Chartist Movement
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Chartist Movement : in its Social and Economic Aspects

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Professor Rosenblatt's The Chartist Movement was the first serious study of Chartism, using the techniques of modern scholarship, to appear in English. The book comprises a detailed account of the history of the movement, dealing mainly with the period from 1837 until the Chartist riots at Newport, South Wales, in November 1839. As well as describing the political, industrial and social conditions that gave birth to the Chartist movement, this work contains extremely useful statistical tables of the 543 persons who were convicted for offences committed in the furtherance of Chartism between January 1839 and June 1840. "This is a particularly satisfactory piece of work as regards sketches of the leaders of the movement and of the spirit in which they preached the gospel of revolt." - American Historical Review, 1916.show more

Product details

  • Paperback | 256 pages
  • 150 x 228 x 16mm | 379.99g
  • Taylor & Francis Ltd
  • ROUTLEDGE
  • London, United Kingdom
  • English
  • 1138865176
  • 9781138865174

Table of contents

Preface ... 7-9 CHAPTER I Prototypes of Chartism Chartism and the "six points"... 21 Distinct labor movement... 21 Expression of class consciousness... 21 The Levellers and Cromwell... 22 Society of the Supporters of the Bill of Rights... 22 Pitt, the Earl of Chatham... 22 Reform bills introduced by William Pitt... 22 Stanhope and Major Cartwright... 23 The Whigs and aristocratic clubs... 23 Reform bills introduced by the Duke of Richmond and Fox... 23-4 Society for Constitutional Information... 24 Government coalition in 1783... 24 Metamorphosis caused by the French Revolution... 24 The Duke of Richmond's letter on equality... 25 Burke's Reflections on the French Revolution... 25 Thomas Paine's Rights of Man... 26 The London Corresponding Society... 26 Government policy of oppression... 27 Suspension of Habeas Corpus act... 27 Radicalism revived after the Napoleonic war... 27 The Corn Laws of 1815... 27 William Cobbett and the Hampden Clubs... 28-30 Society of Spencean Philanthropists... 31 Riots and new suspension of Habeas Corpus act... 31 Benefit Societies and Botanical Meetings... 32 The Manchester Massacre... 32 The struggle for freedom... 33 The Reform Bill and the National Political Union... 33 CHAPTER II The Whig Rule Hopes inspired by the Reform Bill of 1832... 34 Ricardo's theory of rent... 34 Burden of taxes... 34-5 Selfish motives of manufacturers... 34 Reform Bill condemned by "Orator" Hunt and others... 35 Lord John Russell, the hero of the Reform Bill... 36 Thomas Attwood and the Birmingham Political Union... 36-7 Political corruption and inactivity... 37-9 Notorious Bedchamber Plot... 40 Old Poor Laws... 40 Competition between workingmen and paupers... 41-2 New Poor Law of 1834... 41-2 The "workhouse test"... 42 Poor Law Bastiles... 42 Opposition to the New Poor Law... 43-5 Bill passed under protest... 45 Stringency of administration... 45-6 CHAPTER III. The New Poor Law Philosophy of the new law... 47 Negligence of children on the part of officers... 48 Cruelties perpetrated in workhouses... 49 Lord Brougham's frankness... 50 Cobbett's opinion of the new law... 50 Bronterre's tribute to the "Money-monsters"... 50-1 Feargus O'Connor on excessive use of machinery... 51 Brougham's hatred of charity ... 52-3 "Stepping stone" to total abolition of relief... 53 Carlyle's comments... 54-5 Effects disguised for some time... 55 The Irish famine... 55 Distress in the Highlands and Islands... 55 Emigration to industrial centres... 56 Dwelling conditions in cities... 57-8 CHAPTER IV The Universal Distress General unemployment... 59-60 Weavers first victims... 60 Birmingham deputation... 61 Laissez faire policy... 61 Condition in agricultural districts... 61-2 "Not the time" plea against repeal of Corn Laws... 63 Rise of prices of wheat... 63 Distress among the workingmen... 64 Scourge of industrial cities... 65 Variation of mortality... 65 Progress of crime... 66-7 Proportion of commitments to population... 67 Persons in receipt of outdoor relief... 68 Workhouse inmates... 68 Petitions for repeal disregarded... 69 CHAPTER V Labor Legislation and Trade Unionism Whigs hostile towards labor legislation... 70 Campaign against evils of factory system led by ultra-Tories... 70-1 Freedom of contract and laissez faire doctrine... 