Chemistry : A Molecular Approach: United States Edition

3.54 (206 ratings by Goodreads)
By (author) 

List price: US$201.32

Currently unavailable

Add to wishlist

AbeBooks may have this title (opens in new window).

Try AbeBooks


For two-semester or three-quarter courses in General Chemistry. Tro provides students the support they need early so they can tackle challenging topics later. He does this by building on what students already know. The author's goal in writing this book is to deliver the depth of coverage faculty want with the accessibility and clarity that students need for success. Nivaldo J. Tro's Chemistry: A Molecular Approach explains difficult chemical concepts in a concise and clear student-centered manner while also providing faculty with the flexibility to go more deeply into many key, often neglected topics, such as electron diffraction, molecular orbital theory, and free-energy changes under non-standard conditions. Chemistry is presented visually throughmulti-level images (macroscopic, molecular and symbolic representations), which helps students see the connections among the formulas (symbolic), the world around them (macroscopic), and the atoms and molecules that make up the world (molecular). Every aspect of this book focuses students on recognizing that the behavior of matter is based on the behavior of atoms and more

Product details

  • Hardback | 1232 pages
  • 220.98 x 281.94 x 45.72mm | 2,789.58g
  • Pearson Education (US)
  • Pearson
  • United States
  • English
  • 0131000659
  • 9780131000650

