CCIE Routing and Switching Certification Guide

CCIE Routing and Switching Certification Guide

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* Master CCIE Routing and Switching 4.0 blueprint exam topics* Assess your knowledge with chapter-opening quizzes* Review key concepts with Exam Preparation Tasks* Practice with realistic exam questions on the CD-ROM CCIE Routing and Switching Certification Guide, Fourth Edition, is a best-of-breed Cisco(R) exam study guide that focuses specifically on the objectives for the CCIE(R) Routing and Switching written exam. Well-respected networking professionals Wendell Odom, Rus Healy, and Denise Donohue share preparation hints and test-taking tips, helping you identify areas of weakness and improve both your conceptual knowledge and hands-on skills. Material is presented in a concise manner, focusing on increasing your understanding and retention of exam topics. CCIE Routing and Switching Certification Guide, Fourth Edition, presents you with an organized test preparation routine through the use of proven series elements and techniques. "Do I Know This Already?" quizzes open each chapter and allow you to decide how much time you need to spend on each section. Exam topic lists make referencing easy. Chapter-ending Exam Preparation Tasks sections help drill you on key concepts you must know thoroughly. The companion CD-ROM contains a powerful testing engine that allows you to focus on individual topic areas or take complete, timed exams. The assessment engine also tracks your performance and provides feedback on a module-by-module basis, presenting question-by-question remediation to the text and laying out a complete study plan for review. Well regarded for its level of detail, assessment features, and challenging review questions and exercises, this official study guide helps you master the concepts and techniques that will enable you to succeed on the exam the first time. CCIE Routing and Switching Certification Guide, Fourth Edition, is part of a recommended learning path from Cisco that includes simulation and hands-on training from authorized Cisco Learning Partners and self-study products from Cisco Press. To find out more about instructor-led training, e-learning, and hands-on instruction offered by authorized Cisco Learning Partners worldwide, please visit www.cisco.com/go/authorizedtraining. The official study guide helps you master all the topics on the CCIE Routing and Switching written exam, including: * Bridging and LAN switching* IP addressing, IP services, TCP, UDP, and application protocol details* Layer 3 forwarding concepts* EIGRP, OSPF, and BGP routing protocols* Quality of service* Frame Relay* MPLS* IP multicast* IPv6* Router and switch security* Troubleshooting Companion CD-ROM The CD-ROM contains 200 practice questions for the exam. This volume is part of the Certification Guide Series from Cisco Press(R). Books in this series provide officially developed exam preparation materials that offer assessment, review, and practice to help Cisco Career Certification candidates identify weaknesses, concentrate their study efforts, and enhance their confidence as exam day nears. Category: Cisco Press-Cisco Certification Covers: CCIE Routing and Switching written exam 350-001 v4.0show more

Product details

  • Mixed media product | 1080 pages
  • 190.5 x 233.68 x 58.42mm | 1,905.08g
  • Pearson Education (US)
  • Cisco Press
  • Indianapolis, United States
  • English
  • Revised
  • 4th Revised edition
  • 1587059800
  • 9781587059803
  • 248,219

About Wendell Odom

Wendell Odom , CCIE No. 1624, is a 28-year veteran of the networking industry. He currently works as an independent author of Cisco certification resources and occasional instructor of Cisco authorized training for Skyline ATS. He has worked as a network engineer, consultant, systems engineer, instructor, and course developer. He is author of several best-selling Cisco certification titles. He maintains lists of current titles, links to Wendell's blogs, and other certification resources at www.TheCertZone.com. Rus Healy, CCIE No. 15025, has worked on several Cisco Press projects, including the third edition of this book as a coauthor, and the second edition as a technical reviewer. Rus is chief technology officer of Annese & Associates, Cisco's Education Partner of the Year for the Northeast US and Canada. Rus