Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Bernard Lazare (15 June 1865 - 1 September 1903) was a French Jewish literary critic, political journalist, polemicist, and anarchist. He was also among the first Dreyfusards. He was born Lazare Marcus Manass Bernard (he later switched his first name and last name) in N mes on 15 June 1865, the eldest of four sons of Jonas Bernard and Douce No mie Rouget. This bourgeois family had introduced the Jacquard loom to Toulouse, and founded one of the first (and very successful) textile mills, producing draperies and passementeries. The family was Jewish, and although not very religious still celebrated the traditional holidays. Lazare received his baccalaur at in science, but his passion lay in literature, a passion which he shared with his friend, the poet Ephra m Mikha l. It was Mikha l who, while studying in Paris at the cole des Chartes encouraged Bernard to join him and conquer the literary world.