Britain's Imperial Retreat from China, 1900-1931

Britain's Imperial Retreat from China, 1900-1931

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Britain's relationship with China in the nineteenth and early twentieth century is often viewed in terms of gunboat diplomacy, unequal treaties, and the unrelenting pursuit of Britain's own commercial interests. This book, however, based on extensive original research, demonstrates that in Britain after the First World War a combination of liberal, Labour party, pacifist, missionary and some business opinion began to argue for imperial retreat from China, and that this movement gathered sufficient momentum for a sympathetic attitude to Chinese demands becoming official Foreign Office policy in 1926. The book considers the various strands of this movement, relates developments in Britain to the changing situation in China, especially the rise of the Chinese nationalists, the Guomindang, and argues that, contrary to what many people think, the reassertion of China's national rights was begun successfully in this period rather than after the Communist takeover in 1949.show more

Product details

  • Hardback | 262 pages
  • 156 x 234 x 20.32mm | 554g
  • Taylor & Francis Ltd
  • ROUTLEDGE
  • London, United Kingdom
  • English
  • 113890984X
  • 9781138909847
  • 2,232,999

About Phoebe Chow

Phoebe Chow is in the International History Department at the London School of Economics, UK.show more

Table of contents

Introduction 1. Past British Thought about China to 1900 'So Well Conceited of Themselves': Early Jesuit and British Accounts 'Fifty years of Europe' vs. 'A Cycle of Cathay': Imperialism and China Christianity, Compassion and Modernity: Missionary Views The Moral Burden: Victorian Travel Writings British Policy, 1895-1900 2. 1900-1910 The Boxer Uprising, 1900 The Boxer Uprising and Chinese 'Awakening' Sir Robert Hart and Chinese 'Awakening' Official policy, 1901-1904 Chinese Nationalism, 1905 G.E. Morrison's Opinions and Influence Official Policy, 1905-1910 3. 1911-1918 Assessments of the 1911 Revolution British policy towards China, 1911-1918 4. 1919 to early 1925 The First World War and Empire The Paris Peace Conference The Creation of a New Order in East Asia Chinese Issues, 1922-1924 The Bolshevik Threat and the Yellow Peril The Boxer Indemnity and Chinese Educational Exchange 5. 1925 Unrest in China: 30 May and its Aftermath The View from Whitehall Government Advisors and Lobbyists Public Responses The Government Response Conclusion 6. 1926 The Hong Kong Boycott and the Business Lobby The Tariff Conference in Beijing Finding Consensus Changing Perceptions of the GMD Challenging Conciliation The Move Towards a Pro-GMD Policy The New China Policy: Creating the December Memorandum 7. 1927 The Hankou Incident, the Shanghai Defence Force and the Public Response The Chen-O'Malley Agreement The Nanjing 'Outrages' Conclusionshow more

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