Computer Ethics

Computer Ethics : International Edition

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Description

Written in clear, accessible prose, the Fourth edition of Computer Ethics brings together philosophy, law, and technology. The text provides an in-depth exploration and analysis of a broad range of topics regarding the ethical implications of widespread use of computer technology. The approach is normative while also exposing the student to alternative ethical stances.
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Product details

  • Paperback | 216 pages
  • 153 x 229 x 17mm | 270g
  • Pearson
  • United States
  • English
  • 4th edition
  • 0131230220
  • 9780131230224
  • 1,548,783

Table of contents

Contents

Preface vi

Acknowledgments viii

About the Authors viii



Chapter 1 Introduction to Sociotechnical Computer Ethics

Chapter Outline 1

Scenarios 2

1.1 A Virtual Rape 2 * 1.2 Surprises About Social Networking 3 * 1.3 RFID and Caring for the Elderly 4

Introduction: Why Computer Ethics? 5

The Standard Account 7

New Possibilities, a Vacuum of Policies, Conceptual Muddles 7 * An Update to the Standard Account 10

The Sociotechnical Systems Perspective 13

Reject Technological Determinism/Think Coshaping 13 * Reject Technology as Material Objects/Think Sociotechnical Systems 15 * Reject Technology as Neutral/Think Technology Infused with Value 17

Sociotechnical Computer Ethics 18

Micro- and Macro-Level Analysis 21

Return to the "Why Computer Ethics?" Question 21

Conclusion 22 * Study Questions 23



Chapter 2 Ethics and Information Technology 24

Chapter Outline 24

Introduction: "Doing" Ethics 25

Descriptive/Normative 26 * The Dialectic Method 28 * Ethics is Relative" 32

Ethical Theories and Concepts 35

Utilitarianism 35 * Intrinsic and Instrumental Value 36 * Acts versus Rules 38

Critique of Utilitarianism 39 * Case Illustration 41 * Deontological Theory 42 * Case Illustration 44 * Rights 46 * Rights and Social Contract Theory 47 * Virtue Ethics 48 * Analogical Reasoning in Computer Ethics 49

Conclusion 51 * Study Questions 51



Chapter 3 Ethics in IT-Configured Societies 53

Chapter Outline 53

Scenarios 54

3.1 Google in China: "Don't Be Evil" 54 * 3.2 Turing Doesn't Need to Know 553.3 Turnitin Dot Com 55

Introduction: IT-Configured Societies 55

Technology as the Instrumentation of Human Action 56

Cyborgs, Robots, and Humans 58

Three Features of IT-Configured Activities 60

Global, Many-to-Many Scope 61 Distinctive Identity Conditions 62 Reproducibility 65

IT-Configured Domains of Life 66

Virtuality, Avatars, and Role-Playing Games 66 Friendship and Social Networking 68 Education and Plagiarism Detection 70

Democracy and the Internet 72

What Is Democracy? 73 The Arguments 74 * Is the Internet a Democratic Technology? 76

Conclusion 79 Study Questions 79



Chapter 4 Information Flow, Privacy, and Surveillance 81

Chapter Outline 81

Scenarios 82

4.1 Email Privacy and Advertising 82 * 4.2 Workplace Spying: The Lidl Case 82* 4.3 Data Mining and e-Business 83

Introduction: Information Flow With and Without Information Technology 84

Why Care About Privacy? 86

No Need to Worry" 87 * The Importance of Privacy 90 * Privacy as an Individual Good 90 * Privacy as Contextual Integrity 93 Privacy as a Social Good Essential for Democracy 95 Autonomy, Democracy, and the Panoptic Gaze 96 Data Mining, Social Sorting, and Discrimination 98 Crude Categories 100 *Summary of the Arguments for Privacy and Against Surveillance 101

Is Privacy Over? Strategies for Shaping Personal Information Flow 101

Fair Information Practices 102 Transparency 104 Opt-In versus Opt-Out 104 *Design and Computer Professionals 105 *Personal Steps for All IT Users 106 *A Note on Privacy and Globalization 107

Conclusion 107 Study Questions 108



Chapter 5 Digital Intellectual Property 109

Chapter Outline 109

Scenarios 110

5.1 Obtaining Pirated Software Abroad 110 * 5.2 Free Software that Follows Proprietary Software 110 * 5.3 Using Public Domain Software in Proprietary Software 111

Introduction: The Complexities of Digital Property 111

Definitions 112 Setting the Stage 113

Protecting Property Rights in Software 114

Copyright 114 Trade Secrecy 118 Patent Protection 119

Free and Open Source Software 122

The Philosophical Basis of Property 124

Natural Rights Arguments 124 Critique of the Natural Rights Argument 125* A Natural Rights Argument Against Software Ownership 127

PS Versus FOSS 128

Is it Wrong to Copy Proprietary Software? 129

Breaking Rules, No Rules, and New Rules 133

Conclusion 135 * Study Questions 136



Chapter 6 Digital Order 137

Chapter Outline 137

Scenarios 137

6.1 Bot Roast 137 * 6.2Wiki Warfare 138 * 6.3Yahoo and Nazi Memorabilia 139

Introduction: Law and Order on the Internet 140

Sociotechnical Order 142

Online Crime 143

Hackers and the Hacker Ethic 145

Sociotechnical Security 150

Who Is to Blame in Security Breaches? 152 Trade-Offs in Security 153

Wikipedia: A New Order of Knowledge Production 154

Freedom of Expression and Censorship 156

John Stuart Mill and Freedom of Expression 157

Conclusion 160 *Study Questions 161



Chapter 7 Professional Ethics in Computing 162

Chapter Outline 162

Scenarios 163

7.1 Software Safety 163 * 7.2 Security in a Custom Database 164* 7.3 Conflict of Interest 164

Introduction: Why Professional Ethics? 165

Therac-25 and Malfunction 54 165

The Paradigm of Professions 167

Characteristics of Professions 168

Sorting Out Computing and its Status as a Profession 171

Mastery of Knowledge 171 Formal Organization 172 Autonomy 173 Codes of Ethics 174 The Culture of Computing 175

Software Engineering 176

Professional Relationships 178

Employer-Employee 178 Client-Professional 180 Other Stakeholders-Professional 182 Professional-Professional 183 Conflicting Responsibilities 184

A Legal Perspective on Professionalism in Computing 185

Licensing 185 Selling Software 186 Selling-Buying and the Categorical Imperative 187 Torts 188 Negligence 188

A Final Look at the State of the Profession 190

Guns-for-Hire or Professionals 190 Efficacy, Public Trust, and the Social Contract 191

Conclusion 192 * Study Questions 193

Websites 195

References 196

Index 198
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About Deborah G. Johnson

Deborah G. Johnson is the Anne Shirley Carter Olsson Professor of Applied Ethics and Chair of the Department of Science, Technology, and Society at the University of Virginia. Johnson has devoted her career to understanding the connections between ethics and technology. She received the John Barwise prize from the American Philosophical Association in 2004; the Sterling Olmsted Award from the Liberal Education Division of the American Society for Engineering Education in 2001; and the ACM SIGCAS Making a Difference Award in 2000.



Keith W. Miller is a Professor of Computer Science at the University of Illinois at Springfield. His work in software engineering and computer ethics provide complementary perspectives to questions that challenge computer professionals. He is the editor-in-chief of IEEE Technology and Society, and helped develop the Software Engineering Code of Ethics and Professional Practice. He was named a University of Illinois Scholar in 2000 and received the ACM SIGCAS Outstanding Service Award in 2006.
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48 ratings
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1 8% (4)
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