Table of contents

Chapter 1 Matter, Measurement, and Problem Solving 1.1 Atoms and Molecules 1.2 The Scientific Approach to Knowledge The Nature of Science: Thomas S. Kuhn and Scientific Revolutions 1.3 The Classification of Matter The States of Matter: Solid, Liquid and Gas Classifying Matter According to Its Composition: Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures Separating Mixtures 1.4 Physical and Chemical Changes and Physical and Chemical Properties 1.5 Energy: A Fundamental Part of Physical and Chemical Change 1.6 The Units of Measurement A Meter: A Measure of Length The Kilogram: A Measure of Mass The Second: A Measure of Time The Kelvin: A Measure of Temperature Prefix Multipliers Derived Units: Volume and Density Calculating Density Chemistry and Medicine: Bone Density 1.7 The Reliability of a Measurement Counting Significant Figures Exact Numbers Significant Figures in Calculations Precision and Accuracy Chemistry in Your Day: Integrity in Data Gathering 1.8 Solving Chemical Problems Converting From One Unit to Another General Problem-Solving Strategy Units Raised to a Power Order of Magnitude Estimations Problems Involving an Equation Chapter 2 Atoms and Elements 2.1 Imaging and Moving Individual Atoms 2.2 Early Ideas about the Building Blocks of Matter 2.3 Modern Atomic Theory and the Laws That Led to It The Law of Conservation of Mass The Law of Definite Proportions The Law of Multiple Proportions John Dalton and The Atomic Theory Chemistry in Your Day: Atoms and Humans 2.4 The Discovery of the Electron Cathode Rays Millikan's Oil Drop Experiment: The Charge of the Electron 2.5 The Structure of The Atom 2.6 Subatomic Particles: Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons in Atoms Elements: Defined by Their Number of Protons Isotopes: When the Number of Neutrons Varies Ions: Losing and Gaining Electrons 2.7 Finding Patterns: The Periodic Law and the Periodic Table Ions and The Periodic Table Chemistry and Medicine: The Elements of Life 2.8 Atomic Mass: The Average Mass of an Element's Atoms Mass Spectrometry: Measuring the Mass of Atoms and Molecules 2.9 Molar Mass: Counting Atoms by Weighing Them The Mole: A Chemist's "Dozen" Converting between Number of Moles and Number of Atoms Converting between Mass and Amount (Number of Moles) Chapter 3 Molecules, Compounds and Chemical Equations 3.1 Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Water 3.2 Chemical Bonds 3.3 Representing Compounds: Chemical Formulas and Molecular Models Types of Chemical Formulas Molecular Models 3.4 An Atomic-Level Perspective of Elements and Compounds 3.5 Ionic Compounds: Formulas and Names Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds Naming Ionic Compounds Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Containing a Metal that Forms More than One Kind of Cation Naming Ionic Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions Hydrated Ionic Compounds 3.6 Molecular Compounds: Formulas and Names Naming Molecular Compounds Naming Acids Naming Binary Acids Naming Oxyacids Chemistry in the Environment: Acid Rain 3.7 Formula Mass and The Mole Concept for Compounds Molar Mass of a Compound Using Molar Mass to Count Molecules by Weighing 3.8 Composition of Compounds Mass Percent Composition as a Conversion Factor Conversion Factors from Chemical Formulas Chemistry and Medicine: Methylmercury in Fish 3.9 Determining a Chemical Formula from Experimental Data Calculating Molecular Formulas for Compounds Combustion Analysis 3.10 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations How to Write Balanced Chemical Equations 3.11 Organic Compounds (optional section) Hydrocarbons Functionalized Hydrocarbons Chapter 4 Chemical Quantities and Aqueous Reactions 4.1 Global Warming and the Combustion of Fossil Fuels 4.2 Reaction Stoichiometry: How Much Carbon Dioxide? Making Pizza: The Relationship among Ingredients Making Molecules: Mole-to-Mole Conversions Making Molecules: Mass-to-Mass Conversions 4.3 Limiting Reactant, Theoretical Yield, and Percent Yield Limiting Reactant, Theoretical Yield, and Percent Yield From Initial Reactant Masses Chemistry in the Environment: MTBE in Gasoline 4.4 Solution Concentration and Solution Stoichiomentry Using Molarity in Calculations Solution Dilution Solution Stoichiomentry 4.5 Types of Aqueous Solutions and Solubility Electrolyte and Nonelectrolyte Solutions The Solubility of Ionic Compounds 4.6 Precipitation Reactions 4.7 Representing Aqueous Reactions: Molecular, Ionic, and Complete Ionic Equations 4.8 Acid-Base and Gas-Evolution Reactions Acid-Base