71 Ten Hour Movement ... 71 Nassau Senior's "last hour" argument... 72 Government reports... 72 Ashley and his followers ... 73 Employment of women and children ... 73-4 Attempts at trade unionism in the beginning of factory system... 75 The Six Acts of 1819... 75 Francis Place and his victory... 76-7 New stratagem of labor leaders... 77 Influence of Ricardian socialists... 77 Owenism and Trade Unionism... 78 The manufacturers and the Government... 79 Nassau Senior's view on combinations and strikes... 79 Grand National Consolidated Trades' Union crushed... 80 New fight for freedom... 81 Apotheosis of political power ... 81 Bronterre's call for a grand national movement... 82 CHAPTER VI The People's Charter The London Working Men's Association and its objects... 84-5 Exclusiveness of the Association... 86 Source of social evil... 87 "The Rotten House of Commons"... 88-9 Missionaries on tour... 89 The "Six Points"... 90 Crown and Anchor meeting... 90 Roebuck and other radical members of Parliament... 90-1 Committee of twelve... 91 Prorogation of Parliament... 91 Birmingham Political Union enters campaign... 92 Correspondence between William Lovett and Lord John Russell... 92 Address to Queen Victoria... 93 Address to American workingmen... 94 Preparation of bill by Lovett and Roebuck... 95 Publication of "People's Charter"... 95 Address on principles of Charter... 95-7 CHAPTER VII The Leaders Most auspicious period... 98 Two parties in Chartist ranks... 98 Policy of moral force... 99 Advocates of physical force welcomed... 100 Class legislation condemned... 100 Discord suppressed for a time... 101 William Lovett and his early career... 102 First London Cooperative Trading Association... 102 Follower of Robert Owen... 103 Metropolitan Political Union... 103 National Union of the working classes... 103-4 Founder of London Working Men's Association... 104 Personal characteristics... 104-5 Feargus O'Connor's early career... 105 Quarrel with Daniel O'Connell... 106 Personal characteristics... 107-8 Opposed to Communism... 109 Machinery the source of all evil... 110 Inclined towards revolutionary policy... 110 Founder of London Democratic Association... 110-111 Repudiated terrorists... 111 Bronterre's early career... 112 His account of himself... 112-13 Literary activities ... 113 Admirer of Robespierre and Babeuf... 113 Personal characteristics... 114 Appointed borough magistrate... 137 Poor Law Guardian... 137 Member of Newport Workingmen's Association... 137 Chartist leader... 137 His relations with people... 137 CHAPTER IX The People State of ominous excitement... 138 Underground societies... 138 "Foreign Affairs Committee" at Birmingham... 138 Demonstration at Glasgow... 139 Thomas Attwood... 139 Suggestion of a "sacred strike"... 139 Provincial Scotch merchants and manufacturers... 139 Newcastle manifestation... 140 Defiant speeches... 140 Feargus O'Connor... 14 Reference to Brougham... 141 Appearance of troops causes indignation... 141 Meetings at Sunderland and Northampton ... 142 Addresses by Vincent and others Birmingham demonstration... 142 O'Connor and Attwood... 142 Physical force notions introduced... 142 Resolutions for National Petition and General Convention... 143 Anxiety among leaders of the London Working Men's Association... 143 Palace Yard demonstration in London... 143 Allusions to physical forcce... 144 Birmingham call endorsed... 145 Address of the London Working Men's Association to the Irish people... 145 Manchester demonstration... 146 Threats of vengeance... 146 O'Connor, Stephens and Fielden... 146-7 Peep Green demonstration... 147 Henry Vincent in the West... 147 His supremacy in Welsh territory... 147 Torch-light processions... 148 O'Connor, Stephens and Harney chief speakers... 148 People making arms... 149 Stephens at the Hyde meeting... 149 Lord John Russell's letter declaring torch-light meetings illegal... 149 His address at Liverpool... 149 Royal proclamation trampled under foot... 150 Chasm between workingmen and middle class... 150 Vincent and female organizations... 150 People invoked to prepare arms... 151 Military instructions... 151 "Science of killing" extolled... 151 Agitation among soldiers... 152 CHAPTER X The Petition, The Convention and the Government Proposals emanated from the moral force group... 153 Equal representation omitted... 153 Petition lacking in vigor of expression and definiteness... 153 Influence of Thomas Attwood... 