Biennial Report of the Director

Biennial Report of the Director

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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can usually download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1914 edition. Excerpt: ...small for profitable operation. In "spotted" fields, such as in Randolph county, Indiana, 40 per cent of the wells m'ay be dry. In many fields, such wells are abandoned without plugging with the result that water, which is generally encountered at one or more horizons, makes its way into the oil and gas sands with disastrous consequences. Sometimes the casings are left in the wells but this is only a temporary protection as the corrosive action of the brines or mineral waters generally will destroy ordinary casings in two to five years. Most oil and gas bodies are surrounded by salt water but this water, known as "edge water" invades the reservoirs only as the oil and gas are withdrawn (providing these products are not withdrawn at too rapid a rate), so that a maximum recovery is possible. When water is introduced directly into the productive portion of a field through an uncased, or improperly cased well, the oil is forced back into the sand, so that pumping may produce nothing but water. As the sheet of advancing water reaches other wells, their production becomes partly, or entirely water, and the final result will be the ruin of the entire field. ' In the older oil and gas fields of the country, little or no attention was given to abandoned and unplugged wells and the life of many pools ha been greatly shortened or abruptly terminated by the flooding of the sands by water. In California', investigations by the State Mining Bureau have disclosed the fact that the productivity and life of many of the oil fields of that state are menaced by water from improperly cased and unplugged wells. Reports obtained from 41 per cent of all the Wells in operation show that 25 per cent of these wells produced from 10 to...show more

Product details

  • Paperback | 40 pages
  • 189 x 246 x 2mm | 91g
  • Rarebooksclub.com
  • United States
  • English
  • black & white illustrations
  • 1236986393
  • 9781236986399