Reactions Acid-Base Titrations Gas-Evolution Reactions 4.9 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Oxidation States Identifying Redox Reactions Chemistry in Your Day: Bleached Blonde Combustion Reactions Chapter 5 Gases 5.1 Water from Wells: Atmospheric Pressure at Work 5.2 Pressure: The result of Molecular Collisions Pressure Units The Manometer: A Way to Measure Pressure in the Laboratory Chemistry and Medicine: Blood Pressure 5.3 The Simple Gas Laws: Boyle's Law, Charles's Law and Avogadro's Law Boyle's Law: Volume and Pressure Chemistry in Your Day: Extra-Long Snorkels Charles's Law: Volume and Temperature Avogadro's Law: Volume and Amount (in Moles) 5.4 The Ideal Gas Law 5.5 Applications of the Ideal Gas Law: Molar Volume, Density and Molar Mass of a Gas Molar Volume at Standard Temperature and Pressure Density of a Gas Molar Mass of a Gas 5.6 Mixtures of Gases and Partial Pressures Deep Sea Diving and Partial Pressure Collecting Gases Over Water 5.7 Gases in Chemical Reactions: Stoichiometry Revisited Molar Volume and Stoichiometry 5.8 Kinetic Molecular Theory: A Model for Gases Kinetic Molecular Theory and the Ideal Gas Law Temperature and Molecular Velocities 5.9 Mean Free Path, Diffusion, and Effusion of Gases 5.10 Real Gases: The Effects of Size and Intermolecular Forces The Effect of the Finite Volume of Gas Particles The Effect of Intermolecular Forces Van der Waal's Equation Real Gases 5.11 Chemistry of the Atmosphere: Air Pollution and Ozone Depletion Air Pollution Ozone Depletion Chapter 6 Thermochemistry 6.1 Light the Furnace: The Nature of Energy and Its Transformations The Nature of Energy: Key Definitions Units of Energy 6.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics: There Is No Free Lunch Chemistry in Your Day: Redheffer's Perpetual Motion Machine Internal Energy 6.3 Quantifying Heat and Work Heat Work: Pressure-Volume Work 6.4 Measuring DE for Chemical Reactions: Constant-Volume Calorimetry 6.5 Enthalpy: The Heat Evolved in a Chemical Reaction at Constant Pressure Exothermic and Endothermic Processes: A Molecular View Stoichiometry Involving DH: Thermochemical Equations 6.6 Constant Pressure Calorimetry: Measuring DHrxn 6.7 Relationships Involving DHrxn 6.8 Enthalpies of Reaction from Standard Heats of Formation Standard States and Standard Enthalpy Changes Calculating The Standard Enthalpy Change for a Reaction 6.9 Energy Use and The Environment Environmental Problems Associated With Fossil Fuel Use Chemistry and The Environment: Renewable Energy Chapter 7 The Quantum-Mechanical Model of the Atom 7.1 Quantum Mechanics: A Theory That Explains the Behavior of the Absolutely Small 7.2 The Nature of Light The Wave Nature of Light The Electromagnetic Spectrum Chemistry and Medicine: Radiation Treatment for Cancer Interference and Diffraction The Particle Nature of Light 7.3 Atomic Spectroscopy and the Bohr Model Chemistry in Your Day: Atomic Spectroscopy, a Bar Code for Atoms 7.4 The Wave Nature of Matter: The de Broglie Wavelength, t he Uncertainty Principle, and Probability The de Broglie Wavelength The Uncertainty Principle Indeterminacy and Probability Distribution Maps 7.5 Quantum Mechanics and the Atom Solutions to the Schrodinger Equation for the Hydrogen Atom Atomic Spectroscopy Explained 7.6 The Shapes of Atomic Orbitals p Orbitals (l = 1) d Orbitals (l = 2) f Orbitals (l = 3) Chapter 8 Periodic Properties of the Elements 8.1 Nerve Signal Transmission 8.2 The Development of the Periodic Table 8.3 Electron Configurations: How Electrons Occupy Orbitals Electron Spin and the Pauli Exclusion Principle Sublevel Energy Splitting in Multi-electron Atoms Electron Configurations for Multi-electron Atoms 8.4 Electron Configurations, Valence Electrons, and The Periodic Table Orbital Blocks in the Periodic Table Writing and Electron Configuration for an Element from Its position in The Periodic Table The Transition and Inner Transition Elements 8.5 The Explanatory Power of the Quantum-Mechanical Model 8.6 Periodic Trends in the Size of Atoms and Effective Nuclear Charge Effective Nuclear Charge Atomic Radii and the Transition Elements 8.7 Ions: Electron Configurations, Magnetic Properties, Ionic Radii, and Ionization Energy Electron Configurations and Magnetic Properties of Ions Ionic Radii Ionization Energy Trends in First Ionization Energy Exceptions to Trends in First Ionization Energy Trends in Second and Successive Ionization Energies 8.8 Electron Affinities and Metallic Character Electron Affinity Metallic Character 8.9 Some Examples of Periodic Chemical Behavior: