Assessment is Essential

Assessment is Essential

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Description

Assessment is Essential offers a novel approach for educational assessment courses. Stressing a practical approach that encourages students to think critically about designing the appropriate assessment for a wide range of situations, Green provides students with tools they can use in their future classrooms.
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Product details

  • Paperback | 416 pages
  • 206 x 257 x 15mm | 721g
  • MCGRAW-HILL Professional
  • Boston, MA, United States
  • English
  • ed
  • 30 Illustrations, unspecified
  • 0073378720
  • 9780073378725
  • 2,302,570

Table of contents

PrefaceChapter 1: Why is Assessment Essential?IntroductionA Broad View: Assessment and Democratic ValuesThe Key Question: Will This Help My Students Learn?Equal Access to Educational OpportunitySelf-Governing Skills for Participation in a DemocracyTraditional Functions of Schools: Sorting and PerformanceTransforming Functions of Schools: Helping All Children with Mastery GoalsAssessment Tasks that Enhance Mastery GoalsPromoting Mastery Goals through Assessment: ExamplesThe Importance of Critical ThinkingAn Overview of AssessmentPurposes of AssessmentAction Research and the Inquiry StanceInquiry StanceEthics and AssessmentDo No HarmAvoid Score PollutionExamples from Classrooms and HeadlinesJudgment CallsHarder Judgment CallsYour TurnFinal Thoughts on Ethics and AssessmentKey Chapter PointsHelpful WebsitesChapter Review QuestionsReferencesChapter 2: Learning Goals: The First StepIntroductionDefining and Using Learning GoalsBackward DesignBenefits of Specifying Learning GoalsWhere Do Learning Goals Come From?State and National Content StandardsDistrict Curriculum GuidesTeacher EditionsToo Many Learning Goals, Too Little Time: Selecting Learning GoalsHow Do I Write Good Learning Goals?Selecting the VerbWriting the Noun PhraseSpecificity of Learning GoalsSimplifying Learning GoalsStudent Input to Learning GoalsLearning Goals, Critical Thinking Skills, and TaxonomiesCognitive TaxonomiesAffective and Psychomotor TaxonomiesTables of SpecificationsBenefits of a Table of SpecificationsUsing a Modified Table of Specifications for Test DesignChallenges in Using a Table of SpecificationsCase Study ApplicationsKey Chapter PointsHelpful WebsitesChapter Review QuestionsReferencesChapter 3: Diagnostic Assessment: Ensuring Student Success from the BeginningIntroductionBefore You Begin: High Expectations and Behaviors That Convey ThemChoose Your Sources of Information WiselyBefore Classes StartAfter You Meet Your StudentsAs You Begin a New Unit of InstructionKey Steps in Designing Pre-Unit Diagnostic Assessments1.Prioritize Content from Your Learning Goals2.Design and Administer Brief Measures of Top Priority Content3.Gather Other Useful InformationMaking the Most of Your Diagnostic AssessmentsAccommodations for Diverse Learners in Diagnostic AssessmentStudents with Fine Motor DifficultiesStudents Learning EnglishStudents Who Have Already Mastered the Learning GoalsStudents Who Have Difficulty Focusing AttentionStudents with Literacy Skills below Typical PeersStudents Who Lack Familiarity with U.S. School CultureFinal Thoughts on Accommodation for Diagnostic AssessmentCase Study ApplicationKey Chapter PointsHelpful WebsitesChapter Review QuestionsReferencesChapter 4: Formative Assessment: Ongoing Assessment to Promote Student SuccessIntroductionFormative Assessment: The Essential Link between Teaching and LearningElement 1: Make Students Aware of the Learning Goals and Evaluation StandardsElement 2: Provide Formative Tasks that Involve Understanding and ApplicationElement 3: Provide Students with Feedback to Close Any GapsElement 4: Avoid Grading Formative TasksElement 5: Offer Students an Opportunity to Close Any GapsElement 6: Use Formative Assessment for Enhancing InstructionAccommodations for Diverse Learners for Formative AssessmentCase Study ApplicationKey Chapter PointsHelpful WebsitesChapter Review QuestionsReferencesChapter 5: Progress Monitoring: Assessment as a Motivational ToolIntroductionGoal Setting as the First Key