Conspiracy Investigations

Conspiracy Investigations : Terrorism, Drugs and Gangs

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For use as a supplementary text for courses in Criminal Investigations or Criminal Law; a core text for Organized Crime, Terrorism, Drug Investigations, and Gang Investigations courses.

The only text on the market that covers the conduct of conspiracy investigations, this timely book describes in detail the methods used in complex criminal investigations that focus on terrorism, drugs, and sophisticated street gangs. Written by a retired DEA Supervisory Special Agent with experience teaching at the FBI Academy, it features many real-world examples and case scenarios.
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Product details

  • Paperback | 248 pages
  • 172.7 x 228.6 x 12.7mm | 136.08g
  • Pearson
  • Upper Saddle River, NJ, United States
  • English
  • New
  • 013117228X
  • 9780131172289

Back cover copy

Conspiracy Investigations: Terrorism, Drugs and Gangs is written by retired Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Supervisory Special Agent Gregory D. Lee who was an instructor at the DEA's Office of Training at the FBI Academy and specialized in conspiracy investigations. His 30 years of criminal investigative experience provides the reader with a clear understanding of what a conspiracy is, how it is investigated and why it is such an important tool in dismantling entire criminal organizations.

The book provides an overview of the most widely known terrorist organizations throughout the world, the major source countries responsible for illegal drugs found in America, and the most prolific criminal gangs operating in the country. It is a must read for criminal justice students and practitioners to understand how to deal with these three different criminal elements within their communities.

Features include: The many advantages of making the crime of conspiracy the primary focus of a criminal investigation. Timely case law concerning conspiracy investigations. The techniques commonly used to develop and investigate conspiracy cases. Extra-judicial renditions that bring fugitives to American justice from anywhere in the world. Case studies concerning the events of September 11, 2001, a major international drug smuggling organization, and a gang related multiple homicide.
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Table of contents

(NOTE: Each chapter ends with a Summary.)

1. Introduction to Conspiracy Law.

Definition of Conspiracy. The Wharton Rule. Punishment for Conspiracy. Elements of the Crime of Conspiracy. Plurality Requirement. The Agreement. Overt Acts. Pinkerton Theory of Vicarious Liability. Withdrawal from the Conspiracy. Termination of the Conspiracy. Venue. Duration of the Conspiracy. Statute of Limitations.

2. Types of Criminal Conspiracies.

Ongoing Conspiracies. Historical Conspiracies. Dry Conspiracies. Chain Conspiracies. Cell Conspiracies. Wheel Conspiracies. Combination Wheel and Cell Conspiracies.

3. Advantages of Conducting Conspiracy Investigations.

Simplicity. Crime Prevention. Leverage. Exception to the Hearsay Rule of Evidence. Asset Forfeiture. Evidence Can Be Used in Multiple Trials.

4. Difficulties of Conducting Conspiracy Investigations.

Protracted in Nature. Manpower Intensity. Verification and Corroboration. "No Dope" Drug Conspiracies.

5. Developing Conspiracy Cases.

Confidential Informants. Undercover Agents. Asset Forfeiture Inquiries. Fixed and Mobile Surveillance. Pen Registers. Wiretaps and Technical Listening Equipment. Surveillance Cases. The Grand Jury. Coordination with Other Law Enforcement Agencies. Analytical Investigative Support. Public, Private, and Government Records. Polygraph Examinations. Mail Covers. Trash Runs. Photo Lineups. Search Warrants.

6. Drug Interdiction Conspiracy Cases.

Introduction. Courier Profiling. Approaching the Passenger. Hotel Profiling. Expanding the Initial Investigation. Other Considerations. Suggested Reading.

7. Coordination with the Prosecutor.

Charging All Crimes Committed by Conspirators. Sealed Indictments. Arrest Warrants. Material Witness Warrants. Grand Jury Proceedings. Immunity. Multiple Venues. Asset Forfeiture Procedures.

8. Defense Attorney Tactics.

Defendant Withdrew from the Conspiracy. Outrageous Government Conduct. Multiple Defendants. Entrapment. Mistaken Identity. Fabrication of Exculpatory Evidence. Placing the Investigator on Trial. Defendant Was Involved in an Entirely Different Conspiracy. The Blind Mule.

9. Extra-Judicial Renditions.

Introduction. The Formal Extradition Process. Setting the Trap. International Criminal Police Organization.

10. Overview of Terrorist Organizations.

Introduction. Motivation for Terrorism. Transnational Terrorist Organizations. The al-Qaida Network. Sub-National Terrorist Organizations. Combating Terrorism.

