Basic Pharmacology

Basic Pharmacology : Understanding Drug Actions and Reactions

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Intended for use in an introductory pharmacology course, Basic Pharmacology: Understanding Drug Actions and Reactions provides an in-depth discussion of how to apply the chemical and molecular pharmacology concepts, a discussion students need for more advanced study. The textbook introduces the principles of chemistry and biology necessary to understand drug interactions at the cellular level. The authors highlight chemical and physical properties of drugs, drug absorption and distribution, drug interactions with cellular receptors, and drug metabolism and elimination. The book begins with a review of chemical principles as they apply to drug molecules, focusing mainly on those for commonly prescribed drugs. The authors use drug structures to illustrate the chemical concepts learned in general and organic chemistry courses. They cover the dynamics of receptors in mediating the pharmacological effects of drugs. They clarify theories, drawn from the scientific literature, which explain drug-receptor interactions and the quantitative relationship between drug binding and its effects at the cellular level. The authors' extensive use of drug structures for teaching chemical and molecular pharmacology principles, and their emphasis on the relevance of these principles in future professional life makes this book unique. It provides the framework for better understanding of advanced pharmacology and therapeutics topics. Blending medicinal chemistry and pharmacodynamics aspects, this textbook clearly elucidates the essential concepts that form the cornerstone for further work in more

Product details

  • Hardback | 388 pages
  • 157.48 x 236.22 x 25.4mm | 657.71g
  • Taylor & Francis Inc
  • CRC Press Inc
  • Bosa Roca, United States
  • English
  • 277 black & white illustrations, 34 black & white tables
  • 1587161605
  • 9781587161605
  • 2,388,791

Table of contents

Contents PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF DRUGS Basic Chemical Properties of Drugs Introduction The Periodic Table and Properties of Drugs The Periodic Table and Chemical Reactivity Chemical Bonds Magnitude of Ionic Charge Polyatomic Ions Covalent Bonds Coordinate Covalent Bonds Resonance Structures Shapes of Drug Molecules Electronegativity Polarity of Chemical Bonds Molecular Polarity Further Reading Acid-Base Properties of Drugs Hydrolysis of Salts Conjugate Acids and Conjugate Bases Strength of Acids and Bases Resonance and Inductive Effects Inductive Effects Resonance Effects The Henderson-Hasselbach Equation Further Reading Structural Determinants of Drug Action Structurally Nonspecific Drugs Volatile Anesthetics Structurally Specific Drugs Isosterism and Isosteres Structural Changes in Drug Molecules Further Reading Chemical Approaches to the Treatment of Cancer Normal vs. Malignant Cells Cell Cycle and Chemotherapy From Chemical Warfare to Chemotherapy Anticancer Drugs Further Reading PRINCIPLES OF BIOPHARMACEUTICS Administration and Absorption of Drugs Drug Administration Drug Absorption Physiological and Physicochemical Factors in Drug Absorption Drug Absorption, Bioavailability, and First-Pass Metabolism Further Reading Distribution and Excretion of Drugs Factors in Drug Distribution Patterns of Distribution Determination of the Volume of Distribution Clearance and Elimination Rate Clearance and the Maintenance Dose Rate Half-Life and the Steady State Bioavailability Drug Elimination Further Reading Metabolic Changes of Drugs Cytochromes P450 Redox Reactions and the CYP450 Enzyme Complex NAD + /NADH System FAD/FADH System The Cytochrome P450 Cycle Phase I and Phase II Reactions of Drug Metabolism Dose-Dependent Toxicity of Acetaminophen Further Reading PRINCIPLES OF DRUG-RECEPTOR AND DRUG-ENZYME INTERACTIONS Drug Receptors and Pharmacodynamics Mechanisms of Drug Action Chemical Signaling and Receptor Function Models of Drug-Receptor Interaction Affinity and Intrinsic Activity Agonists, Antagonists, and Partial Agonists Differential Effects of Agonists Cholinergic Neurotransmission Drug-Induced Enzyme Inhibition Drug Effects Mediated through Enzyme Inhibition Competitive, Uncompetitive, and Noncompetitive Inhibition Examples of Drug-Enzyme Interactions Pharmacological Effects Produced by Transpeptidase-Penicillinase Inhibition Suicide Inhibition of Enzymes References Drug-Receptor Dynamics and Theories Occupation Theory (Clark) Modified Occupancy Theory (Arien) Rate Theory (Paton) Relationship between Concentration and Response Concentration-Effect Curves Drug Antagonism Schild's Equation What Is the Importance of This Mathematical Relationship? Irreversible Antagonism Noncompetitive Antagonism Partial Agonists Various Factors That Can Regulate a Drug's Effect Efficacy and Potency Therapeutic Index Time-Action Curves Practice Problems Answers for the Problems References Receptor Regulation and Signaling Mechanisms Spare Receptors Overshoot Down Regulation Other Factors That Can Affect Drug Response Receptor Signaling and Second Messenger Systems Hormones Acting through Intracellular Receptors Receptor-Coupled (Membrane-Bound) Guanylate Cyclase (GC) Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Receptors Linked to G-Proteins and Second Messenger Production Activation of Adenylate Cyclase and G-Protein Function Downstream cAMP Second Messenger Pathway Ca++ /Phosphoinositide/PKC Signaling Pathway What Is the Purpose of G-Proteins or Any Other Second Messenger System? Ligand-Gated Ion Channels Signaling through Voltage-Dependent Ion Channels Ligand-Gated Sodium Channel Calcium Channels Location(s) of the voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels (VSCC): How Does Calcium Contract the Skeletal Muscles and the Vascular Smooth Muscles? Chloride Channel References Indexshow more