serves on the Board of Directors of Habitat for Humanity of New York State and Habitat for Humanity of Ontario County, NY. Denise Donohue, CCIE No. 9566, is senior solutions architect for ePlus Technology, a Cisco Gold partner. She works as a consulting engineer, designing networks for ePlus's customers. Prior to this role, she was a systems engineer for the data consulting arm of SBC/AT&T. She has co-authored several Cisco Press books in the areas of route/switch and voice. Denise has been a Cisco instructor and course director for Global Knowledge and did network consulting for many years. Her areas of specialization include route/switch, voice, and data center.show more

Back cover copy

Master CCIE Routing and Switching 4.0 blueprint exam topics Assess your knowledge with chapter-opening quizzes Review key concepts with Exam Preparation Tasks Practice with realistic exam questions on the CD-ROM "CCIE Routing and Switching Certification Guide, Fourth Edition, " is a best-of-breed Cisco(R) exam study guide that focuses specifically on the objectives for the CCIE(R) Routing and Switching written exam. Well-respected networking professionals Wendell Odom, Rus Healy, and Denise Donohue share preparation hints and test-taking tips, helping you identify areas of weakness and improve both your conceptual knowledge and hands-on skills. Material is presented in a concise manner, focusing on increasing your understanding and retention of exam topics. "CCIE Routing and Switching Certification Guide, Fourth Edition," presents you with an organized test preparation routine through the use of proven series elements and techniques. "Do I Know This Already?" quizzes open each chapter and allow you to decide how much time you need to spend on each section. Exam topic lists make referencing easy. Chapter-ending Exam Preparation Tasks sections help drill you on key concepts you must know thoroughly. The companion CD-ROM contains a powerful testing engine that allows you to focus on individual topic areas or take complete, timed exams. The assessment engine also tracks your performance and provides feedback on a module-by-module basis, presenting question-by-question remediation to the text and laying out a complete study plan for review. Well regarded for its level of detail, assessment features, and challenging review questions and exercises, this official study guide helps you master the concepts and techniques that will enable you to succeed on the exam the first time. " " "CCIE Routing and Switching Certification Guide, Fourth Edition, " is part of a recommended learning path from Cisco that includes simulation and hands-on training from authorized Cisco Learning Partners and self-study products from Cisco Press. To find out more about instructor-led training, e-learning, and hands-on instruction offered by authorized Cisco Learning Partners worldwide, please visit www.cisco.com/go/authorizedtraining. The official study guide helps you master all the topics on the CCIE Routing and Switching written exam, including: Bridging and LAN switching IP addressing, IP services, TCP, UDP, and application protocol details Layer 3 forwarding concepts EIGRP, OSPF, and BGP routing protocols Quality of service Frame Relay MPLS IP multicast IPv6 Router and switch security Troubleshooting Companion CD-ROM The CD-ROM contains 200 practice questions for the exam. This volume is part of the Certification Guide Series from Cisco Press(R). Books in this series provide officially developed exam preparation materials that offer assessment, review, and practice to help Cisco Career Certification candidates identify weaknesses, concentrate their study efforts, and enhance their confidence as exam day nears. Category: Cisco Press-Cisco Certification Covers: CCIE Routing and Switching written exam 350-001 v4.0show more

Table of contents