StepCommitmentSpecific, Shorter-Term GoalsFormative Tasks as the Foundation for Monitoring GrowthTwo Approaches to Progress MonitoringMastery MonitoringGeneral Outcome MeasurementIssues to Consider: Progress MonitoringSummarizing Data for GroupsFrequency DistributionsMeasures of Central TendencyBuilding a Useful Table: An Analysis and Communication ToolDisaggregation Uncovers Hidden Trends Case Study ApplicationKey Chapter PointsHelpful WebsitesChapter Review QuestionsReferencesChapter 6: Essential Characteristics of AssessmentIntroductionReliability: Are We Getting Consistent Information?Sources of ErrorSufficiency of InformationImproving Reliability in Classroom AssessmentsValidity: Will Scores Support Us In Making Good Decisions?Importance of Purpose in Considering ValidityEvidence for ValidityImproving Validity in Classroom AssessmentsRelationship between Reliability and ValidityAvoiding Bias in AssessmentsUnfair PenalizationOpportunity to LearnTeacher BiasRepresenting the Diversity of the ClassroomStereotypical Representation Contextual InvisibilityHistorical DistortionsKeeping the Three Democratic Values in MindEqual Access to Educational OpportunitySkills for Democratic ParticipationDevelopment of Critical Thinking SkillsCase Study ApplicationKey Chapter PointsHelpful WebsitesChapter Review QuestionsReferencesChapter 7: Teacher Made Assessments: Multiple Choice and Other Selected-Response ItemsIntroductionAligning Items with Learning Goals and Thinking SkillsSelected-Response FormatsMultiple-Choice FormatsTrue-False FormatsMatching FormatsInterpretive Exercises and Assessing Higher-Level Cognitive LevelsGuidelines for Item DevelopmentGeneral Guidelines for All Selected-Response FormatsGuidelines for Specific Test FormatsPitfalls to Avoid: Top Challenges in Designing Selected-Response ItemsConstructing the AssessmentThe Value of Student-Generated Items and Critical ThinkingAccommodations for Diverse Learners: Selected Response ItemsStudents with Fine Motor DifficultiesStudents with Sensory ChallengesStudents Learning EnglishStudents Who Have Already Mastered the Learning GoalsStudents Who Have Difficulty Focusing AttentionStudents with Literacy Skills below Typical PeersStudents Who Lack Familiarity with School CultureCase Study ApplicationKey Chapter PointsHelpful WebsitesChapter Review QuestionsReferencesChapter 8: Teacher Made Assessments: Short Answer and EssayIntroductionAligning Items with Learning Goals and Thinking SkillsConstructed Response FormatsShort-Answer FormatsEssay FormatsGuidelines for Item DevelopmentGeneral Guidelines for All Constructed-Response FormatsGuidelines for Specific Item FormatsConstructing the AssessmentScoring the AssessmentScoring Short-AnswersScoring EssaysDeveloping a Scoring GuideFactors Contributing Error to Essay ScoresPitfalls to Avoid: Top Common Challenges in Constructed-Response Items and Scoring GuidesEssay PitfallsScoring Guide PitfallsThe Value of Student-Generated Items and Critical ThinkingAccommodations for Diverse Learners: Constructed-Response ItemsCase Study ApplicationKey Chapter PointsHelpful WebsitesChapter Review QuestionsChapter 9: Teacher-Made Assessments: Performance AssessmentsIntroductionAligning Items with Learning Goals and Thinking SkillsWhen To Use Performance AssessmentsGuidelines for Task DevelopmentSpecify the Understanding and Skills to be AddressedBuild Meaningfulness into the TaskDetermine the Response FormatConsider the Materials and the Resources RequiredAddress the Degree of Structure for a TaskMonitor the Reading DemandsAddress Logistics in Task DirectionsScoring the AssessmentWeighting Performance CriteriaAttaching a Grade ScalePitfalls to Avoid: Top Challenges in Performance AssessmentsKeep the Task Related to Learning GoalsProvide Practice before Assigning the TaskLimit the Number of Performance Criteria in the RubricThe Value of Student-Generated Items and Critical ThinkingAccommodations for Diverse Learners: Performance TasksStudents with Fine Motor DifficultiesStudent with Sensory ChallengesStudents Learning EnglishStudents Who Have Already Mastered Learning GoalsStudents Who Have Difficulty Focusing AttentionStudents with Literacy Skills below Typical