Chamber's Encyclopaedia; A Dictionary of Universal Knowledge Volume 1

Chamber's Encyclopaedia; A Dictionary of Universal Knowledge Volume 1

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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1888 edition. Excerpt: ...actions are in themselves morally indifferent, and that men are concerned only with their results. The great philosophic sensualist stood out in strong relief against the gloom and austerity of Antisthenes and the Cynic school. The doctrine that makes pleasure the chief good is often called Hedonism (from Gr. kedone, 'pleasure'). Arisfolm Ills, an Alexandrian Jew and peripatetic philosopher, who lived about 170 B.C., was considered by the early fathers as the founder of the Jewish philosophy in Alexandria. He is said to have been the author of an allegorical commentary on the l)ooks of Moses, which showed that the oldest Greek writers borrowed from the Hebrew Scriptures; but it is now admitted that this work was written by a much later writer.--For the Hasmonean or Maccabee princes of this name, in 106 B.c. and 64 B.C. respectively, see Jews. Aristo'cracy (Gr. aristocratia, from aristos, 'best, ' and kratos, 'power') means etymologically the power or government of the best men. As used by Plato and Aristotle, it meant the government of a class, whose supremacy rested not on wealth alone, but on character and personal distinction. In point of fact, that class was a privileged one, consisting of the leading families, in which wealth and goodbreeding were hereditarv, and which long experience had trained to a iiabit of command. In an aristocracy, it was implied that the government of affairs should be for the public good, and not in a class interest. Oligarchy was a degenerate phase of aristocracy, in which the rule of the minority was founded on wealth, and conducted in its own narrow interests. Almost all countries have passed through a stage in which government has been in the hands o? a privileged class, which may be called an aristocracy ( more

Product details

  • Paperback | 948 pages
  • 189 x 246 x 47mm | 1,656g
  • Miami Fl, United States
  • English
  • black & white illustrations
  • 1236503562
  • 9781236503565