153 Generous response of men and women... 154 Opening of Convention 154 Objects of Convention 154-5 Presentation of National Petition postponed... 155 Variety of problems discussed... 156 Addresses on the general distress distributed broadcast... 156 First collision between opposing factions... 156 Lovett elected secretary... 156 Missionaries of the Convention... 157 The London Democratic Association and Harney... 157 Resolutions submitted to Convention... 157 "Crown and Anchor" meeting cause of hostile criticism... 158 Resignation of three Birmingham delegates... 158-9 The "million of men" idea... 160 Vincent's exhortations to be prepared... 160 Resolution of Convention on the right to use arms... 161 Government spies Lord Russell and John Frost... 162 Frost's defiant letter... 162-4 Open hostility between the Government and the Chartists... 164 Frost's name struck from the roll of magistrates... 165 Indictment of Stephens... 165 Convention declared an illegal body... 165 Arrest of Vincent... 165 National Petition and Attwood Convention adjourned to Birmingham... 166 Lord Russell's letter to magistrates... 166 The Manifesto of the Convention... 166-8 Simultaneous meetings and "ulterior measures"... 168-9 Advocacy of terror and insurrection... 170 London police in Birmingham... 171 Recommendations of the Convention to the simultaneous meetings... 172 Success of the simultaneous meetings... 172 Reasons for the removal of the Convention to London... 173 Resolutions on the sacred month and other measures adopted... 173-4 CHAPTER XI The Wrestling Forces The Bull Ring attack in Birmingham... 175 The spirit of vengeance and terror... 176 The resolutions of the General Convention... 177 The arrest of Lovett and Collins... 177 Prisoners subjected to indignities... 178 Proclamation of martial law and wholesale arrests... 178 The daily meetings at Holloway Head and other places... 178 The Bull Ring riot... 178 Public meetings and resolutions... 179 The National Petition in Parliament... 179 Attwood's speech... 180 Lord Russell's reply... 180-2 Disraeli's interpretation of the Chartist movement... 182 The division on Attwood's motion... 183 The effect of the defeat on the Convention... 183 The sacred month resolution passed and rescinded... 183 Bronterre's resolution on the sacred month ... 184 The recommendation of the committee of five... 185 The national holiday a complete failure... 186 The dissolution of the Convention... 186 Arrests and trials for sedition... 186 The theory of the Attorney-General... 186 The trial of Lovett and Collins... 186 The resolution of the Birmingham Town Council... 186 The jury 187 Sergeant Goulburn's "opportunity" 187 Lovett's address to the jury... 187 Comments of the Morning Chronicle on the defence... 188 Conviction of Lovett and Collins... 188 Convictions of Stephens and other Chartists... 189 Public meetings and demonstrations... 189 Lovett and Collins subjected to rigorous discipline ... 189 Petitions in their favor... 189 Henry Vincent and his imprisonment... 190 The jury... 190 Remonstrances and protests by Welsh Chartists... 190 The Newport Riot... 190 CHAPTER XII The Newport Riot The role of Frost... 191 The plot to release Vincent by force... 191 The plan of a rising in Yorkshire and Lancashire... 191 O'Connor's late warning... 192 Frost's last public letter... 192-4 The plan of the Welsh Chartists Frost, Williams and Jones the chief commanders... 195-6 Steps taken by the mayor... 197 The progress of the rebels impeded by bad weather... 197 The fight at the Westgate Hotel... 197-8 George Shell's letter to his parents... 199 The arrests of the rebel leaders... 199 The mayor and constables rewarded... 200 The Chartist Convention in London and the defence committees... 200 The Special Commission... 200 The trials of Frost, Williams, Jones and others... 201 The sentence 201 The decision of the Court of Exchequer... 202 The anguish of the Attorney General... 203 Death sentence commuted to transportation for life... 204 Decoration of the graves of the Westgate victims... 204 Imprisonment of Bronterre, O'Connor, and others... 205 The distribution of Chartist prisoners... 205-6 The government victory 206 The new recruits... 207 Appendix A Petition agreed to at the "Crown and Anchor" meeting, February 28, 1837... 208 Appendix B The People's Charter... 213 Appendix C The National Petition... 234 Appendix D Dialogue on war, between a moral force Whig and a Chartist, by Bronterre... 239 Index... 245show more