Classic Philosophical Questions
For Introduction to Humanities courses and Introduction to Philosophy courses.A classic, proven through nine previous editions, this reader stimulates students' interest in philosophy through an innovative and appropriate "sides of the argument" presentation, with each reading representing a position on each of the fundamental philosophical questions. Using debate and argument as a vehicle, Classic Philosophical Questions simultaneously teaches students the fundamentals of philosophy while also demonstrating that philosophy is a discourse that has spanned centuries and stressing the importance of the philosophical debate. Sure to create lively in-class debates, the collection of readings offers both classic and contemporary readings that challenge students with the basic inquiries that philosophers have discussed for centuries.
- Paperback | 641 pages
- 152.4 x 228.6 x 30.5mm | 743.9g
- 06 Jun 2000
- Pearson Education (US)
- United States
- 10th edition
Table of contents
I. PLATO AND THE TRIAL OF SOCRATES. 1. Euthyphro, Defining Philosophical Terms. 2. The Apology, Phaedo, and Crito, The Trial, Immortality and Death of Socrates. II. THE VALUE OF PHILOSOPHY. What Is the Value of Philosophy? 3. Russell, The Value of Philosophy. III. PHILOSOPHICAL METHODOLOGIES. What Is the Best Approach to Philosophy? 4. Peirce, Four Approaches to Philosophy. 5. Feigl, The Scientific Approach. IV. PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION. Can We Prove God Exists? 6. St. Anselm, The Ontological Argument. 7. St. Thomas Aquinas, The Cosmological Argument. 8. Paley, The Teleological Argument. 9. Pascal, It Is Better to Believe in God's Existence than to Deny It.10. Kierkegaard, Faith, Not Logic, Is the Basis of Belief. Does the Idea of a Good God Exclude Evil?11. Hume, A Good God Would Exclude Evil.12. Hick, God Can Allow Some Evil. V. ETHICS. Are Humans Free?13. Holbach, Humans Are Determined.14. James, Humans Are Free. Are Ethics Relative?15. Benedict, Ethics Are Relative.16. Stace, Ethics Are Not Relative. Are Humans Always Selfish?17. Plato, Humans Are Always Selfish.18. Rachels, Humans Are Not Always Selfish. Which is Basic in Ethics: Happiness or Obligation?19. Aristotle, Happiness Is Living Virtuously.20. Bentham, Happiness Is Doing Good for All People.21. Kant, Duty Is Prior to Happiness.22. Nietzsche, Happiness Is Having Power.23. Sartre, Existentialist Ethics.24. Tong, Feminist Ethics Are Different. VI. KNOWLEDGE. How Do We Acquire Knowledge?25. Descartes, Knowledge Is Not Ultimately Sense Knowledge.26. Locke, Knowledge Is Ultimately Sensed.27. Kant, Knowledge Is Both Rational and Empirical. How Is Truth Established?28. Russell, Truth Is Established by Correspondence.29. Bradley, Truth Is Established by Coherence.30. James, Truth Is Established on Pragmatic Grounds. Can We Know the Nature of Causal Relations?31. Hume, Cause Means Regular Association.32. Hanson, Causes and Becauses.33. Hume, There Are no Possible Grounds for Induction. VII. METAPHYSICS. Of What Does Reality Consist?34. Descartes, Reality Consists of Mind and Matter.35. Taylor, Reality Consists of Matter.36. Berkeley, Reality Consists of Ideas. Is Reality General or Particular?37. Plato, Universals Are Real.38. Hume, Particulars Are Real. Do Humans Have an Identical Self?39. Locke, Human Beings Have an Identical Self.40. Hume, Human Beings Have No Identical Self. VIII. SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY. The Abortion Issue.41. English, Most Abortions Are Moral. The Pornography Issue.42. Ward, Should Pornography Be Censored? The Homosexuality Issue.43. Gould, Is Homosexuality Unnatural or Immoral? IX. POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. What Is Freedom?44. Dostoevski, Freedom Is Authority.45. Mill, Freedom Is Independence From the Majority's Tyranny.46. Bartky, Women Are Not Free. Which Government is Best?47. Hobbes, Monarchy Is Best.48. Locke, Liberal Democracy Is Best.49. Marx, Communism and Non-Alienated Labor Is Best.50. Dewey, Social Democracy Is Best. X. AESTHETICS. Are Artistic Judgments Subjective?51. Ducasse, Tastes Cannot Be Disputed.52. Beardsley, Tastes Can Be Disputed. What Is the Function of Art?53. Aristotle, Art Purges the Emotions.54. Collingwood, Magic or Amusement? XI. THE MEANING OF LIFE. What Gives Life Meaning?55. Tolstoy, Faith Provides Life's Meaning.56. Camus, Each Person Determines His or Her Life's Meaning.Glossary.