Foreword xxxi Introduction xxxii Part I LAN Switching Chapter 1 Ethernet Basics 3 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 3 Foundation Topics Ethernet Layer 1: Wiring, Speed, and Duplex 7 RJ-45 Pinouts and Category 5 Wiring 7 Auto-negotiation, Speed, and Duplex 8 CSMA/CD 9 Collision Domains and Switch Buffering 9 Basic Switch Port Configuration 11 Ethernet Layer 2: Framing and Addressing 13 Types of Ethernet Addresses 15 Ethernet Address Formats 16 Protocol Types and the 802.3 Length Field 17 Switching and Bridging Logic 18 SPAN and RSPAN 20 Core Concepts of SPAN and RSPAN 22 Restrictions and Conditions 22 Basic SPAN Configuration 24 Complex SPAN Configuration 24 RSPAN Configuration 25 Foundation Summary Memory Builders 29 Fill In Key Tables from Memory 29 Definitions 29 Further Reading 29 Chapter 2 Virtual LANs and VLAN Trunking 31 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 31 Foundation Topics Virtual LANs 35 VLAN Configuration 35 Using VLAN Database Mode to Create VLANs 36 Using Configuration Mode to Put Interfaces into VLANs 38 Using Configuration Mode to Create VLANs 39 Private VLANs 40 VLAN Trunking Protocol 42 VTP Process and Revision Numbers 43 VTP Configuration 44 Normal-Range and Extended-Range VLANs 46 Storing VLAN Configuration 47 VLAN Trunking: ISL and 802.1Q 48 ISL and 802.1Q Concepts 48 ISL and 802.1Q Configuration 49 Allowed, Active, and Pruned VLANs 52 Trunk Configuration Compatibility 52 Configuring Trunking on Routers 53 802.1Q-in-Q Tunneling 55 Configuring PPPoE 56 Foundation Summary Memory Builders 60 Fill In Key Tables from Memory 61 Definitions 61 Further Reading 61 Chapter 3 Spanning Tree Protocol 63 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 63 Foundation Topics 802.1d Spanning Tree Protocol 67 Choosing Which Ports Forward: Choosing Root Ports and Designated Ports 67 Electing a Root Switch 67 Determining the Root Port 69 Determining the Designated Port 70 Converging to a New STP Topology 71 Topology Change Notification and Updating the CAM 72 Transitioning from Blocking to Forwarding 73 Per-VLAN Spanning Tree and STP over Trunks 74 STP Configuration and Analysis 76 Optimizing Spanning Tree 79 PortFast, UplinkFast, and BackboneFast 79 PortFast 80 UplinkFast 80 BackboneFast 81 PortFast, UplinkFast, and BackboneFast Configuration 81 PortChannels 82 Load Balancing Across PortChannels 82 PortChannel Discovery and Configuration 83 Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol 84 Rapid Per-VLAN Spanning Tree Plus (RPVST+) 86 Multiple Spanning Trees: IEEE 802.1s 87 Protecting STP 88 Root Guard and BPDU Guard: Protecting Access Ports 89 UDLD and Loop Guard: Protecting Trunks 89 Troubleshooting Complex Layer 2 Issues 91 Layer 2 Troubleshooting Process 91 Layer 2 Protocol Troubleshooting and Commands 92 Troubleshooting Using Basic Interface Statistics 92 Troubleshooting Spanning Tree Protocol 95 Troubleshooting Trunking 95 Troubleshooting VTP 96 Troubleshooting EtherChannels 98 Approaches to Resolving Layer 2 Issues 100 Foundation Summary Memory Builders 103 Fill in Key Tables from Memory 103 Definitions 103 Further Reading 103 Part II IP Chapter 4 P Addressing 105 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 105 Foundation Topics IP Addressing and Subnetting 108 IP Addressing and Subnetting Review 108 Subnetting a Classful Network Number 109 Comments on Classless Addressing 111 Subnetting Math 111 Dissecting the Component Parts of an IP Address 111 Finding Subnet Numbers and Valid Range of IP Addresses-Binary 112 Decimal Shortcuts to Find the Subnet Number and Valid Range of IP Addresses 113 Determining All Subnets of a Network-Binary 116 Determining All Subnets of a Network-Decimal 118 VLSM Subnet Allocation 119 Route Summarization Concepts 121 Finding Inclusive Summary Routes-Binary 122 Finding Inclusive Summary Routes-Decimal 123 Finding Exclusive Summary Routes-Binary 124 CIDR, Private Addresses, and NAT 125 Classless Interdomain Routing 125 Private Addressing 127 Network Address Translation 127 Static NAT 128 Dynamic NAT Without PAT 130 Overloading NAT with Port Address Translation 131 Dynamic NAT and PAT Configuration 132 Foundation Summary Memory Builders 138 Fill in Key Tables from Memory 138 Definitions 139 Further Reading 139 Chapter 5 IP Services 141 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 141 Foundation Topics ARP, Proxy ARP, Reverse ARP, BOOTP, and DHCP 146 ARP and Proxy ARP 146 RARP, BOOTP, and DHCP 147 DHCP 148 HSRP, VRRP, and GLBP 150 Network Time Protocol 154 SNMP 155 SNMP Protocol Messages 157 SNMP MIBs 158 SNMP Security 159 Syslog 159 Web Cache Communication Protocol 160 Implementing the Cisco IOS IP Service Level Agreement (IP SLA) Feature 163 Implementing NetFlow 165 Implementing Router IP Traffic Export 166 Implementing Cisco IOS Embedded Event Manager 167 Implementing Remote Monitoring 169 Implementing and Using FTP on a Router 170 Implementing a TFTP