Artificial Intelligence for Games

Artificial Intelligence for Games

4.15 (108 ratings by Goodreads)
By (author) 

List price: US$82.95

Currently unavailable

Add to wishlist

AbeBooks may have this title (opens in new window).

Try AbeBooks

Description

Creating robust artificial intelligence is one of the greatest challenges for game developers. The commercial success of a game is often dependent upon the quality of the AI, yet the engineering of AI is often begun late in the development process and is frequently misunderstood.


In this book, Ian Millington brings extensive professional experience to the problem of improving the quality of AI in games. A game developer since 1987, he was founder of Mindlathe Ltd., at the time the largest specialist AI company in gaming. Ian shows how to think about AI as an integral part of game play.


He describes numerous examples from real games and explores the underlying ideas through detailed case studies. He goes further to introduce many techniques little used by developers today. The book's CD-ROM contains a library of C++ source code and demonstration programs, and provides access to a website with a complete commercial source code library of AI algorithms and techniques.
show more

Product details

  • Hardback | 896 pages
  • 190.5 x 233.68 x 38.1mm | 1,496.85g
  • Focal Press US
  • Burlington, United States
  • English
  • 0124977820
  • 9780124977822
  • 1,155,195

Table of contents

About the Author
CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES
PREFACE
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
About the CD-ROM
PART I AI AND GAMES

1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 WHAT IS AI?

1.1.1 Academic AI
1.1.2 Game AI


1.2 MY MODEL OF GAME AI

1.2.1 Movement
1.2.2 Decision Making
1.2.3 Strategy
1.2.4 Infrastructure
1.2.5 Agent-Based AI
1.2.6 In the Book


1.3 ALGORITHMS, DATA STRUCTURES, AND REPRESENTATIONS

1.3.1 Algorithms
1.3.2 Representations


1.4 ON THE CD

1.4.1 Programs
1.4.2 Libraries


1.5 LAYOUT OF THE BOOK


2 GAME AI

2.1 THE COMPLEXITY FALLACY

2.1.1 When Simple Things Look Good
2.1.2 When Complex Things Look Bad
2.1.3 The Perception Window
2.1.4 Changes of Behavior


2.2 THE KIND OF AI IN GAMES

2.2.1 Hacks
2.2.2 Heuristics
2.2.3 Algorithms


2.3 SPEED AND MEMORY

2.3.1 Processor Issues
2.3.2 Memory Concerns
2.3.3 PC Constraints
2.3.4 Console Constraints


2.4 THE AI ENGINE

2.4.1 Structure of an AI Engine
2.4.2 Toolchain Concerns
2.4.3 Putting It All Together






PART II TECHNIQUES

3 MOVEMENT

3.1 THE BASICS OF MOVEMENT ALGORITHMS

3.1.1 Two-Dimensional Movement
3.1.2 Statics
3.1.3 Kinematics


3.2 KINEMATIC MOVEMENT ALGORITHMS

3.2.1 Seek
3.2.2 Wandering
3.2.3 On the CD


3.3 STEERING BEHAVIORS

3.3.1 Steering Basics
3.3.2 Variable Matching
3.3.3 Seek and Flee
3.3.4 Arrive
3.3.5 Align
3.3.6 Velocity Matching
3.3.7 Delegated Behaviors
3.3.8 Pursue and Evade
3.3.9 Face
3.3.10 Looking Where You're Going
3.3.11 Wander
3.3.12 Path Following
3.3.13 Separation
3.3.14 Collision Avoidance
3.3.15 Obstacle and Wall Avoidance
3.3.16 Summary


3.4 COMBINING STEERING BEHAVIORS

3.4.1 Blending and Arbitration
3.4.2 Weighted Blending
3.4.3 Priorities
3.4.4 Cooperative Arbitration
3.4.5 Steering Pipeline


3.5 PREDICTING PHYSICS

3.5.1 Aiming and Shooting
3.5.2 Projectile Trajectory
3.5.3 The Firing Solution
3.5.4 Projectiles with Drag
3.5.5 Iterative Targeting


