Argument

Argument : Critical Thinking, Logic and the Fallacies

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This text is designed for the Critical Thinking course found in philosophy and general education departments at both universities and colleges. The most unique feature of the text is its solid foundation in logic. The discussion of fallacies is integrated with logic in a way not seen in other texts. This treatment provides students with tools to evaluate their own and other peoples thinking logically as well as analyze and assess an argument.show more

Product details

  • Paperback | 344 pages
  • 177.8 x 236.22 x 20.32mm | 566.99g
  • Pearson Canada, Toronto
  • Prentice-Hall (Canada)
  • Scarborough, Canada
  • 0130851159
  • 9780130851154

Table of contents

I. ARGUMENTS. 1. The Quarrel. Arguments, Fallacies, Logic, and Argument. The Quarrel. The Ad Baculum Arguments. The Ad Hominem Arguments. Summary. 2. The Debate. The Debate. Mill's Model of Debate. A Critique of Mill's Model. The Ad Populum: Boosterism. The Ad Populum: Popularity. Appeals to Misery and other Emotive Fallacies. Summary. 3. Dialectic. Aristotle's Basic Rules of Dialectic. Eight Revised Rules of Dialectic. The Fallacy of Appealing to Ignorance. The Fallacy of Complex Question. Summary. II. LOGIC. 4. Deductive Logic. Entailment. Conjunction, Disjunction, and Negation. Conditionals and Biconditionals. Testing Arguments for Validity. The Truth-Table Test for Validity. Fallacies of Relevance. Summary. 5. Formal and Informal Logic. Logical Form. Formal Logic. Equivocation and Amphiboly. The Paradox of the Liar. Summary. 6. Formal Deductive Systems. Formal Systems. System P. Working in System P. Evaluating System P.Summary. 7. Extending Deductive Logic: I. Systems RP. Evaluating System RP. Modal Logics. Epistemic and Decontic Logics. Multi-valued Logics. Summary. 8. Extending Deductive Logic: II. Aristotle's Categorical Propositions. Immediate Inference. The Syllogism. Predicate Logic. Summary. 9. Inductive Logic. Induction and Fallibility. The Elements of Probability Theory. Hasty Generalization and Related Fallacies. A Casual Fallacy. Summary. III. APPLYING LOGIC TO ARGUMENTS. 10. Arguing in a Circle. The Fallacy of Begging the Question or Arguing in a Circle. Sextus' Puzzle. De Morgan's Defence. Summary. 11. Arguments from Authority. Five Conditions Governing from Authority. A Case Study. Towards a Model of Argument in Question. Inconsistency. Plausibility Screening. Plausible Argument. Summary. 12. Economic Reasoning. The Fallacies of Composition and Division. Analytical Remarks about Composition and Division. Economic Reasoning, Dialectic, and Decision Theory. Expected Utility, Sure-Thing, and Minimax Principles. Group Decisions and the Prisoner's Dilemma. Summary. 13. Legal Reasoning. Burden of Proof versus Standards of Proof. Evidence and Expert Opinion. Legal Precedent and Analogical Argument. Legal Facts and Legal Justification. Summary. 14. Artificial Intelligence. Artificial Intelligence, Logic, and Computability. Expert Systems. Theories of Belief Revision. Can Machines Think? Summary. 15. Issues in Argument Theory and the Philosophy of Logic. Choosing the Right Logic. Paraconsistent Logics. The Enlightenment Ideal. Summary. Selected Readings. Subject Index. Name Index.show more

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