Server on a Router 171 Implementing Secure Copy Protocol 171 Implementing HTTP and HTTPS Access 172 Implementing Telnet Access 172 Implementing SSH Access 173 Foundation Summary Memory Builders 179 Fill In Key Tables from Memory 179 Definitions 179 Further Reading 179 Part III IP Routing Chapter 6 Forwarding (Routing) 181 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 181 Foundation Topics IP Forwarding 186 Process Switching, Fast Switching, and Cisco Express Forwarding 187 Building Adjacency Information: ARP and Inverse ARP 188 Frame Relay Inverse ARP 189 Static Configuration of Frame Relay Mapping Information 192 Disabling InARP 193 Classless and Classful Routing 194 Multilayer Switching 195 MLS Logic 195 Using Routed Ports and PortChannels with MLS 196 MLS Configuration 197 Policy Routing 201 Optimized Edge Routing and Performance Routing 206 Device Roles in PfR 208 MC High Availability and Failure Considerations 209 PfR Configuration 209 GRE Tunnels 211 Foundation Summary Memory Builders 215 Fill In Key Tables from Memory 215 Definitions 215 Further Reading 215 Chapter 7 EIGRP 217 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 217 Foundation Topics EIGRP Basics and Steady-State Operation 221 Hellos, Neighbors, and Adjacencies 221 EIGRP Updates 224 The EIGRP Topology Table 226 EIGRP Convergence 228 Input Events and Local Computation 229 Going Active on a Route 231 Stuck-in-Active 233 Limiting Query Scope 234 EIGRP Configuration 234 EIGRP Configuration Example 234 EIGRP Load Balancing 237 EIGRP Authentication 238 EIGRP Automatic Summarization 239 EIGRP Split Horizon 240 EIGRP Route Filtering 240 EIGRP Offset Lists 242 Clearing the IP Routing Table 243 Foundation Summary Memory Builders 246 Fill In Key Tables from Memory 246 Definitions 246 Further Reading 247 Chapter 8 OSPF 249 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 249 Foundation Topics OSPF Database Exchange 254 OSPF Router IDs 254 Becoming Neighbors, Exchanging Databases, and Becoming Adjacent 255 Becoming Neighbors: The Hello Process 257 Flooding LSA Headers to Neighbors 258 Database Descriptor Exchange: Master/Slave Relationship 259 Requesting, Getting, and Acknowledging LSAs 259 Designated Routers on LANs 260 Designated Router Optimization on LANs 260 DR Election on LANs 262 Designated Routers on WANs and OSPF Network Types 263 Caveats Regarding OSPF Network Types over NBMA Networks 264 Example of OSPF Network Types and NBMA 265 SPF Calculation 268 Steady-State Operation 269 OSPF Design and LSAs 269 OSPF Design Terms 270 OSPF Path Selection Process 271 LSA Types and Network Types 271 LSA Types 1 and 2 272 LSA Type 3 and Inter-Area Costs 275 Removing Routes Advertised by Type 3 LSAs 278 LSA Types 4 and 5, and External Route Types 1 and 2 278 OSPF Design in Light of LSA Types 280 Stubby Areas 281 Graceful Restart 284 OSPF Path Choices That Do Not Use Cost 285 Choosing the Best Type of Path 285 Best-Path Side Effects of ABR Loop Prevention 286 OSPF Configuration 288 OSPF Costs and Clearing the OSPF Process 290 Alternatives to the OSPF Network Command 292 OSPF Filtering 293 Filtering Routes Using the distribute-list Command 293 OSPF ABR LSA Type 3 Filtering 295 Filtering Type 3 LSAs with the area range Command 296 Virtual Link Configuration 296 Configuring OSPF Authentication 298 OSPF Stub Router Configuration 301 Foundation Summary Memory Builders 306 Fill In Key Tables from Memory 307 Definitions 307 Further Reading 307 Chapter 9 IGP Route Redistribution, Route Summarization, Default Routing, and Troubleshooting 309 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 309 Foundation Topics Route Maps, Prefix Lists, and Administrative Distance 314 Configuring Route Maps with the route-map Command 314 Route Map match Commands for Route Redistribution 316 Route Map set Commands for Route Redistribution 317 IP Prefix Lists 318 Administrative Distance 320 Route Redistribution 321 Mechanics of the redistribute Command 321 Redistribution Using Default Settings 322 Setting Metrics, Metric Types, and Tags 325 Redistributing a Subset of Routes Using a Route Map 326 Mutual Redistribution at Multiple Routers 330 Preventing Suboptimal Routes by Setting the Administrative Distance 332 Preventing Suboptimal Routes by Using Route Tags 335 Using Metrics and Metric Types to Influence Redistributed Routes 337 Route Summarization 339 EIGRP Route Summarization 