Augmented Reality

Augmented Reality : Principles and Practice

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Today's Comprehensive and Authoritative Guide to Augmented RealityBy overlaying computer-generated information on the real world, augmented reality (AR) amplifies human perception and cognition in remarkable ways. Working in this fast-growing field requires knowledge of multiple disciplines, including computer vision, computer graphics, and human-computer interaction. Augmented Reality: Principles and Practice integrates all this knowledge into a single-source reference, presenting today's most significant work with scrupulous accuracy. Pioneering researchers Dieter Schmalstieg and Tobias Hollerer carefully balance principles and practice, illuminating AR from technical, methodological, and user perspectives. Coverage includesDisplays: head-mounted, handheld, projective, auditory, and hapticTracking/sensing, including physical principles, sensor fusion, and real-time computer visionCalibration/registration, ensuring repeatable, accurate, coherent behaviorSeamless blending of real and virtual objectsVisualization to enhance intuitive understandingInteraction-from situated browsing to full 3D interactionModeling new geometric contentAuthoring AR presentations and databasesArchitecting AR systems with real-time, multimedia, and distributed elements This guide is indispensable for anyone interested in AR, including developers, engineers, students, instructors, researchers, and serious more

Product details

  • Paperback | 528 pages
  • 178.05 x 229.11 x 17mm | 788g
  • Pearson Education (US)
  • Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers Inc
  • New Jersey, United States
  • English
  • 0321883578
  • 9780321883575
  • 135,087

About Dieter Schmalstieg

Dieter Schmalstieg is professor and head of the Institute for Computer Graphics and Vision at Graz University of Technology (TUG), Austria. His current research interests are augmented reality, virtual reality, real-time graphics, 3D user interfaces, and visualization. He received Dipl.-Ing. (1993), Dr. techn. (1997) and Habilitation (2001) degrees from Vienna University of Technology. He is author and coauthor of more than two hundred peer-reviewed scientific publications, associate editor of IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, member of the editorial advisory board of computers and graphics and of Springer Virtual Reality, member of the steering committee of the IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, chair of the EUROGRAPHICS working group on Virtual Environments (1999-2010), advisor of the K-Plus Competence Center for Virtual Reality and Visualization in Vienna, and member of the Austrian Academy of Science. In 2002, he received the START career award presented by the Austrian Science Fund. In 2012, he received the IEEE Virtual Reality Technical Achievement Award for seminal contributions to the field of augmented reality. Since 2008, he is also director of the Christian Doppler Laboratory for Handheld Augmented Reality. Tobias Hollerer is professor of computer science at the University of California, Santa Barbara, where he leads the Four Eyes Laboratory, conducting research in the four I's of Imaging, Interaction, and Innovative Interfaces. Dr. Hollerer holds a Diplom in informatics from the Technical University of Berlin, as well as an M.S. and Ph.D. in computer science from Columbia University. He is a recipient of the U.S. National Science Foundation's CAREER award for his work on "Anywhere Augmentation." enabling mobile computer users to place annotations in 3D space wherever they go. In 2013, he was named an ACM Distinguished Scientist. Dr. Hollerer is author of more than one hundred fifty peer-reviewed journal and conference publications in the areas of augmented and virtual reality, information visualization, 3D displays and interaction, mobile and wearable computing, and social computing. Several of these publications have been selected for best paper or honorable mention awards at such venues as the IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR), IEEE Virtual Reality (VR), ACM Virtual Reality Software and Technology, ACM User Interface Software and Technology, ACM MobileHCI, IEEE SocialCom, and IEEE CogSIMA. Dr. Hollerer is an associate editor of IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics. Among his many organizational roles for scientific conferences he served as program chair for IEEE VR 2015, ICAT 2013, IEEE ISMAR 2010 and 2009; as general chair of IEEE ISMAR 2006; and as member of the steering committee of IEEE more

Review quote

"This is an essential book for anyone interested in Augmented Reality, by two of the leading pioneers. It provides an outstanding foundation to the fast growing field of AR, both for those already in the field as well as those who just want to understand the technology more deeply." -Dr. Mark Billinghurst, Professor of Human Computer Interaction, University of South Australia, and creator of the ARToolKit"At first, I thought this book provided a very solid foundation for any Augmented Reality newbie who needed to learn all aspects of AR, but then I realized I couldn't stop digging and goes deeper than many of the AR books I reviewed in the past decade!"-Ori Inbar, Executive Director, Augmented World Expo (; CEO and founder, AugmentedReality.orgshow more

Table of contents

Preface xix Acknowledgments xxv About the Authors xxvii Chapter 1: Introduction to Augmented Reality 1 Definition and Scope 3 A Brief History of Augmented Reality 4 Examples 13 Related Fields 28 Summary 31 Chapter 2: Displays 33 Multimodal Displays 34 Visual Perception 39 Requirements and Characteristics 40 Spatial Display Model 56 Visual Displays 58 Summary 84 Chapter 3: Tracking 85 Tracking, Calibration, and Registration 86 Coordinate Systems 87 Characteristics of Tracking Technology 90 Stationary Tracking Systems 96 Mobile Sensors 99 Optical Tracking 105 Sensor Fusion 117 Summary 120 Chapter 4: Computer Vision for Augmented Reality 121 Marker Tracking 123 Multiple-Camera Infrared Tracking 132 Natural Feature Tracking by Detection 138 Incremental Tracking 149 Simultaneous Localization and Mapping 156 Outdoor Tracking 164 Summary 176 Chapter 5: Calibration and Registration 179 Camera Calibration 180 Display Calibration 183 Registration 190 Summary 194 Chapter 6: Visual Coherence 195 Registration 196 Occlusion 199 Photometric Registration 205 Common Illumination 216 Diminished Reality 227 Camera Simulation 231 Stylized Augmented Reality 236 Summary 237 Chapter 7: Situated Visualization 239 Challenges 241 Visualization Registration 245 Annotations and Labeling 248 X-Ray Visualization 254 Spatial Manipulation 260 Information Filtering 265 Summary 270 Chapter 8: Interaction 271 Output Modalities 272 Input Modalities 279 Tangible Interfaces 286 Virtual User Interfaces on Real Surfaces 294 Augmented Paper 295 Multi-view Interfaces 297 Haptic Interaction 304 Multimodal Interaction 304 Conversational Agents 306 Summary 309 Chapter 9: Modeling and Annotation 311 Specifying Geometry 312 Specifying Appearance 317 Semi-automatic Reconstruction 319 Free-Form Modeling 322 Annotation 325 Summary 328 Chapter 10: Authoring 329 Requirements of AR Authoring 330 Elements of Authoring 333 Stand-Alone Authoring Solutions 335 Plug-In Approaches 339 Web Technology 341 Summary 342 Chapter 11: Navigation 345 Foundations of Human Navigation 346 Exploration and Discovery 347 Route Visualization 347 Viewpoint Guidance 350 Multiple Perspectives 354 Summary 360 Chapter 12: Collaboration 361 Properties of Collaboration Systems 362 Co-located Collaboration 364 Remote Collaboration 370 Summary 377 Chapter 13: Software Architectures 379 AR Application Requirements 380 Software Engineering Requirements 382 Distributed Object Systems 385 Dataflow 389 Scene Graphs 395 Developer Support 400 Summary 407 Chapter 14: The Future 409 What May Drive Business Cases 410 An AR Developer's Wish List 411 Taking AR Outdoors 415 Interfacing with Smart Objects 417 Confluence of Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality 418 Augmented Humans 419 AR as a Dramatic Medium 420 AR as a Social Computing Platform 421 Summary 422 References 423 Index 473show more

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