3.6 JUMPING

3.6.1 Jump Points
3.6.2 Landing Pads
3.6.3 Hole Fillers


3.7 COORDINATED MOVEMENT

3.7.1 Fixed Formations
3.7.2 Scalable Formations
3.7.3 Emergent Formations
3.7.4 Two-Level Formation Steering
3.7.5 Implementation
3.7.6 Extending to More than Two Levels
3.7.7 Slot Roles and Better Assignment
3.7.8 Slot Assignment
3.7.9 Dynamic Slots and Plays
3.7.10 Tactical Movement


3.8 MOTOR CONTROL

3.8.1 Output Filtering
3.8.2 Capability-Sensitive Steering
3.8.3 Common Actuation Properties


3.9 MOVEMENT IN THE THIRD DIMENSION

3.9.1 Rotation in Three Dimensions
3.9.2 Converting Steering Behaviors to Three Dimensions
3.9.3 Align
3.9.4 Align to Vector
3.9.5 Face
3.9.6 Look Where You're Going
3.9.7 Wander
3.9.8 Faking Rotation Axes




4 PATHFINDING

4.1 THE PATHFINDING GRAPH

4.1.1 Graphs
4.1.2 Weighted Graphs
4.1.3 Directed Weighted Graphs
4.1.4 Terminology
4.1.5 Representation


4.2 DIJKSTRA

4.2.1 The Problem
4.2.2 The Algorithm
4.2.3 Pseudo-Code
4.2.4 Data Structures and Interfaces
4.2.5 Performance of Dijkstra
4.2.6 Weaknesses


4.3 A*

4.3.1 The Problem
4.3.2 The Algorithm
4.3.3 Pseudo-Code
4.3.4 Data Structures and Interfaces
4.3.5 Implementation Notes
4.3.6 Algorithm Performance
4.3.7 Node Array A*
4.3.8 Choosing a Heuristic


4.4 WORLD REPRESENTATIONS

4.4.1 Tile Graphs
4.4.2 Dirichlet Domains
4.4.3 Points of Visibility
4.4.4 Polygonal Meshes
4.4.5 Non-Translational Problems
4.4.6 Cost Functions
4.4.7 Path Smoothing


4.5 IMPROVING ON A*
4.6 HIERARCHICAL PATHFINDING

4.6.1 The Hierarchical Pathfinding Graph
4.6.2 Pathfinding on the Hierarchical Graph
4.6.3 Hierarchical Pathfinding on Exclusions
4.6.4 Strange Effects of Hierarchies on Pathfinding
4.6.5 Instanced Geometry


4.7 OTHER IDEAS IN PATHFINDING

4.7.1 Open Goal Pathfinding
4.7.2 Dynamic Pathfinding
4.7.3 Other Kinds of Information Reuse
4.7.4 Low Memory Algorithms
4.7.5 Interruptible Pathfinding
4.7.6 Pooling Planners


4.8 CONTINUOUS TIME PATHFINDING

4.8.1 The Problem
4.8.2 The Algorithm
4.8.3 Implementation Notes
4.8.4 Performance
4.8.5 Weaknesses


4.9 MOVEMENT PLANNING

4.9.1 Animations
4.9.2 Movement Planning
4.9.3 Example
4.9.4 Footfalls




5 DECISION MAKING

5.1 OVERVIEW OF DECISION MAKING
5.2 DECISION TREES

5.2.1 The Problem
5.2.2 The Algorithm
5.2.3 Pseudo-Code
5.2.4 On the CD
5.2.5 Knowledge Representation
5.2.6 Implementation Nodes
5.2.7 Performance of Decision Trees
5.2.8 Balancing the Tree
5.2.9 Beyond the Tree
5.2.10 Random Decision Trees


5.3 STATE MACHINES

5.3.1 The Problem
5.3.2 The Algorithm
5.3.3 Pseudo-Code
5.3.4 Data Structures and Interfaces
5.3.5 On the CD
5.3.6 Performance
5.3.7 Implementation Notes
5.3.8 Hard-Coded FSM
5.3.9 Hierarchical State Machines
5.3.10 Combining Decision Trees and State Machines


