Applying the Building Code
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Applying the Building Code : Step-by-Step Guidance for Design and Building Professionals

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No other resource not even the building code presents the exact code information you need, when you need it at design stage The International Building Code (IBC) is a model building code developed by the International Code Council (ICC). The IBC and its complementary codes provide design and construction professionals with a complete set of comprehensive, coordinated building safety and fire prevention regulations in order to safeguard the public health and general welfare of the occupants of new and existing buildings and structures. Adopted throughout most of the United States and its territories, it is referenced by federal agencies, such as the General Services Administration, National Park Service, Department of State, U.S. Forest Service, and the Department of Defense. For architects and other design and construction professionals, it is particularly important that they understand how to apply the IBC and how code officials view buildings, so that they integrate code-required provisions in the earliest design stages of any project.
Applying the IBC, as well as its companion codes, to building design is a process that is uniquely different to that of applying the building code during a planning review. Whereas other guide books explain the IBC in sequential order, from cover to cover, chapter by chapter, and section by section, Applying the Building Code explains the requirements of the IBC as they would apply during the common phases of design: from schematic design through to the preparation of construction documents. This effectively highlights applicable requirements of the building code at the appropriate stage of design based on available information. * The book provides a 28-step process that is organized according to the three phases of architectural design: schematic design, design development, and construction documents * Each step explains the application of the IBC, as well as other codes and standards referenced by the IBC (i.e. International Fire Code, International Energy Conservation Code, and ANSI A117.1
) based on available project information * Illustrations and examples are provided throughout that explain the code fundamentals associated with each step * A single example project is used throughout the step-by-step process to illustrate how each step is applied and builds upon code and project information obtained through previous steps * Guidance is also provided on the International Existing Building Code and how the step-by-step process is applied to projects involving existing buildings * The role of the building department and its staff in regard to plan reviews and code enforcement is discussed * A detailed code data information template is provided that can help organize code-related information for construction documents
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Product details

  • Paperback | 464 pages
  • 216 x 272 x 25mm | 1,070g
  • New York, United States
  • English
  • 1. Auflage
  • 1118920759
  • 9781118920756
  • 2,414,284

Table of contents

Preface xix


About This Book xix


How to Use This Book xix


References xx


Terminology xxi


Example Project xxi


Acknowledgments xxiii


PART I Code Basics 1


BUILDING CODE ORGANIZATION 3


Other Codes and Regulations 4


Things to Look Out For 6


Know the Definitions 6


TYPES OF FIRE-RESISTIVE ASSEMBLIES AND CONSTRUCTION 8


Fire Walls (IBC Section 706) 9


Fire Barriers (IBC Section 707) 9


Fire Partitions (IBC Section 708) 10


Smoke Barriers (IBC Section 709) 10


Horizontal Assemblies (IBC Section 711) 10


Exterior Walls 11


Interior Bearing Walls 11


Structural Frame 11


TYPES OF AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS AND STANDPIPES 12