341 OSPF Route Summarization 341 Default Routes 342 Using Static Routes to 0.0.0.0, with redistribute static 344 Using the default-information originate Command 345 Using the ip default-network Command 346 Using Route Summarization to Create Default Routes 347 Troubleshooting Complex Layer 3 Issues 349 Layer 3 Troubleshooting Process 349 Layer 3 Protocol Troubleshooting and Commands 351 IP Routing Processes 352 Approaches to Resolving Layer 3 Issues 359 Foundation Summary Memory Builders 363 Fill In Key Tables from Memory 363 Definitions 363 Further Reading 363 Chapter 10 Fundamentals of BGP Operations 365 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 365 Foundation Topics Building BGP Neighbor Relationships 371 Internal BGP Neighbors 372 External BGP Neighbors 375 Checks Before Becoming BGP Neighbors 376 BGP Messages and Neighbor States 378 BGP Message Types 378 Purposefully Resetting BGP Peer Connections 379 Building the BGP Table 380 Injecting Routes/Prefixes into the BGP Table 380 BGP network Command 380 Redistributing from an IGP, Static, or Connected Route 383 Impact of Auto-Summary on Redistributed Routes and the network Command 385 Manual Summaries and the AS_PATH Path Attribute 388 Adding Default Routes to BGP 391 ORIGIN Path Attribute 392 Advertising BGP Routes to Neighbors 393 BGP Update Message 393 Determining the Contents of Updates 394 Example: Impact of the Decision Process and NEXT_HOP on BGP Updates 396 Summary of Rules for Routes Advertised in BGP Updates 402 Building the IP Routing Table 402 Adding eBGP Routes to the IP Routing Table 402 Backdoor Routes 403 Adding iBGP Routes to the IP Routing Table 404 Using Sync and Redistributing Routes 406 Disabling Sync and Using BGP on All Routers in an AS 408 Confederations 409 Configuring Confederations 411 Route Reflectors 414 Foundation Summary Memory Builders 424 Fill In Key Tables from Memory 424 Definitions 424 Further Reading 425 Chapter 11 BGP Routing Policies 427 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 427 Foundation Topics Route Filtering and Route Summarization 433 Filtering BGP Updates Based on NLRI 434 Route Map Rules for NLRI Filtering 437 Soft Reconfiguration 438 Comparing BGP Prefix Lists, Distribute Lists, and Route Maps 438 Filtering Subnets of a Summary Using the aggregate-address Command 439 Filtering BGP Updates by Matching the AS_PATH PA 440 The BGP AS_PATH and AS_PATH Segment Types 441 Using Regular Expressions to Match AS_PATH 443 Example: Matching AS_PATHs Using AS_PATH Filters 446 Matching AS_SET and AS_CONFED_SEQ 449 BGP Path Attributes and the BGP Decision Process 452 Generic Terms and Characteristics of BGP PAs 452 The BGP Decision Process 454 Clarifications of the BGP Decision Process 455 Three Final Tiebreaker Steps in the BGP Decision Process 455 Adding Multiple BGP Routes to the IP Routing Table 456 Mnemonics for Memorizing the Decision Process 456 Configuring BGP Policies 458 Background: BGP PAs and Features Used by Routing Policies 458 Step 0: NEXT_HOP Reachable 460 Step 1: Administrative Weight 460 Step 2: Highest Local Preference (LOCAL_PREF) 463 Step 3: Choose Between Locally Injected Routes Based on ORIGIN PA 466 Step 4: Shortest AS_PATH 467 Removing Private ASNs 467 AS_PATH Prepending and Route Aggregation 468 Step 5: Best ORIGIN PA 471 Step 6: Smallest Multi-Exit Discriminator 471 Configuring MED: Single Adjacent AS 473 Configuring MED: Multiple Adjacent Autonomous Systems 474 The Scope of MED 474 Step 7: Prefer Neighbor Type eBGP over iBGP 475 Step 8: Smallest IGP Metric to the NEXT_HOP 475 The maximum-paths Command and BGP Decision Process Tiebreakers 475 Step 9: Lowest BGP Router ID of Advertising Router (with One Exception) 476 Step 10: Lowest Neighbor ID 476 The BGP maximum-paths Command 476 BGP Communities 478 Matching COMMUNITY with Community Lists 482 Removing COMMUNITY Values 483 Filtering NLRI Using Special COMMUNITY Values 484 Foundation Summary 486 Memory Builders 490 Fill In Key Tables from Memory 490 Definitions 490 Further Reading 490 Part IV QoS Chapter 12 Classification and Marking 493 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 493 Foundation Topics Fields That Can Be Marked for QoS Purposes 497 IP Precedence and DSCP Compared 497 DSCP Settings and Terminology 498 Class Selector PHB and DSCP Values 499 Assured Forwarding PHB and DSCP Values 499 Expedited Forwarding PHB and DSCP