5.4 FUZZY LOGIC

5.4.1 Introduction to Fuzzy Logic
5.4.2 Fuzzy Logic Decision Making
5.4.3 Fuzzy State Machines


5.5 MARKOV SYSTEMS

5.5.1 Markov Processes
5.5.2 Markov State Machine


5.6 GOAL-ORIENTED BEHAVIOR

5.6.1 Goal-Oriented Behavior
5.6.2 Simple Selection
5.6.3 Overall Utility
5.6.4 Timing
5.6.5 Overall Utility GOAP
5.6.6 GOAP with IDA*
5.6.7 Smelly GOB


5.7 RULE-BASED SYSTEMS

5.7.1 The Problem
5.7.2 The Algorithm
5.7.3 Pseudo-Code
5.7.4 Data Structures and Interfaces
5.7.5 Implementation Notes
5.7.6 Rule Arbitration
5.7.7 Unification
5.7.8 Rete
5.7.9 Extensions
5.7.10 Where Next


5.8 BLACKBOARD ARCHITECTURES

5.8.1 The Problem
5.8.2 The Algorithm
5.8.3 Pseudo-Code
5.8.4 Data Structures and Interfaces
5.8.5 Performance
5.8.6 Other Things Are Blackboard Systems


5.9 SCRIPTING

5.9.1 Language Facilities
5.9.2 Embedding
5.9.3 Choosing a Language
5.9.4 A Language Selection
5.9.5 Rolling Your Own
5.9.6 Scripting Languages and Other AI


5.10 ACTION EXECUTION

5.10.1 Types of Action
5.10.2 The Algorithm
5.10.3 Pseudo-Code
5.10.4 Data Structures and Interfaces
5.10.5 Implementation Notes
5.10.6 Performance
5.10.7 Putting It All Together




6 TACTICAL AND STRATEGIC AI

6.1 WAYPOINT TACTICS

6.1.1 Tactical Locations
6.1.2 Using Tactical Locations
6.1.3 Generating the Tactical Properties of a Waypoint
6.1.4 Automatically Generating the Waypoints
6.1.5 The Condensation Algorithm


6.2 TACTICAL ANALYSES

6.2.1 Representing the Game Level
6.2.2 Simple Influence Maps
6.2.3 Terrain Analysis
6.2.4 Learning with Tactical Analyses
6.2.5 A Structure for Tactical Analyses
6.2.6 Map Flooding
6.2.7 Convolution Filters
6.2.8 Cellular Automata


6.3 TACTICAL PATHFINDING

6.3.1 The Cost Function
6.3.2 Tactic Weights and Concern Blending
6.3.3 Modifying the Pathfinding Heuristic
6.3.4 Tactical Graphs for Pathfinding
6.3.5 Using Tactical Waypoints


6.4 COORDINATED ACTION

6.4.1 Multi-Tier AI
6.4.2 Emergent Cooperation
6.4.3 Scripting Group Actions
6.4.4 Military Tactics




7 LEARNING

7.1 LEARNING BASICS

7.1.1 Online or Offline Learning
7.1.2 Intra-Behavior Learning
7.1.3 Inter-Behavior Learning
7.1.4 A Warning
7.1.5 Over-learning
7.1.6 The Zoo of Learning Algorithms
7.1.7 The Balance of Effort


7.2 PARAMETER MODIFICATION

7.2.1 The Parameter Landscape
7.2.2 Hill Climbing
7.2.3 Extensions to Basic Hill Climbing
7.2.4 Annealing


7.3 ACTION PREDICTION

7.3.1 Left or Right
7.3.2 Raw Probability
7.3.3 String Matching
7.3.4 N-Grams
7.3.5 Window Size
7.3.6 Hierarchical N-Grams
7.3.7 Application in Combat