NFPA 13 (IBC Section 903.3.1.1) 13


NFPA 13R (IBC Section 903.3.1.2) 13


NFPA 13D (IBC Section 903.3.1.3) 14


ALTERNATIVEMATERIALS/METHODS ANDMODIFICATIONS 15


PART II Schematic Design 17


Step 1. DETERMINE APPLICABLE BUILDING CODE 19


1.1. Identifying the Authority Having Jurisdiction 19


1.2. Adopted Codes and Amendments 20


1.3. Code Alternates 20


Step 2. OBTAIN ESSENTIAL BUILDING DATA 21


2.1. Total Building Area 21


2.2. Number of Stories 22


2.2.1. Grade Plane 24


2.2.2. Mezzanines 25


2.3. Building Area per Story 25


2.4. Building Height in Feet 25


2.5. Type of Sprinkler System 26


2.6. Proposed Construction Materials 28


2.7. Climate Zone 28


2.8. Flood Hazard Area 28


Step 3. DETERMINE OCCUPANCY GROUP OR GROUPS 31


3.1. Introduction to Occupancy Groups 32


3.2. Assembly Group A (IBC Section 303) 32


3.3. Business Group B (IBC Section 304) 32


3.4. Educational Group E (IBC Section 305) 33


3.5. Factory Group F (IBC Section 306) 33


3.6. High-Hazard Group H (IBC Section 307) 33


3.7. Institutional Group I (IBC Section 308) 34


3.8. Mercantile Group M (IBC Section 309) 35


3.9. Residential Group R (IBC Section 310) 35


3.10. Storage Group S (IBC Section 311) 36


3.11. Utility and Miscellaneous Group U (IBC Section 312) 36


3.12. Incidental Uses (IBC Section 509) 36


Step 4. DETERMINE CONSTRUCTION TYPE BASED ON ANTICIPATED MATERIALS 39


4.1. Introduction to Construction Types 39


4.2. Type I Construction 40


4.3. Type II Construction 40


4.4. Type III Construction 41


4.5. Type IV Construction 41


4.6. Type V Construction 41


Step 5. DETERMINE HOWMIXED USES AND OCCUPANCIES WILL BE HANDLED 43


5.1. Introduction to Mixed Occupancies 43


5.2. Separated Occupancies 44


5.3. Nonseparated Occupancies 44


5.4. Accessory Occupancies 45


5.5. Combination of Options 45


5.6. Deciding Which Method to Use 47


Step 6. DETERMINE SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY IF APPLICABLE 50