Values 500 Non-IP Header Marking Fields 501 Ethernet LAN Class of Service 501 WAN Marking Fields 501 Locations for Marking and Matching 502 Cisco Modular QoS CLI 503 Mechanics of MQC 504 Classification Using Class Maps 505 Using Multiple match Commands 506 Classification Using NBAR 507 Classification and Marking Tools 508 Class-Based Marking (CB Marking) Configuration 508 CB Marking Example 509 CB Marking of CoS and DSCP 513 Network-Based Application Recognition 515 CB Marking Design Choices 516 Marking Using Policers 517 QoS Pre-Classification 518 Policy Routing for Marking 519 AutoQoS 519 AutoQoS for VoIP 520 AutoQos VoIP on Switches 520 AutoQoS VoIP on Routers 521 Verifying AutoQoS VoIP 522 AutoQoS for the Enterprise 522 Discovering Traffic for AutoQoS Enterprise 522 Generating the AutoQoS Configuration 523 Verifying AutoQos for the Enterprise 523 Foundation Summary 524 Memory Builders 526 Fill In Key Tables from Memory 526 Definitions 526 Further Reading 527 Chapter 13 Congestion Management and Avoidance 529 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 529 Cisco Router Queuing Concepts 533 Software Queues and Hardware Queues 533 Queuing on Interfaces Versus Subinterfaces and Virtual Circuits 534 Comparing Queuing Tools 534 Queuing Tools: CBWFQ and LLQ 535 CBWFQ Basic Features and Configuration 536 Defining and Limiting CBWFQ Bandwidth 538 Low-Latency Queuing 541 Defining and Limiting LLQ Bandwidth 543 LLQ with More Than One Priority Queue 545 Miscellaneous CBWFQ/LLQ Topics 545 Queuing Summary 546 Weighted Random Early Detection 546 How WRED Weights Packets 548 WRED Configuration 549 Modified Deficit Round-Robin 550 LAN Switch Congestion Management and Avoidance 552 Cisco Switch Ingress Queueing 553 Creating a Priority Queue 553 Cisco 3560 Congestion Avoidance 555 Cisco 3560 Switch Egress Queuing 556 Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) 559 RSVP Process Overview 560 Configuring RSVP 562 Using RSVP for Voice Calls 563 Foundation Summary 565 Memory Builders 565 Fill In Key Tables from Memory 565 Definitions 565 Further Reading 565 Chapter 14 Shaping, Policing, and Link Fragmentation 567 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 567 Foundation Topics 572 Traffic-Shaping Concepts 572 Shaping Terminology 572 Shaping with an Excess Burst 574 Underlying Mechanics of Shaping 574 Traffic-Shaping Adaptation on Frame Relay Networks 576 Generic Traffic Shaping 576 Class-Based Shaping 578 Tuning Shaping for Voice Using LLQ and a Small Tc 580 Configuring Shaping by Bandwidth Percent 583 CB Shaping to a Peak Rate 584 Adaptive Shaping 584 Frame Relay Traffic Shaping 584 FRTS Configuration Using the traffic-rate Command 586 Setting FRTS Parameters Explicitly 587 FRTS Configuration Using LLQ 588 FRTS Adaptive Shaping 590 FRTS with MQC 590 Policing Concepts and Configuration 590 CB Policing Concepts 591 Single-Rate, Two-Color Policing (One Bucket) 591 Single-Rate, Three-Color Policer (Two Buckets) 592 Two-Rate, Three-Color Policer (Two Buckets) 593 Class-Based Policing Configuration 595 Single-Rate, Three-Color Policing of All Traffic 595 Policing a Subset of the Traffic 596 CB Policing Defaults for Bc and Be 597 Configuring Dual-Rate Policing 597 Multi-Action Policing 597 Policing by Percentage 598 Committed Access Rate 599 QoS Troubleshooting and Commands 601 Troubleshooting Slow Application Response 602 Troubleshooting Voice and Video Problems 603 Other QoS Troubleshooting Tips 604 Approaches to Resolving QoS Issues 605 Foundation Summary 606 Memory Builders 608 Fill In Key Tables from Memory 608 Definitions 608 Further Reading 609 Part V Wide-Area Networks Chapter 15 Wide-Area Networks 611 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 611 Foundation Topics 614 Point-to-Point Protocol 614 PPP Link Control Protocol 615 Basic LCP/PPP Configuration 615 Multilink PPP 617 MLP Link Fragmentation and Interleaving 619 PPP Compression 620 PPP Layer 2 Payload Compression 621 Header Compression 621 Frame Relay Concepts 622 Frame Relay Data Link Connection Identifiers 623 Local Management Interface 624 Frame Relay Headers and Encapsulation 625 Frame Relay Congestion: DE, BECN, and FECN 626 Adaptive Shaping, FECN, and BECN 627 Discard Eligibility Bit 628 Frame Relay Configuration 628 Frame Relay Configuration Basics 629 Frame Relay Payload Compression 632 Frame Relay Fragmentation 634 Frame Relay LFI Using Multilink PPP (MLP) 636 Foundation Summary 638 Memory Builders 641 Fill In Key Tables from Memory 641 Definitions 641 Part VI IP Multicast Chapter 16 Introduction to IP Multicasting 643 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 643 Foundation Topics 646 Why Do You Need Multicasting? 