7.4 DECISION LEARNING

7.4.1 Structure of Decision Learning
7.4.2 What Should You Learn?
7.4.3 Three Techniques


7.5 DECISION TREE LEARNING

7.5.1 ID3
7.5.2 ID3 with Continuous Attributes
7.5.3 Incremental Decision Tree Learning


7.6 REINFORCEMENT LEARNING

7.6.1 The Problem
7.6.2 The Algorithm
7.6.3 Pseudo-Code
7.6.4 Data Structures and Interfaces
7.6.5 Implementation Notes
7.6.6 Performance
7.6.7 Tailoring Parameters
7.6.8 Weaknesses and Realistic Applications
7.6.9 Other Ideas in Reinforcement Learning


7.7 ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

7.7.1 Overview
7.7.2 The Problem
7.7.3 The Algorithm
7.7.4 Pseudo-Code
7.7.5 Data Structures and Interfaces
7.7.6 Implementation Caveats
7.7.7 Performance
7.7.8 Other Approaches




8 BOARD GAMES

8.1 GAME THEORY

8.1.1 Types of Games
8.1.2 The Game Tree


8.2 MINIMAXING

8.2.1 The Static Evaluation Function
8.2.2 Minimaxing
8.2.3 The Minimaxing Algorithm
8.2.4 Negamaxing
8.2.5 AB Pruning
8.2.6 The AB Search Window
8.2.7 Negascout


8.3 TRANSPOSITION TABLES AND MEMORY

8.3.1 Hashing Game States
8.3.2 What to Store in the Table
8.3.3 Hash Table Implementation
8.3.4 Replacement Strategies
8.3.5 A Complete Transposition Table
8.3.6 Transposition Table Issues
8.3.7 Using Opponent's Thinking Time


8.4 MEMORY-ENHANCED TEST ALGORITHMS

8.4.1 Implementing Test
8.4.2 The MTD Algorithm
8.4.3 Pseudo-Code


8.5 OPENING BOOKS AND OTHER SET PLAYS

8.5.1 Implementing an Opening Book
8.5.2 Learning for Opening Books
8.5.3 Set Play Books


8.6 FURTHER OPTIMIZATIONS

8.6.1 Iterative Deepening
8.6.2 Variable Depth Approaches


8.7 TURN-BASED STRATEGY GAMES

8.7.1 Impossible Tree Size
8.7.2 Real-Time AI in a Turn-Based Game






PART III SUPPORTING TECHNOLOGIES

9 EXECUTION MANAGEMENT

9.1 SCHEDULING

9.1.1 The Scheduler
9.1.2 Interruptible Processes
9.1.3 Load-Balancing Scheduler
9.1.4 Hierarchical Scheduling
9.1.5 Priority Scheduling


9.2 ANYTIME ALGORITHMS
9.3 LEVEL OF DETAIL

9.3.1 Graphics Level of Detail
9.3.2 AI LOD
9.3.3 Scheduling LOD
9.3.4 Behavioral LOD
9.3.5 Group LOD
9.3.6 In Summary




10 WORLD INTERFACING

10.1 COMMUNICATION
10.2 GETTING KNOWLEDGE EFFICIENTLY

10.2.1 Polling
10.2.2 Events
10.2.3 Determining What Approach to Use


10.3 EVENT MANAGERS

10.3.1 Implementation
10.3.2 Event Casting
10.3.3 Inter-Agent Communication


10.4 POLLING STATIONS

10.4.1 Pseudo-Code
10.4.2 Performance
10.4.3 Implementation Notes
10.4.4 Abstract Polling


10.5 SENSE MANAGEMENT

10.5.1 Faking It
10.5.2 What Do I Know?
10.5.3 Sensory Modalities
10.5.4 Region Sense Manager
10.5.5 Finite Element Model Sense Manager