6.1. Covered Mall and Open Mall Buildings (IBC Section 402) 51


6.2. High-Rise Buildings (IBC Section 403) 52


6.3. Atriums (IBC Section 404) 55


6.4. Underground Buildings (IBC Section 405) 56


6.5. Motor-Vehicle-Related Occupancies (IBC Section 406) 57


6.5.1. Private Garages and Carports (IBC Section 406.3) 57


6.5.2. Public Parking Garages (IBC Section 406.4) 57


6.5.2.1. Open Parking Garages (IBC Section 406.5) 58


6.5.2.2. Enclosed Parking Garages (IBC Section 406.6) 59


6.5.3. Motor Fuel-Dispensing Facilities (IBC Section 406.7) 60


6.5.4. Repair Garages (IBC Section 406.8) 60


6.6. Group I-2 (IBC Section 407) 61


6.7. Group I-3 (IBC Section 408) 61


6.8. Motion Picture Projection Rooms (IBC Section 409) 62


6.9. Stages, Platforms, and Technical Production Areas (IBC Section 410) 62


6.9.1. Stages (IBC Section 410.3) 62


6.9.2. Platforms (IBC Section 410.4) 63


6.10. Special Amusement Buildings (IBC Section 411) 63


6.11. Aircraft-Related Occupancies (IBC Section 412) 63


6.11.1. Airport Traffic Control Towers (IBC Section 412.3) 64


6.11.2. Aircraft Hangars (IBC Section 412.4) 64


6.11.3. Residential Aircraft Hangars (IBC Section 412.5) 65


6.11.4. Aircraft Paint Hangars (IBC Section 412.6) 65


6.11.5. Aircraft Manufacturing Facilities (IBC Section 412.7) 65


6.11.6. Heliports and Helistops (IBC Section 412.8) 65


6.12. Combustible Storage (IBC Section 413) 66


6.13. Hazardous Materials (IBC Section 414) 66


6.14. Groups H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4, and H-5 (IBC Section 415) 67


6.15. Application of Flammable Finishes (IBC Section 416) 68


6.16. Drying Rooms (IBC Section 417) 69


6.17. Organic Coatings (IBC Section 418) 69


6.18. Live/Work Units (IBC Section 419) 69


6.19. Groups I-1, R-1, R-2, R-3, and R-4 (IBC Section 420) 70


6.20. Hydrogen Fuel Gas Rooms (IBC Section 421) 70


6.21. Ambulatory Care Facilities (IBC Section 422) 71


6.22. Storm Shelters (IBC Section 423) 71


6.23. Children s Play Structures (IBC Section 424) 71


6.24. Hyperbaric Facilities (IBC Section 425) 72


6.25. Combustible Dusts, Grain Processing, and Storage (IBC Section 426) 72


6.26. Special Construction 73


6.26.1. Membrane Structures (IBC Section 3102) 73


6.26.2. Pedestrian Walkways and Tunnels (IBC Section 3104) 74


Step 7. DETERMINE ALLOWABLE AREA AND HEIGHT 75


7.1. Introduction to Area and Height Requirements 75


7.2. Determining Allowable Height (IBC Section 504) 76


7.2.1. Allowable Height in Feet 76


7.2.2. Allowable Height in Stories 77


7.2.3. Allowable Height for Mixed Occupancies 77


7.3. Determining Allowable Area (IBC Section 506) 77


7.3.1. Calculating Frontage Increase 78


7.3.2. Allowable Area of Single-Occupancy and Nonseparated Mixed-Occupancy Buildings 80


7.3.3. Allowable Area of Separated Mixed-Occupancy Buildings 84


7.3.4. Unlimited Area Buildings (IBC Section 507) 88


7.4. Special Provisions (IBC Section 510) 88


7.5. Design Options 93


Step 8. CALCULATE OCCUPANT LOAD 99


8.1. Introduction to Occupant Loads 99


8.2. Calculating Occupant Loads 100


8.2.1. Calculating Occupant Loads for Mall Buildings 101


8.3. Organizing Occupant Load Data 104


Step 9. ESTABLISH POINTS OF EGRESS 106


9.1. Introduction to the Means of Egress System 106


9.2. Number of Egress Doors 107


9.2.1. Number of Doorways from Spaces 107


9.2.2. Number of Egress Points from Stories 107


9.2.2.1. One Exit from Stories of Group R-2 Dwelling Units IBC Table 1006.3.2(1) 108


9.2.2.2. One Exit from Stories of Other Occupancies IBC Table 1006.3.2(2) 108


9.2.2.3. One Exit for Mixed Occupancies 108


9.3. Separation of Exit and Exit Access Doorways 110


9.4. Door Operation 112


Step 10. CHECK EGRESS PATHWAYS 116


10.1. General Requirements 116


10.2. The Exit Access (IBC Section 1016) 118


10.2.1. Exit Access Travel Distance (IBC Section 1017) 119


10.2.2. Common Path of Egress Travel (IBC Section 1006) 123


10.2.3. Aisles (IBC Sections 1018 and 1029) 125


10.2.4. Exit Access Stairways and Ramps (IBC Section 1019) 127


10.2.5. Corridors (IBC Section 1020) 128


10.2.6. Egress Balconies (IBC Section 1021) 129


10.3. The Exit (IBC Section 1022) 130


10.3.1. Interior Exit Stairways and Ramps (IBC Section 1023) 130


10.3.2. Exit Passageways (IBC Section 1024) 131


10.3.3. Horizontal Exits (IBC Section 1026) 131


10.3.4. Exterior Exit Stairways and Ramps (IBC Section 1027) 133


10.4. The Exit Discharge (IBC Section 1028) 134


10.4.1. Egress Courts (IBC Section 1028.4) 134


10.5. Accessible Means of Egress (IBC Section 1009) 135


10.5.1. Stairways (IBC Section 1009.3) 135


10.5.2. Elevators (IBC Section 1009.4) 136


10.5.3. Areas of Refuge (IBC Section 1009.6) 136


10.5.4. Exterior Areas for Assisted Rescue (IBC Section 1009.7) 137


10.5.5. Platform Lifts (IBC Section 1009.5) 137


10.6. Minimum Egress Pathway Capacities 137


Step 11. DETERMINE FIXTURE COUNTS 142


11.1. Introduction to Plumbing Fixtures 142


11.1.1. Occupant Load for Plumbing Fixtures 143


11.1.2. Plumbing Fixture Access and Location 144


11.2. Basic Fixture Count Calculations 145


11.3. Fixture Count Calculations for Mixed Occupancies 147


11.4. Substitutions 148


11.5. Toilet Room Planning 149


Step 12. IDENTIFY FIRE DEPARTMENT ACCESS ROADS 153


12.1. Minimum Requirements 153


12.2. Access Road Design 155


Step 13. IDENTIFY ACCESSIBLE ROUTES AND REQUIREMENTS 158


13.1. Introduction to Accessibility in the Building Code 158


13.2. Scoping Requirements (IBC Section 1103) 160


13.3. Accessible Routes (IBC Section 1104 and ICC/ANSI A117.1 Chapters 4 and 5) 161


13.3.1. Technical Requirements for Accessible Routes 162


13.3.2. Technical Requirements for Accessible Site Elements 166


13.4. Dwelling and Sleeping Units (IBC Section 1107 and ICC/ANSI A117 1 Chapter 10) 166


13.5. Toilet and Bathing Facilities (IBC Section 1109.2 and ICC/ANSI A117.1 Chapter 6) 167


PART III Design Development 173


Step 14. CONFIRM STEPS 2 THROUGH 13 175


14.1. Review of Changes 175


14.2. Changes to Building Area and/or Height 176


14.3. Changes in Function and/or Size of Spaces 176


14.4. Changes in Building Structural Materials 178


14.5. Changes in Space Arrangement 178


14.6. Changes in Location on Site 179


Step 15. IDENTIFY LOCATIONS OF FIRE-RESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION, ASSEMBLIES, AND OPENINGS 186