646 Problems with Unicast and Broadcast Methods 647 How Multicasting Provides a Scalable and Manageable Solution 649 Multicast IP Addresses 652 Multicast Address Range and Structure 652 Well-Known Multicast Addresses 652 Multicast Addresses for Permanent Groups 653 Multicast Addresses for Source-Specific Multicast Applications and Protocols 654 Multicast Addresses for GLOP Addressing 654 Multicast Addresses for Private Multicast Domains 655 Multicast Addresses for Transient Groups 655 Summary of Multicast Address Ranges 655 Mapping IP Multicast Addresses to MAC Addresses 656 Managing Distribution of Multicast Traffic with IGMP 657 Joining a Group 658 Internet Group Management Protocol 659 IGMP Version 2 660 IGMPv2 Host Membership Query Functions 662 IGMPv2 Host Membership Report Functions 663 IGMPv2 Leave Group and Group-Specific Query Messages 666 IGMPv2 Querier 669 IGMPv2 Timers 669 IGMP Version 3 670 LAN Multicast Optimizations 672 Cisco Group Management Protocol 672 IGMP Snooping 678 Router-Port Group Management Protocol 683 Foundation Summary 686 Memory Builders 686 Fill In Key Tables from Memory 687 Definitions 687 Further Reading 687 References in This Chapter 687 Chapter 17 IP Multicast Routing 689 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 689 Foundation Topics 693 Multicast Routing Basics 693 Overview of Multicast Routing Protocols 694 Multicast Forwarding Using Dense Mode 694 Reverse Path Forwarding Check 695 Multicast Forwarding Using Sparse Mode 697 Multicast Scoping 699 TTL Scoping 699 Administrative Scoping 700 Dense-Mode Routing Protocols 700 Operation of Protocol Independent Multicast Dense Mode 701 Forming PIM Adjacencies Using PIM Hello Messages 701 Source-Based Distribution Trees 702 Prune Message 703 PIM-DM: Reacting to a Failed Link 705 Rules for Pruning 707 Steady-State Operation and the State Refresh Message 709 Graft Message 711 LAN-Specific Issues with PIM-DM and PIM-SM 712 Prune Override 712 Assert Message 713 Designated Router 715 Summary of PIM-DM Messages 715 Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol 716 Multicast Open Shortest Path First 716 Sparse-Mode Routing Protocols 717 Operation of Protocol Independent Multicast Sparse Mode 717 Similarities Between PIM-DM and PIM-SM 717 Sources Sending Packets to the Rendezvous Point 718 Joining the Shared Tree 720 Completion of the Source Registration Process 722 Shared Distribution Tree 724 Steady-State Operation by Continuing to Send Joins 725 Examining the RP's Multicast Routing Table 726 Shortest-Path Tree Switchover 727 Pruning from the Shared Tree 729 Dynamically Finding RPs and Using Redundant RPs 730 Dynamically Finding the RP Using Auto-RP 731 Dynamically Finding the RP Using BSR 735 Anycast RP with MSDP 737 Interdomain Multicast Routing with MSDP 739 Summary: Finding the RP 741 Bidirectional PIM 742 Comparison of PIM-DM and PIM-SM 743 Source-Specific Multicast 744 Foundation Summary 746 Memory Builders 750 Fill In Key Tables from Memory 750 Definitions 751 Further Reading 751 Part VII Security Chapter 18 Security 753 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 753 Foundation Topics 757 Router and Switch Device Security 757 Simple Password Protection for the CLI 757 Better Protection of Enable and Username Passwords 758 Using Secure Shell Protocol 759 User Mode and Privileged Mode AAA Authentication 760 Using a Default Set of Authentication Methods 761 Using Multiple Authentication Methods 763 Groups of AAA Servers 764 Overriding the Defaults for Login Security 764 PPP Security 765 Layer 2 Security 766 Switch Security Best Practices for Unused and User Ports 767 Port Security 767 Dynamic ARP Inspection 771 DHCP Snooping 774 IP Source Guard 777 802.1X Authentication Using EAP 777 Storm Control 780 General Layer 2 Security Recommendations 782 Layer 3 Security 783 IP Access Control List Review 784 ACL Rule Summary 785 Wildcard Masks 787 General Layer 3 Security Considerations 788 Smurf Attacks, Directed Broadcasts, and RPF Checks 788 Inappropriate IP Addresses 790 TCP SYN Flood, the Established Bit, and TCP Intercept 790 Classic