22.2 Standards commonly used in conservation testing of metals: a survey in metal conservation publications 22.3 The need to develop or adopt existing standards for coatings testing for cultural heritage metals: the case study of testing Poligen (R) ES 91009 22.4 Conclusion and future trends Chapter 23: Coatings including carboxylates for the preservation of metallic heritage artefacts Abstract: 23.1 Introduction 23.2 Ultrathin organic films for corrosion protection of metals 23.3 Self-assembled monolayers of carboxylic acids 23.4 Conclusion 23.5 Acknowledgements Chapter 24: Sol-gel coatings for the preservation of metallic heritage artefacts Abstract: 24.1 Introduction 24.2 The sol-gel coating process 24.3 Techniques for sol-gel coating - electrodeposition 24.4 Case studies on new conservation treatments 24.5 Conclusion Chapter 25: Plasma treatments for the cleaning and protection of metallic heritage artefacts Abstract: 25.1 Introduction: requirements of conservators/restorers 25.2 Plasma treatments for cleaning and protection of artefacts 25.3 Low pressure plasma 25.4 Plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) in plasmas containing organosilicon compounds 25.5 Case studies of use of plasma treatments in cleaning and protection of silver-based artefacts 25.6 Conclusion Chapter 26: Corrosion inhibitors for the preservation of metallic heritage artefacts Abstract: 26.1 Introduction 26.2 Types and mechanisms of corrosion inhibitors 26.3 Evaluation of inhibitors 26.4 Corrosion inhibitors used in conservation treatments 26.5 Conclusion Indexshow more