Carlucci Versus Kissinger
This book deals with a successful example of U.S. support to the transition from an undemocratic regime to a democratic one in Portugal. As Samuel Huntington wrote, Portugal represented the beginning of the "Third Wave of Democracy" and his example served as a model for subsequent democratization of Spain, Latin America and even the countries of the former Soviet Union. The Portuguese case of 1974-1976, is especially important now, as we witness the beginning of a fourth wave of democratization throughout the Middle East.
- Hardback | 278 pages
- 154.94 x 231.14 x 22.86mm | 589.67g
- 16 Aug 2011
- Lexington Books
- Lanham, MD, United States
Table of contents
1 Introduction Part 2 I. Wait and See Chapter 3 1. There Will be Regime Change in Portugal Chapter 4 2. A Military Coup d'Etat in Western Europe Chapter 5 3. Spinola and Costa Gomes Are In Charge Chapter 6 4. Communists in NATO Chapter 7 5. Guarantees from Spinola, Mario Soares and ... Alvaro Cunhal Chapter 8 6. The Nixon-Spinola Meeting in the Azores Chapter 9 7. The "Three Crises": Palma Carlos, Vasco Goncalves and the Mediterranean Chapter 10 8. September 28 and the End of the "Wait and See" Cycle Part 11 II. Low Intensity Involvement Chapter 12 1. The Lukens Mission Chapter 13 2. Costa Gomes and Mario Soares in the United States Chapter 14 3. Kissinger "Dismisses" Portugal from the NATO Nuclear Planning Group Chapter 15 4. Kennedy in Portugal Chapter 16 5. The US Approves Economic Aid Program for Portugal Chapter 17 6. Sa Carneiro in the US Chapter 18 7. Frank Carlucci Arrives in Portugal Chapter 19 8. Possible Communist Coup in Portugal Chapter 20 9. March 11th and the End of the "Low-Intensity Involvement" Cycle Part 21 III. Carlucci vs Kissinger Chapter 22 1. "Portugal: Courses of Action" Chapter 23 2. We Probably Have to "Attack" Portugal and Drive it from NATO Chapter 24 3."Vaccine" or "Support" Chapter 25 4. The US Reevaluates its Interests in the Azores Chapter 26 5. "The Election Was a Popularity Contest With No Significance" Chapter 27 6. The "Republica Affair" Increases International Import of the Revolution's Progress Chapter 28 7. Genscher Joins Kissinger and Melo Antunes Chapter 29 8. The NATO Summit and the US Attempt to Isolate Portugal Chapter 30 9. Possible Coup by Azorean Separatists Chapter 31 10. An American Secret Military Mission Chapter 32 11. Kissinger Encourages the Portuguese "Moderates" to Act Part 33 IV. Support for the "Moderates" Chapter 34 1. European Pressure at Helsinki Chapter 35 2. The "Nine's Document" and Contacts with the US Embassy Chapter 36 3. Carlucci "Beats" Kissinger Chapter 37 4. Support for the Democratic Parties Chapter 38 5. Carlucci's Primary Objective: Get Rid of Vasco Goncalves Chapter 39 6. The United States and Western Europe Discuss Plans for Portugal Chapter 40 7. Support for the Sixth Provisional Government Chapter 41 8. The American Contingency Plan for a Portuguese Civil War Chapter 42 9. The West and November 25th Part 43 V. Support for the Implementation of Democracy Chapter 44 1. The "Mensheviks' Victory" Chapter 45 2. Angola and Cuban Aircraft in Portugal Chapter 46 3. The Institutionalization of Democracy and Carlucci's Support Chapter 47 4. The "Jumbo Loan" Chapter 48 5. American Support for the Restructuring of the Armed Forces 49 Conclusion 50 Bibliography
This volume brings back memories of a long since supposedly settled issue on the views of Henry Kissinger and Frank Carlucci on how we handled a potential Communist takeover of Portugal's government by the Portuguese Communists and their international allies and supporters. Suffice it to say that the communists' attempt to put themselves in charge of a NATO ally would have led to serious problems for the Alliance. Suffice it to say as well, that thanks to the efforts of the other members of the alliance the Communist efforts to take over the government were thwarted. There is a certain degree of mythology over who crafted this victory of good over evil. In my view that is an irrelevant debate. What is important is that whether Frank Carlucci or Henry Kissinger is the architect of this victory, it was a victory that assured the continued strength of the NATO Alliance. -- Lawrence Eagleburger, former Secretary of State Bernardino Gomes and Tiago Moreira de Sa provide an important scholarly contribution with their study of U.S.-Portuguese relations, a subject that has been neglected by the discipline of American diplomatic history. Not only have the authors made impressive use of documents in Washington and Lisbon, they have interviewed some key historical figures in Portugal's transition to democracy, including Prime Minister Mario Soares and U.S. Ambassador Frank Carlucci, whose record as a Kissinger subordinate will surprise many readers. -- Lubna Z. Qureshi, author of Nixon, Kissinger, and Allende: U.S. Involvement in the 1973 Coup in Chile
About Bernardino Gomes
Bernardino Gomes is president of the Commissao Portuguesa do Atlantico. Tiago Moreira de Sa is guest assistant professor in New University of Lisbon and researcher at the Portuguese Institute for International Relations.