The Alkali Metals, The Halogens and The Noble Gases The Alkali Metals (Group 1A) The Halogens (Group 7A) Chemistry and Medicine: Potassium Iodide in Radiation Emergencies The Noble Gases (Group 8A) Chapter 9 Chemical Bonding I: Lewis Theory 9.1 Bonding Models and AIDS Drugs 9.2 Types of Chemical Bonds 9.3 Representing Valance Electrons with Dots 9.4 Ionic Bonding: Lewis Structures and Lattice Energies Ionic Bonding and Electron Transfer Lattice Energy: The Rest of the Story The Born-Haber Cycle Trends in Lattice Energies: ion Size Trends in Lattice Energies: Ion Charge Ionic Bonding: Models and Reality Chemistry and Medicine: Ionic Compounds as Drugs 9.5 Covalent Bonding: Lewis Structure Single Covalent Bonds Double and Triple Covalent Bonds Covalent Bonding: Models and Reality 9.6 Electronegativity and Bond Polarity Electronegativity Bond Polarity, Dipole Moment, and Percent Ionic Character 9.7 Lewis Structures of Molecular Compounds and Polyatomic Ions Writing Lewis Structures for Molecular Compounds Writing Lewis Structures for Polyatomic Ions 9.8 Resonance and Formal Charge Resonance Formal Charge 9.9 Exceptions to the Octet Rule: Odd Electron Species, Incomplete Octets, and Expanded Octets Odd Electron Species Chemistry and the Environment: Free Radicals and the Atmospheric Vacuum Cleaner Incomplete Octets Expanded Octets 9.10 Bond Energies and Bond Lengths Bond Energy Using Bond Energies to Estimate Enthalpy Changes for Reactions Bond Lengths Chemistry and The Environment: The Lewis Structure of Ozone 9.11 Bonding in Metals: The Electron Sea Model Chapter 10 Chemical Bonding II: Molecular Shapes, Valance Bond Theory, and Molecular Orbital Theory 10.1 Artificial Sweeteners: Fooled by Molecular Shape 10.2 VSPER Theory: The Five Basic Shapes Two Electron Groups: Linear Geometry Three Electron Groups: Trigonal Planar Geometry Four Electron Groups: Tetrahedral Geometry Five Electron Groups: Octahedral Geometry 10.3 VSPER Theory: The Effect of Lone Pairs Four Electron Groups with Lone Pairs Five Electron Groups with Lone Pairs Six Electron Groups with Lone Pairs Summary of VSPER theory 10.4 VSPER Theory: Predicting Molecular Geometries Predicting the Shapes of Larger Molecules 10.5 Molecular Shape and Polarity Chemistry in Your Day: How Soap Works 10.6 Valence Bond Theory: Orbital Overlap as a Chemical Bond 10.7 Valence Bond Theory: Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals sp2 Hybridization and Double Bonds Everryday Chemistry: The Chemistry of Vision sp Hybridization and Triple Bonds sp3d and sp3d2 Hybridization Writing Hybridization and Bonding Schemes 10.8 Molecular Orbital Theory: Electron Delocalization Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals (LCAO) Main Ideas in Applying LCAO-MO Theory Period Two Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules Period Two Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules Polyatomic Molecules Chapter 11 Liquids, Solids, and Intermolecular Forces 11.1 Climbing Geckos and Intermolecular Forces 11.2 Solids, Liquids, and Gases: A Molecular Comparison Changes Between Phases 11.3 Intermolecular Forces: The Forces that Hold Condensed Phases Together Dispersion Force Dipole-Dipole Force Hydrogen Bonding Ion-dipole Force Chemistry and Medicine: Hydrogen Bonding in DNA 11.4 Intermolecular Forces in Action: Surface Tension, Viscosity, and Capillary Action Surface Tension Viscosity Chemistry in Your Day: Viscosity and Motor Oil Capillary Action 11.5 Vaporization and Vapor Pressure The Process of Vaporization The Energetics of Vaporization Vapor Pressure and Dynamic Equilibrium Temperature Dependence of Vapor Pressure and Boiling Point The Clausius Clapeyron Equation The Critical Point: The Transition to an Unusual Phase of Matter 11.6 Sublimation and Fusion Sublimation Fusion Energetics of Melting and Freezing 11.7 Heating Curve for Water 11.8 Phase Diagrams The Major Features of a Phase Diagram Navigation Within a Phase Diagram The Phase Diagrams of Other Substances 11.9 Water: An Extraordinary Substance Chemistry in the Environment: Water Pollution 11.10 Crystalline Solids: Determining Their Structure by X-Ray Crystallography 11.11 Crystalline Solids: Unit Cells and Basic Structures Simple Cubic Unit Cell Close-Packed Structures 11.12 Crystalline Solids: The Fundamental Types Molecular Solids Ionic Solids Atomic Solids 11.13 Crystalline Solids: Band Theory Doping: Controlling the Conductivity of Semiconductors Chapter 12 Solutions 12.1 Thirsty Solutions: Why You Should Not Drink Seawater 12.2 Types of Solutions and Solubility Nature's