Contaminated Sites and Environmental Cleanup
Toxic chemicals contaminate the land and groundwater on hundreds of sites in industrialized nations and in many economically developing contries. Past practices, as well as spills, leaks and illegal disposals, have all contributed to this widely publicized problem. This text presents international policy approaches to prevent toxic contamination, to perform environmental cleanup of contaminated sites, and to redevelop these sites for productive uses. Focusing on experiences with contaminated sites in the USA and several countres in Western and Eastern Europe, it demonstrates that policies to contend with contaminated lands have both intended and unintended consequences.
- Hardback | 230 pages
- 154 x 234 x 20mm | 545g
- 19 Feb 1997
- Elsevier Science Publishing Co Inc
- Academic Press Inc
- San Diego, United States
- glossary, index
Table of contents
The problem of contaminated lands: defining the problem; characteristics of toxic contamination; contamination and environmental cleanup experience in the USA; contamination and environmental cleanup becomes a political issue. Remediation: remedial actions involving containment; remedial actions involving treatment; thermal treatments; thermal desorption treatments; extraction treatments; bioremediation techniques. Public health implications of contamination and environmental cleanup: exposure; exposure pathways; exposure evidence; toxicity and human health effects; risk perception and psychological risk; risk assessment; health trends. Policies to prevent additional contaminated sites: command and control policies; economic incentive policies; the policy making process; public participation in the policy making process; policy approaches in the USA to prevent additional contaminated sites; minimize dumping; treating hazardous wastes; source reduction. Legal aspects of the contamination and environmental cleanup problem: funding approaches; government funding of cleanups; private party funding of cleanups; legal tools; deep pockets; planning for environmental cleanup; municipal liability problems; private firms liability problems. Economic, spatial and social aspects of the environmental cleanup problem: economic problems of contaminated sites; economic distortions; effects on banks; effects on the real estate industry; brownfield sites; effects on the insurance industry; environmental regulation; spatial implications; social problems. The contamination and environmental cleanup problem in developing countries: economic growth and contaminated sites in developing countries; contamination and environmental cleanup; problems in urban areas; conditions in developing countries; contamination and environmental cleanup policies in developing countries. Review of USA experience with Superfund programme: two types of superfund actions; history of the Superfund programme; the Superfund process; financing the Superfund programme; problems of the Superfund; results problems with the Superfund programme; management problems; perceived problems with the Superfund programme; cost problems with the Superfund programme; fairness of the Superfund programme. Western approaches to contamination and environmental cleanup: the European Union; European Union role in setting environmental policy; environmental cleanup in the European Union; environmental cleanup in the former East Germany; redevelopment of contaminated brownfield sites. The Netherlands case study: process for reclaiming land; legislative history in Holland; Interim Soil Cleanup Act; soil cleanup guidance note; Soil Protection Act; experience wih policy and specific actions; Soil Protection Act of 1994; the Dutch approach; remediation in the Netherlands; Lekkerkerk case study; Tillburg Gas Works case study. The contamination and environmental cleanup problem in the United Kingdom: (Part contents).