Chamber's Encyclopaedia; A Dictionary of Universal Knowledge Volume 9

Chamber's Encyclopaedia; A Dictionary of Universal Knowledge Volume 9

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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1892 edition. Excerpt: ...war, and since the Crimean war of a permanent one for 5000 men. Shorthand. The problem which inventors of systems of shorthand have attempted to solve is thus formulated by Peter Bales (c. 1547-1610), a writing-master and stenographer--'to write as fast as a man speaketh treatablv.' 'This, ' he says, 'may in appearance seem difficult; but it is in effect very easy, containing a many commodities under a few principles, the shortness whereof is attained by memory, and swiftness by practice, and sweetness by industry.' Although three hundred years have elapsed since this assertion was made, ft has not yet been realised to the extent anticipated. Phonography Ls a growth of the age, and is the lineal descendant of the 200 different systems that have been published since the appearance of the first system of modern shorthand in 1588. It carries out fully the principle which all previous systems acknowledge, but do not faithfully apply--viz. that of enlarging the ordinary 26-letter alphabet. Those systems add to the alphabet three signs for ch, th, and sh; but these are not all the consonants in which our alphabet is deficient. Two signs are required for th, as pronounced in thin and then, one for ng in sing, and one for zh in pleasure (plezhure). But the principal defect in the ordinary systems of shorthand is in their vowel notation. They contain but five signs for the five vowels, a, e, -', o, n, which, single and combined, represent 17 different sounds. This disparity between the sounds of the language and the means of representing them made the reading of shorthand extremely difficult and uncertain. In the 18th century three systems were published, bv Tiffin, 1750; Lyle, 1762; and Holdsworth and AlJridge, 1768; and in the 19th century five..
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Product details

  • Paperback | 958 pages
  • 189 x 246 x 48mm | 1,674g
  • Miami Fl, United States
  • English
  • black & white illustrations
  • 1236615824
  • 9781236615824