Tendency Toward Mixing: Entropy The Effect of Intermolecular Forces 12.3 Energetics of Solution Formation Aqueous Solutions and Heats of Hydration 12.4 Solution Equilibrium and Factors Affecting Solubility The Temperature Dependence of the Solubility of Solids Factors Affecting the Solubility of Gases in Water Chemistry in the Environment: Lake Nyos 12.5 Expressing Solution Concentration Molarity Molality Parts by Mass and Parts by Volume Mole Fraction and Mole Percent 12.6 The Vapor Pressure of a Solution Ionic Solutes and Vapor Pressure Ideal and Non-Ideal Solutions 12.7 Freezing Point Depression, Boiling Point Elevation, and Osmosis Freezing Point Depression Chemistry in Your Day: Antifreeze in Frogs Boiling Point Elevation Osmosis Colligative Properties of Ionic Solutions Colligative Properties and Medical Solutions 12.8 Colloids Chapter 13 Chemical Kinetics 13.1 Catching Lizards 13.2 Rate of a Chemical Reaction Measuring Reaction Rates 13.3 The Rate Law: The Effect of Concentration on Reaction Rate Determining the Order of a Reaction Reaction Order for Multiple Reactants 13.4 The Integrated Rate Law: The Dependence of Concentration on Time First-order Integrated Rate Law Second-order Integrated Rate Law Zero-order Integrated Rate Law The Half-Life of a Reaction First-order Reaction Half-Life Second-order Reaction Half-Life Zero-order Reaction Half-Life 13.5 The Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rate Arrhenius Plots: Experimental Measurements of the Frequency Factor and the Activation Energy The Collision Model: A Closer Look at the Frequency Factor 13.6 Reaction Mechanisms Rate Laws for Elementary Steps Rate-Determining Steps and Overall Reaction rate Laws Mechanisms with a Fast Initial Step 13.7 Catalysis Homogenous and Heterogenous Catalysis Enzymes: Biological Catalysts Chemistry and Medicine: Enzyme Catalysis and the Role of Chymotrypsin in Digestion Chapter 14 Chemical Equilibrium 14.1 Fetal Hemoglobin and Equilibrium 14.2 The Concept of Dynamic Equilibrium Chemistry and Medicine: Life and Equilibrium 14.3 The Equilibrium Constant (K) Expressing Equilibrium Constants for Chemical Reactions The Significance of the Equilibrium Constant Relationships Between the Equilibrium Constant and the Chemical Equation 14.4 Expressing the Equilibrium Constant in Terms of Pressure Units of K 14.5 Heterogenous Equilibria: Reactions Involving Solids and Liquids 14.6 Calculating the Equilibrium Constant From Measured Equilibrium Concentrations 14.7 The Reaction Quotient: Predicting the Direction of Change 14.8 Finding Equilibrium Concentrations Simplifying Approximations in Working Equilibrium Problems 14.9 Le Chatelier's Principle: How a System at Equilibrium Responds to Disturbances The Effect of a Concentration Change on Equilibrium The Effect of a Volume (or Pressure) Change on Equilibrium The Effect of a Temperature Change on Equilibrium Chapter 15 Acids and Bases 15.1 Heartburn 15.2 The Nature of Acids and Bases 15.3 Definitions of Acids and Bases The Arrhenius Definition The Bronsted-Lowry definition 15.4 Acid Strength and the Acid Dissociation Constant (Ka) Strong Acids Weak Acids The acid ionization constant (Ka) 15.5 Autoionization of Water and pH The pH Scale: A Way to Quantify Acidity and Basicity pOH and Other p Scales Chemistry and Medicine: Ulcers 15.6 Finding the [H3O+] and pH of Strong and Weak Acid Solutions Percent Ionization of a Weak Acid Mixtures of Acids A Strong Acid and a Weak Acid A Mixture of Two Weak Acids 15.7 Base Solutions Strong Bases Weak Bases Finding [OH-] and pH of Basic Solutions Chemistry and Medicine: What's in my Antacid? 15.8 The Acid-Base Properties of Ions and Salts Anions as Weak Bases Cations as Weak Acids Classifying Salt Solutions as Acidic, Basic, or Neutral 15.9 Polyprotic Acids Finding the pH of Polyprotic Acid Solutions Finding the concentration of the anions for a weak diprotic acid solutions 15.10 Acid Strength and Molecular Structure Binary Acids Oxyacids 15.11 Lewis Acids and Bases Molecules that act as Lewis Acids Cations that act as Lewis Acids 15.12 Acid rain Effects of Acid Rain Chapter 16 Aqueous Ionic Equilibrium 16.1 The Danger of Antifreeze 16.2 Buffers: Solutions That Resist pH Change Calculating the pH of a Buffer Solution The Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation Calculating pH Changes in a Buffer Solution Buffers Containing a Base and Its Conjugate Acid 16.3 Buffer Effectiveness: Buffer Capacity and Buffer Range Relative Amounts of Acid and Base Absolute concentrations of the acid and conjugate base Buffer Range Buffer