11 TOOLS AND CONTENT CREATION



11.0.1 Toolchains Limit AI
11.0.2 Where AI Knowledge Comes from


11.1 KNOWLEDGE FOR PATHFINDING AND WAYPOINT TACTICS

11.1.1 Manually Creating Region Data
11.1.2 Automatic Graph Creation
11.1.3 Geometric Analysis
11.1.4 Data Mining


11.2 KNOWLEDGE FOR MOVEMENT

11.2.1 Obstacles
11.2.2 High-Level Staging


11.3 KNOWLEDGE FOR DECISION MAKING

11.3.1 Object Types
11.3.2 Concrete Actions


11.4 THE TOOLCHAIN

11.4.1 Data-Driven Editors
11.4.2 AI Design Tools
11.4.3 Remote Debugging
11.4.4 Plug-Ins






PART IV DESIGNING GAME AI

12 DESIGNING GAME AI

12.1 THE DESIGN

12.1.1 Example
12.1.2 Evaluating the Behaviors
12.1.3 Selecting Techniques
12.1.4 The Scope of One Game


12.2 SHOOTERS

12.2.1 Movement and Firing
12.2.2 Decision Making
12.2.3 Perception
12.2.4 Pathfinding and Tactical AI
12.2.5 Shooter-Like Games


12.3 DRIVING

12.3.1 Movement
12.3.2 Pathfinding and Tactical AI
12.3.3 Driving-Like Games


12.4 REAL-TIME STRATEGY

12.4.1 Pathfinding
12.4.2 Group Movement
12.4.3 Tactical and Strategic AI
12.4.4 Decision Making


12.5 SPORTS

12.5.1 Physics Prediction
12.5.2 Playbooks and Content Creation


12.6 TURN-BASED STRATEGY GAMES

12.6.1 Timing
12.6.2 Helping the Player




13 AI-BASED GAME GENRES

13.1 TEACHING CHARACTERS

13.1.1 Representing Actions
13.1.2 Representing the World
13.1.3 Learning Mechanism
13.1.4 Predictable Mental Models and Pathological States


13.2 FLOCKING AND HERDING GAMES

13.2.1 Making the Creatures
13.2.2 Tuning Steering for Interactivity
13.2.3 Steering Behavior Stability
13.2.4 Ecosystem Design






APPENDIX

A REFERENCES
A.1 BOOKS, PERIODICALS, AND PAPERS
A.2 GAMES


INDEX
show more

Review quote

"Ian Millington crosses the boundary between academic and professional game AI with his book Artificial Intelligence for Games. Most books either lack academic rigor or are rigorous with algorithms that won't work under the CPU constraints imposed by modern games. This book walks a line between the two and does it well. It explains algorithms rigorously while also discussing appropriate implementation details such as scheduling AI over time and using the right data structures. I will be using this book for my Game AI course." -Jessica D. Bayliss, Ph.D., Rochester Institute of Technology

"This is the first serious attempt to create a comprehensive reference for all game AI practices, terminology, and know-how. Works like this are badly needed by the maturing video games industry. Systematic yet accessible, it is a must-have for any student or professional." -Marcin Chady, Ph.D., Radical Entertainment

"This book promises to be the closest I've seen to what is needed in the field. I would highly recommend it for people in the industry." -John Laird, University of Michigan

"Ian Millington's book is a comprehensive reference to the most widely used techniques in game AI today. Any game developer working on AI will learn something from this book, and game producers should make sure their AI programmers have a copy." -Dr. Ian Lane Davis, Mad Doc Software
show more

About Ian Millington

Ian Millington is a partner of IPR Ventures, a consulting company developing next-generation AI technologies for entertainment, modeling, and simulation. Previously he founded Mindlathe Ltd, the largest specialist AI middleware company in computer games, working with on a huge range of game genres and technologies. He has a long background in AI, including PhD research in complexity theory and natural computing. He has published academic and professional papers and articles on topics ranging from paleontology to hypertext.
show more

Rating details

108 ratings
4.15 out of 5 stars
5 37% (40)
4 43% (46)
3 19% (21)
2 1% (1)
1 0% (0)
Book ratings by Goodreads
Goodreads is the world's largest site for readers with over 50 million reviews. We're featuring millions of their reader ratings on our book pages to help you find your new favourite book. Close X