15.1. Identifying Fire-Resistive Assemblies and Construction 186


15.1.1. Fire Walls 187


15.1.1.1. Fire Wall Horizontal Continuity 187


15.1.1.2. Fire Wall Vertical Continuity 191


15.1.2. Fire Barriers 193


15.1.3. Smoke Barriers 194


15.1.4. Fire Partitions 194


15.1.5. Smoke Partitions 196


15.1.6. Horizontal Assemblies 197


15.1.7. Primary Structural Frame and Bearing Wall Structure 198


15.2. Opening Protection 199


Step 16. DEVELOP EXTERIORWALL AND EXPOSED FLOOR ASSEMBLIES 208


16.1. ExteriorWall Fire Resistance and Opening Protection 208


16.2. Projections 213


16.3. Thermal Performance 213


16.3.1. Commercial Thermal Performance 214


16.3.1.1. R-Value Method (IECC Section C402.1.3) 215


16.3.1.2. U-Factor, C-Factor, and F-Factor Method (IECC Section C402.1.4) 215


16.3.1.3. Component Performance Alternative Method (IECC Section C402.1.5) 216


16.3.2. Residential Thermal Performance 216


16.3.2.1. R-Value Computation Method (IECC Section R402.1.3) 216


16.3.2.2. U-Factor Alternative Method (IECC Section R402.1.4) 217


16.3.2.3. Total UA Alternative Method (IECC Section R402.1.5) 218


16.4. Air and Water Management 218


16.4.1. Air Management 218


16.4.2. Water Management 219


16.4.2.1. Above-Grade Exterior Walls 219


16.4.2.2. BasementWalls 220


16.5. ExteriorWall Materials 220


16.6. Fire Propagation 221


Step 17. DEVELOP ROOF ASSEMBLIES 229


17.1. Roof Assembly Performance 229


17.1.1. Fire Classification and Resistance 230


17.1.2. Wind Resistance 230


17.1.3. Thermal Performance 231


17.1.3.1. Commercial Buildings 231


17.1.3.2. Residential Buildings 233


17.2. Roof Openings and Penetrations 234


17.2.1. Fire Resistance 234


17.2.2. Skylights 234


17.2.3. Roof Hatches 236


17.3. Rooftop Structures and Equipment 236


17.4. Roof Construction Materials 236


17.4.1. Roof Coverings 236


17.4.2. Underlayments 238


17.4.3. Insulation 238


17.4.4. Flashings 238


Step 18. SELECT FINISHES 242


18.1. Introduction to Finishes 242


18.2. Interior Wall and Ceiling Finishes 243


18.2.1. Flame and Smoke Performance 243


18.2.2. Sanitation 244


18.2.3. Moisture and Mold Resistance 244


18.3. Interior Floor Finishes 244


18.3.1. Flame and Smoke Performance 244


18.3.2. Sanitation 245


18.3.3. Slip Resistance 245


18.3.4. Firmness and Stability 246


18.4. Elevator Finishes 246


18.5. Decorations and Trim 246


Step 19. CHECK EGRESS WIDTHS 250


19.1. Calculation of Minimum Egress Width 250


19.1.1. ExitWidth from Buildings 253


19.1.2. ExitWidth from Stories 253


19.1.3. ExitWidth for Corridors 254


19.1.4. ExitWidth from Spaces 255


19.2. Calculation of Aisle and Aisle Accessway Widths 256


Step 20. CHECK ACCESSIBILITY REQUIREMENTS 264


20.1. Reach and Clearance Detail Requirements 264


20.2. Accessible Assembly Seating (IBC Section 1108.2 and ICC/ANSI A117.1 Section 802) 265


20.3. Kitchens (IBC Section 1109.4 and ICC/ANSI A117.1 Section 804) 267


20.4. Dwelling and Sleeping Units (ICC/ANSI A117.1 Chapter 10) 268


20.4.1. Toilet and Bathing Facilities in Dwelling and Sleeping Units 268


20.4.2. Kitchens in Dwelling and Sleeping Units 269


20.5. Recreational Facilities 269


Step 21. INTEGRATE SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS 277


21.1. Special Uses and Occupancies 277


21.2. Sound Transmission 277


21.2.1. Airborne Sound Transmission 279


21.2.2. Structure-Borne Sound Transmission 279


21.3. Emergency Escape and Rescue 280


21.3.1. Minimum Size of Openings 280


21.3.2. Window Wells for Below-Grade Openings 280


21.4. Elevators and Conveying Systems 281


21.4.1. General Elevator Requirements 281


21.4.1.1. Pits and Clearances 283


21.4.1.2. Machine Rooms. 283


21.4.1.3. Elevator Lobbies and Hoistway Opening Protection 284


21.4.2. Fire Service Access Elevators (IBC Section 3007) 284


21.4.3. Occupant Evacuation Elevators (IBC Section 3008) 285


21.4.4. Conveying Systems Other Than Elevators 285


21.5. Flood-Resistant Design 286


21.6. Special Construction 287


PART IV Construction Documents 291


Step 22. CONFIRM STEPS 14 THROUGH 21 293


22.1. Review of Changes 293