PeersCase Study ApplicationKey Chapter PointsHelpful WebsitesChapter Review QuestionsReferencesChapter 10: Grading and Communicating About Student AchievementIntroductionWhy Does Grading Cause So Many Problems?Advocate versus EvaluatorSymbolic Value of GradesLack of Agreement on the Judgment ProcessAmbiguous Meaning of GradesThe Grading Decision ProcessFollow School District Grading PolicyBase Grading on Summative AssessmentsEnsure Quality of AssessmentInvolve StudentsWeigh Recent and Consistent Performance Most HeavilyAvoid Unduly Weighting Factors Unrelated to Mastery of the Learning GoalsAvoid Using Grades and Rewards and PunishmentsReview Borderline Cases CarefullyA Special Case: Students with DisabilitiesGrading as SkillTypes of Grading ApproachesBasis for ComparisonTypes of Summarizing SystemsPortfolios and Communicating About AchievementPortfolio PurposesImplementation IssuesPortfolio Advantages and LimitationsKey Chapter PointsHelpful WebsitesChapter Review QuestionsReferencesChapter 11: Large Scale Standardized Tests and the ClassroomIntroductionDefinitions Related to Large Scale Standardized TestingCriterion-Referenced Scoring and Norm-Referenced ScoringAchievement Tests and Aptitude TestsMisconceptions Related to Larg
e-Scale TestingMisconception 1. Obtained Score Represents the True ScoreMisconception 2. Only Commercically Published Multiple-Choice Test Can Be StandardizedMisconception 3. Norm-Referenced Tests Compare People Who Took the Test at the Same TimeMisconception 4. Standardized Tests with Multiple-Choice Formats Address Basic Facts OnlyMisconception 5: Using Large-Scale Tests to Address Individual Student NeedsBenefits and Pitfalls of Large-Scale AssessmentsComparisonsCurriculum ConcernsAddressing ImprovementPreparation For and Administration of Large-Scale TestsPreparation for TestsAdministration of Large-Scale TestsLarge-Scale Test Accommodations for Diverse LearnersReliability and Validity in Large-Scale TestsReliabilityValidityInterpreting Norm-Referenced TestsFoundational Issues in Interpretation of Test ScoresImportance of the Norm GroupComparing the Individual to the Norm GroupInterpreting Criterion-Referenced TestsInterpreting Large-Scale Tests for Students and ParentsExplain Purpose and ContentExplain the Basis for ComparisonExplain the Influence of Error on ScoresChoose One Type of Score to Explain All Parts of the TestPut the Scores in Larger ContextWork as Partners to Determine the Next StepsUsing Large-Scale Test Results in the ClassroomKey Chapter PointsHelpful WebsitesChapter Review QuestionsReferencesChapter 12: Tying It All TogetherIntroductionSix Essential GuidelinesGuideline 1: Begin with the End in MindGuideline 2: Find out What Students KnowGuideline 3: Check As You GoGuideline 4: Teach Students to Check as You GoGuideline 5: Use Rubrics to Reinforce Attainment of the Learning GoalsGuideline 6: Assess YourselfAssessment Effectiveness and EfficiencyChoose Assessment Opportunities SelectivelySelectively Analyze Student WorkCarefully Target the Feedback You ProvideBuild in Time for Self- and Peer ReviewStructure Record-Keeping to Encourage Student Self-MonitoringDevelop an "Assessment Bank"Enlist Students in Assessment DesignAssessment in the Context of a Democratic Society: Classroom ExamplesCenter for InquiryKnowledge is Power Program (KIPP)Key to Assessment in the Context of Democratic ParticipationFormative Assessment and Equal AccessFormative Assessment and Self-Governing SkillsFormative Assessment and Critical Thinking Now It's Your Turn: Setting Personal Goals for Classroom AssessmentPersonal Goal Setting StepsKey Chapter PointsChapter Review QuestionsHelpful WebsitesReferencesGlossaryIndex
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About Susan Green

Dr. Susan Green is currently a professor of educational psychology in the Richard W. Riley College of Education at Winthrop University.



Dr. Robert Johnson an associate professor of applied measurement at the University of South Carolina , teaches courses in classroom assessment and survey design. He earned his Ph.D. in Educational Research, Measurement, and Evaluation.
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