Capacity Chemistry and Medicine: Buffer Effectiveness in Human Blood 16.4 Titrations and pH Curves The Titration of a Strong Acid with a Strong Base The Titration of a Weak Acid with a Strong Base Titration of a Polyprotic Acid Indicators: pH-Dependent Colors 16.5 Solubility Equilibria and the Solubility Product Constant Ksp and Molar Solubility Chemistry in Your Day: Hard Water Ksp and Relative Solubility The Effect of a Common Ion on Solubility The Effect of pH on Solubility 16.6 Precipitation Selective Precipitation 16.7 Qualitative Chemical Analysis Group I: Insoluble Chlorides Group II: Acid-Insoluble Sulfides Group III: Base-Insoluble Sulfides and Hydroxides Group IV: Insoluble Carbonates Group V: Alkali Metals and NH4+ 16.8 Complex Ion Equilibria The Effect of Complex Ion Equilibria in Solubility The Solubility of Amphoteric Metal Hydroxides Chapter 17 Free Energy and Thermodynamics 17.1 Nature's Heat Tax: You Can't Win and You Can't Break Even 17.2 Spontaneous and Nonspontaneous Processes 17.3 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics Entropy The Second Law of Thermodynamics The Entropy Change Associated with a Change in State 17.4 Heat Transfer and Changes in the Entropy of the Surroundings The Temperature Dependence of ΠSsurr Quantifying Entropy Changes in the Surroundings 17.5 Gibbs Free Energy The Effect of ΠH, ΠS, and T on Spontaneity 17.6Entropy Changes in Chemical Reactions: Calculating ΠSrxn Degrees Standard Molar Entropies (S Degrees)and the Third Law of Thermodynamics Relative Standard Entropies: Gases, Liquids, and Solids Relative Standard Entropies: Molar Mass Relative Standard Entropies: Allotropes Relative Standard Entropies: Molecular Complexity Relative Standard Entropies: Dissolution Calculating the Standard Entropy Change (ΠSrxn Degrees) for a Reaction 17.7 Free Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions: Calculating (ΠGrxn Degrees) Calculating Free Energy Changes using ΠGrxn Degrees = ΠHrxn Degrees - T ΠSrxn Degrees. Calculating ΠGrxn Degrees using Tabulated Values of Free Energies of Formation Determining ΠGrxn Degrees for a Stepwise Reaction from the Changes in Free Energy for Each of the Steps Chemistry in Your Day: Making a Nonspontaneous Process Spontaneous Why Free Energy is "Free" 17.8 Free Energy Changers for Non-Standard States: The Relationship between ΠGrxn Degrees and ΠGrxn The Free Energy of reaction under Nonstandard Conditions 17.9 Free Energy and Equilibrium: Relating ΠGrxn Degrees to the Equilibrium Constant (K) The Temperature Dependence of the Equilibrium Constant Chapter 18 Electrochemistry 18.1 Pulling the Plug on the Power Grid 18.2 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations 18.3 Voltaic (or Galvanic) Cells: Generating Electricity from Spontaneous Chemical Reactions Electrochemical Cell Notation 18.4 Standard Reduction Potentials Predicting the Spontaneous Direction of an Oxidation-Reduction Reaction Predicting Whether a Metal Will Dissolve in Acid 18.5 Cell Potential, Free Energy, and the Equilibrium Constant The Relationship Between ΠGo and Eocell The Relationship between Eocell and K 18.6 Cell Potential and Concentration Concentration Chemistry and Medicine: Concentration Cells in Human Nerve Cells 18.7 Batteries: Using Chemistry to Generate Electricity Dry-Cell Batteries Lead-Acid Storage Batteries Other Rechargeable Batteries Fuel Cells Chemistry In Your Day: The Fue-Cell Breathalyzer 18.8 Electrolysis: Driving Non-spontaneous Chemical Reactions with Electricity Predicting the Products of Electrolysis Stoichiometry of Electrolysis 18.9 Corrosion: Undesirable Redox Reactions Preventing Corrosion Chapter 19 Radioactivity and Nuclear Chemistry 19.1 Diagnosing Appendicitis 19.2 The Discovery of Radioactivity 19.3 Types of Radioactivity Alpha (α) Decay Beta (β) Decay Gamma (γ) Ray Emission Postitron Emission Electron Capture 19.4 The Valley of Stability: Predicting the Type of Radioactivity Magic Numbers Radioactive Decay Series 19.5 Detecting Radioactivity 19.6 The Kinetics of Radioactive Decay and Radiometric Dating Chemistry in the Environment: Environmental Radon The Integrated Rate Law Radiocarbon Dating: Using Radioactivity to Measure the Age of Fossils and Artifacts Chemistry in your Day: Radiocarbon Dating and The Shroud of Turin Uranium-Lead Dating The Age of the Earth 19.7 The Discovery of Fission: The Atomic Bomb and Nuclear Power Nuclear Power: Using Fission to Generate Electricity 19.8 Converting Mass to Energy: Mass Defect and Nuclear Binding Energy Mass Defect 19.9 Nuclear Fusion: The Power of the Sun 19.10 