22.2. Changes in Function and/or Size of Spaces 294


22.3. Changes in Space Arrangement 294


22.4. Changes in Building Structural Materials 294


22.5. Changes in Location on Site 295


22.6. Changes in Wall and Roof Assemblies 295


22.7. Changes in Interior Finish Materials 296


Step 23. INTEGRATE EGRESS DETAILS 297


23.1. Stairs, Ramps, Handrails, and Guards 297


23.1.1. Stairs (IBC Section 1011) 297


23.1.2. Ramps (IBC Section 1012) 298


23.1.3. Handrails (IBC Section 1014) 298


23.1.4. Guards (IBC Section 1015) 299


23.2. Unenclosed Exit Access Stairways and Ramps 299


23.3. Luminous Markings 300


Step 24. IDENTIFY LOCATIONS OF SAFETY GLAZING 304


24.1. Introduction to Safety Glazing 304


24.2. Human Impact Resistance 305


24.2.1. Glazing in Athletic Facilities 308


24.2.2. Glazing in Elevators 309


24.2.3. Wired Glass 309


24.3. Sloped Glazing Assemblies 310


Step 25. DETAIL FIRESTOPPING, FIRE-RESISTANT JOINTS, AND FIREPROOFING 311


25.1. Penetrations (IBC Section 714) 311


25.1.1. Penetrations in Fire-Resistance-RatedWalls (IBC Section 714.3) 312


25.1.2. Penetrations in Horizontal Assemblies (IBC Section 714.4) 313


25.2. Fire-Resistant Joint Systems (IBC Sections 715) 314


25.3. Fireproofing 315


25.4. Special Inspections (IBC Sections 1705.14, 1705.15, and 1705.17) 316


Step 26. LOCATE PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS AND CABINETS 318


26.1. Fire Extinguisher Requirements Overview (IBC Section 906) 318


26.2. Selection of Fire Extinguishers 319


26.3. Determining Number of Required Extinguishers 320


26.4. Location and Installation of Fire Extinguishers 320


Step 27. DETAIL CONSTRUCTION BASED ON SPECIFIC BUILDING MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT 327


27.1. Code Requirements for Specific Materials 327


27.1.1. Concrete 327


27.1.2. Masonry 328


27.1.3. Steel 329


27.1.4. Wood 330


27.1.5. Gypsum and Plaster 330


27.2. Accessibility Details 331


Step 28. PREPARE CODE INFORMATION FOR CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS 333


28.1. Submittal Documents Overview (IBC Section 107 and IECC Section C103) 333


28.2. Code Data on Construction Documents 335


28.2.1. Basic Code Data 336


28.2.2. Code Data on Drawings 337


28.2.3. Code Data in the Project Manual 338


PART V Existing Buildings 339


TYPES OF WORK 341


COMPLIANCE METHODS 342


Overview 342


Prescriptive Compliance Method 343


Additions 343


Alterations 343


Repairs 344


Fire Escapes 344


Glass and Window Replacement 344


Change of Occupancy 344


Historic Buildings 345


Other Requirements 345


Work Area Compliance Method 346


Performance Compliance Method 347


APPLYING THE STEP-BY-STEP PROCESS TO EXISTING BUILDINGS 349


Schematic Design 349


Design Development 351


Construction Documents 352


PART VI Code Enforcement 353


AUTHORITY HAVING JURISDICTION 355


Statuatory AHJ 356


Contractual AHJ 356


THE DEPARTMENT OF BUILDING SAFETY 357


The Building Official 358


Plans Examiners 358


Inspectors 359


PLAN REVIEWS 361


CODE ENFORCEMENT AND THE BUILDING CODE APPLICATION PROCESS 363


Appendix 365


A. ARCHITECTURAL PROGRAMFOR PRIVATIZED STUDENT HOUSING 367


B. CODE DATA INFORMATION TEMPLATE 370


C. CODE DATA INFORMATION FOR EXAMPLE PROJECT 400


References 417


Index 421
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About Ronald L. Geren

Ronald L. Geren, FCSI, AIA, CCS, CCCA, SCIP, is the owner of RLGA Technical Services, a building code and specifications consulting firm in Scottsdale, Arizona. He has over 30 years' experience in the construction industry with multiple building types, working in design firms and as an owner's representative. He is a professor of architecture at Taliesin, the Frank Lloyd Wright School of Architecture, where he teaches building codes, building construction technology, construction documents, and architectural practice management. Ronald is also a certified building plans examiner, certified construction specifier, and a certified construction contract administrator.
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