Cisco IOS Firewall 793 TCP Versus UDP with CBAC 793 Cisco IOS Firewall Protocol Support 794 Cisco IOS Firewall Caveats 794 Cisco IOS Firewall Configuration Steps 795 Cisco IOS Zone-Based Firewall 796 Cisco IOS Intrusion Prevention System 801 Control-Plane Policing 804 Preparing for CoPP Implementation 805 Implementing CoPP 806 Dynamic Multipoint VPN 809 Foundation Summary 811 Memory Builders 814 Fill In Key Tables from Memory 815 Definitions 815 Further Reading 815 Part VIII MPLS Chapter 19 Multiprotocol Label Switching 817 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 817 Foundation Topics 821 MPLS Unicast IP Forwarding 821 MPLS IP Forwarding: Data Plane 822 CEF Review 822 Overview of MPLS Unicast IP Forwarding 823 MPLS Forwarding Using the FIB and LFIB 825 The MPLS Header and Label 826 The MPLS TTL Field and MPLS TTL Propagation 827 MPLS IP Forwarding: Control Plane 829 MPLS LDP Basics 829 The MPLS Label Information Base Feeding the FIB and LFIB 832 Examples of FIB and LFIB Entries 836 Label Distribution Protocol Reference 838 MPLS VPNs 839 The Problem: Duplicate Customer Address Ranges 840 The Solution: MPLS VPNs 841 MPLS VPN Control Plane 844 Virtual Routing and Forwarding Tables 844 MP-BGP and Route Distinguishers 846 Route Targets 848 Overlapping VPNs 850 MPLS VPN Configuration 851 Configuring the VRF and Associated Interfaces 853 Configuring the IGP Between PE and CE 855 Configuring Redistribution Between PE-CE IGP and MP-BGP 858 Configuring MP-BGP Between PEs 861 MPLS VPN Data Plane 863 Building the (Inner) VPN Label 865 Creating LFIB Entries to Forward Packets to the Egress PE 866 Creating VRF FIB Entries for the Ingress PE 868 Penultimate Hop Popping 869 Other MPLS Applications 870 VRF Lite 872 VRF Lite, Without MPLS 872 VRF Lite with MPLS 875 Foundation Summary 877 Memory Builders 877 Fill In Key Tables from Memory 877 Definitions 877 Further Reading 877 Part IX IP Version 6 Chapter 20 IP Version 6 879 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 879 Foundation Topics 883 IPv6 Addressing and Address Types 884 IPv6 Address Notation 884 Address Abbreviation Rules 885 IPv6 Address Types 885 Unicast 886 Multicast 889 Anycast 891 The Unspecified Address 892 IPv6 Address Autoconfiguration 892 EUI-64 Address Format 892 Basic IPv6 Functionality Protocols 894 Neighbor Discovery 894 Neighbor Advertisements 896 Neighbor Solicitation 896 Router Advertisement and Router Solicitation 897 Duplicate Address Detection 898 Neighbor Unreachability Detection 899 ICMPv6 899 Unicast Reverse Path Forwarding 900 DNS 901 CDP 901 DHCP 902 Access Lists 903 Traffic Filtering with Access Lists 904 IPv6 Static Routes 904 IPv6 Unicast Routing Protocols 906 OSPFv3 907 Differences Between OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 907 Virtual Links, Address Summarization, and Other OSPFv3 Features 908 OSPFv3 LSA Types 908 OSPFv3 in NBMA Networks 909 Configuring OSPFv3 over Frame Relay 910 Enabling and Configuring OSPFv3 910 Authentication and Encryption 918 EIGRP for IPv6 918 Differences Between EIGRP for IPv4 and for IPv6 918 Unchanged Features 919 Route Filtering 920 Configuring EIGRP for IPv6 920 Route Redistribution and Filtering 927 IPv6 Route Redistribution 927 Redistribution Example 928 Quality of Service 931 QoS Implementation Strategy 932 Classification, Marking, and Queuing 932 Congestion Avoidance 933 Traffic Shaping and Policing 933 Tunneling Techniques 933 Tunneling Overview 933 Manually Configured Tunnels 935 Automatic IPv4-Compatible Tunnels 936 IPv6 over IPv4 GRE Tunnels 936 Automatic 6to4 Tunnels 937 ISATAP Tunnels 939 NAT-PT 939 IPv6 Multicast 940 Multicast Listener Discovery 940 Explicit Tracking 941 PIM 941 PIM DR Election 941 Source-Specific Multicast 941 PIM BSR 942 Additional PIM Concepts and Options 942 IPv6 Multicast Static Routes 942 Configuring Multicast Routing for IPv6 943 Foundation Summary 944 Memory Builders 946 Fill In Key Tables from Memory 946 Definitions 946 Further Reading 947 Part X Appendixes Appendix A Answers to the "Do I Know This Already?" Quizzes 949 Appendix B Decimal to Binary Conversion Table 979 Appendix C CCIE Exam Updates 983 Index 986 CD-Only Appendix D IP Addressing Practice Appendix E RIP Version 2 Appendix F IGMP Appendix G Key Tables for CCIE Study Appendix H Solutions for Key Tables for CCIE Study Glossaryshow more

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