Nuclear Transmutation and Transuranium Elements 19.11 The Effects of Radiation on Life Acute Radiation Damage Increased Cancer Risk Genetic Defects Measuring Radiation Exposure 19.12 Radioactivity in Medicine and Other Applications Diagnosis in Medicine Radiotherapy in Medicine Other Applications Chapter 20 Organic Chemistry 20.1 Fragrances and Odor 20.2 Carbon: Why It Is Unique Chemistry In Your Day: Vitalism and the Perceived Difference Between Organic and Inorganic 20.3 Hydrocarbons: Compounds Containing Only Carbon and Hydrocarbon Drawing Hydrocarbon Structures Stereo and Optical Isomerism 20.4 Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons Naming Alkanes 20.5 Alkenes and Alkynes Naming Alkenes and Alkynes Geometric (cis-trans) Isomerism in Alkenes 20.6 Hydrocarbon Reactions Reactions of Alkanes Reactions of Alkenes and Alkynes 20.7 Aromatic Hydrocarbons Naming Aromatic Hydrocarbons Reactions of Aromatic Compounds 20.8 Functional Groups 20.9 Alcohols Naming Alcohols About Alcohols Alcohol Reactions 20.10 Aldehydes and Ketones Naming Aldehydes and Ketones About Aldehydes and Ketones Aldehyde and Ketone Reactions 20.11 Carboxylic Acids and Esters Naming Carboxylic Acids and Esters About Carboxylic Acids and Esters Carboxylic Acid and Ester Reactions 20.12 Ethers Naming Ethers About Ethers 20.13 Amines Amine Reactions 20.14 Polymers Chemistry in Your Day: Kevlar Chapter 21 Biochemistry 21.1 Diabetes and the Synthesis of Human Insulin 21.2 Lipids Fatty Acids Fats and Oils Chemistry and Health: Dietary Fat: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly Other Lipids 21.3 Carbohydrates Simple Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides and Disaccharides Complex Carbohydrates 21.4 Proteins and Amino Acids Amino Acids: The Building Blocks of Proteins Peptide Bonding Between Amino Acids Chemistry and Medicine: The Essential Amino Acids 21.5 Protein Structure Primary Structure Secondary Structure Tertiary Structure Quaternary Structure 21.6 Nucleic Acids: Blueprints for Proteins Basic Structure of Nucleic Acids The Genetic Code 21.7 DNA Replication, the Double Helix, and Protein Synthesis DNA Replication and the Double Helix Protein Synthesis Chemistry and Medicine: The Human Genome Project Chapter 22 Chemistry of the Nonmetals 22.1 Insulated Nanowires 22.2 The Main-Group Elements: Bonding and Properties Atomic size and Types of Bonds 22.3 The Most Common Matter: Silicates Quartz and Glass Aluminosilicates Individual Silicate Units, Silicate Chains, and Silicate Sheets 22.4 Boron: An Intersting Group 3A Element and Its Amazing Structures Elemental Boron Boron Compounds: Trihalides Boron-Oxygen Compounds Boron-Hydrogen Compounds: Boranes 22.5 Carbon, Carbides, and Carbonates Carbon Carbides Carbon Oxides Carbonates 22.6 Nitrogen and Phosphorus: Essential Elements for Life Elemental Nitrogen and Phosphorus Nitrogen Compounds Nitrogen Hydrides Nitrogen Oxides Nitric Acid, Nitrates, and Nitrides Phosphorus Compounds Phosphine Phosphorus Halides Phosphorous Oxides Phosphoric Acid and Phosphates 22.7 Oxygen Elemental Oxygen Uses for Oxygen Oxides Ozone 22.8 Sulfur: A Dangerous but Useful Element Elemental Sulfur Hydrogen Sulfide and Metal Sulfides Sulfur Dioxide Sulfuric Acid 22.9 Halogens: Reactive Chemicals with High Electronegativity Elemental Fluorine and Hydrofluoric Acid Elemental Cl and HCl Halogen Compounds Interhalogen Compounds Halogen Oxides Chapter 23 Metals and Metallurgy 23.1 Vanadium: A Problem and an Opportunity 23.2 The General Properties and Natural Distribution of Metals 23.3 Metallurgical Processes Separation Pyrometallurgy Hydrometallurgy Electrometallurgy Powder Metallurgy 23.4 Metal Structures and Alloys Alloys Substitutional Alloys: Miscible Solid Solutions Alloys with Limited Solubility Interstital Alloys 23.5 Sources, Properties, and Products of Some of the 3d Transition Metals Titanium Chromium Manganese Cobalt Copper Nickel Zinc Chapter 24 Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds 24.1 The Colors of Rubies and Emeralds 24.2 Properties of Transition Metals Electronic Configurations Atomic Size Ionization Energy Electronegativity Oxidation States 24.3 Coordination Compounds Naming Coordination Compounds 24.4 Structure and Isomerization Structural Isomerism Stereoisomerism 24.5 Bonding in Coordinate Compounds Valance Bond Theory Crystal Field Theory Octahedral Complexes The Color of Complex Ions and Crystal Field Strength Magnetic Properties Tetrahedral and Square Planar Complexes Chelating Agents Chemical Analysis Coloring Agents Biomoleculesshow more