11. Overview of Drug Trafficking.

Introduction. Source Countries of Popular Illegal Drugs. Use of Confidential Informants in Drug Conspiracies. Covert Operations. Controlled Deliveries. Other Considerations. Suggested Reading.

12. Gang Profiles: Crips and Bloods.

Introduction. Gang Indentifiers. Friends and Enemies. Structure of the Organizations. Recruitment and Initiation. Violent Prison Behavior.

13. Terrorism Conspiracy Case Study.

Introduction. Conspiracy to Commit Air Piracy and Terrorist Acts Against the United States.

14. Drug Trafficking Conspiracy Case Study.

Introduction. Conspiracy to Distribute Controlled Substances.

15. Gang Conspiracy Case Study.

Introduction. Conspiracy to Commit Murder; Attempted Murder.

Appendix A: Sample Conspiracy Indictment.

Appendix B: The Zacarias Moussaoui Indictment.

Appendix C: U.S. v. Alvarez-Machain, 504 U.S. 655 (1992).

Appendix D: Osama bin Laden Conspiracy Indictment.
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Review quote

"I am not aware of a textbook currently available which provides this depth and focus on conspiracy investigations. The material is relevant and current. The author obviously has a rich blend of both practical and academic preparation." - Ronald D. Swan, Lincoln College, Normal, IL
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About Gregory W. Lee

Gregory D. Lee retired as a supervisory special agent for the U.S. Department of justice, Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) in late 2003. He is now a criminal justice author and consultant.

Throughout his diverse government career, he has conducted and supervised numerous international drug conspiracy investigations, and at one time he was the resident agent-in-charge of the DEAs Karachi, Pakistan, office. While in Pakistan between 1994 and 1998, Mr. Lee became personally involved in several notable terrorism investigations. He participated in the arrest of Ramzi Ahmed Yousef, the mastermind behind the 1993 World Trade Center bombings who was thought by many to be the architect of the attacks of September 11, 2001. He also later testified at Yousef's trial and was cross-examined by Yousef, who elected to represent himself. Through informants, he also assisted the FBI in locating Amil Kanzi, the terrorist responsible for the murder of two CIA employees outside CIA headquarters in 1993. As a result of his terrorism investigation experiences in Pakistan, he has lectured for and consulted with various agencies within the U.S. intelligence community. He also appeared on an episode of the Discovery Channel's The FBI Files that included information about his actions during the Kanzi investigation.

Mr. Lee taught conspiracy investigations, drug smuggling, informant management, and many other courses as an instructor at the DEAs Office of Training, located at the FBI Academy in Quantico, Virginia. He developed and taught weeklong conspiracy-investigation seminars for federal, state, and local law enforcement officers and intelligence community analysts around the country. He spent a year as a member of one of the DEAs international training teams, visiting many countries to provide conspiracy and drug enforcement training to foreign law enforcement officials.

He is the author of the textbook, Global Drug Law Enforcement: Practical Investigative Techniques, published by CRC Press, and he has written several articles on drug enforcement topics for professional publications, including the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin and The Police Chief magazine.

Mr. Lee also served as a counselor for the 160th session of the FBI National Academy in 1990.

Prior to working for DEA, he was a police officer for the cities of Saunas and Pasadena in California.

Mr. Lee has a combination of more than 32 years of active duty and U.S. Army Reserve service, and he is a chief warrant officer 5/special agent with the U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Command, better known as CID. As an Army reservist, he is an associate instructor with the U.S. Army Military Police School and is a subject matter expert in counter-drug operations and terrorism.

Shortly after the attacks of September 11, 2001, he was called to active duty and served one year at the U.S. Army Operations Center's Anti-Terrorism Operations and Intelligence Cell at the Pentagon, where he routinely analyzed highly classified intelligence data and briefed the Army's top leadership on terrorism and force-protection issues.

Mr. Lee earned a master of public administration in justice administration degree from Golden Gate University, San Francisco, and a bachelor's of science degree in sociology with dual minors in vocational education and criminology from the University of Maryland. While attending graduate school, he taught a criminal investigation course for Monterey Peninsula College, Monterey, California.

He is a regularly scheduled guest speaker at the Defense Intelligence Agency's Joint Military Intelligence Training Center in Washington, D.C. Mr. Lee has been a guest lecturer for the International Law Enforcement Academy in Bangkok, Thailand, the California Narcotic Officers' Association, and the International Narcotic Interdiction Association. He is a frequent radio talk show guest concerning his DEA assignment in Pakistan.
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