About Nivaldo J. Tro

Nivaldo Tro is Professor of Chemistry at Westmont College in Santa Barbara, California, where he has been a faculty member since 1990. He received his Ph.D. in chemistry from Stanford University, for work on developing and using optical techniques to study the adsorption and desorption of molecules to and from surfaces in ultrahigh vacuum. He then went on to the University of California at Berkeley, where he did post-doctoral research on ultra-fast reaction dynamics in solution. Since coming to Westmont, Professor Tro has been awarded grants from the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund, from Research Corporation, and from the National Science Foundation to study the dynamics of various processes occurring in thin adlayer films adsorbed on dielectric surfaces. He has twice been honored as Westmont's outstanding teacher of the year and has also received the college's outstanding researcher of the year award. Professor Tro lives in Santa Barbara with his wife, Ann, and their four children, Michael, Ali, Kyle, and Kaden. In his leisure time, Professor Tro enjoys reading good literature to his children and being outdoors with his more

Rating details

206 ratings
3.54 out of 5 stars
5 27% (55)
4 30% (62)
3 24% (50)
2 9% (19)
1 10% (20)
Book ratings by Goodreads
Goodreads is the world's largest site for readers with over 50 million reviews. We're featuring millions of their reader ratings on our book pages to help you find your new favourite book. Close X