Appearance and Reality (1893). by : F. H. Bradley: (Metaphysical Essay). Appearance and Reality Comprises Two Volumes: Appearance and Reality.
Appearance and Reality (1893; second edition 1897) is a book by the English philosopher Francis Herbert Bradley, in which the author, influenced by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, argues that most things are appearances and attempts to describe the reality these appearances misrepresent, which Bradley calls the Absolute. The main statement of Bradley's metaphysics Appearance and Reality is considered his most important book. It was an early influence on Bertrand Russell, who, however, later rejected Bradley's views. Summary: Appearance and Reality comprises two volumes: "Appearance" and "Reality." Bradley argues in the first that most things, including objects and their qualities, time and space, causation, the self, and things-in-themselves, are appearances, while in the second he attempts to describe the reality these appearances misrepresent: the Absolute, a single cosmic experience of which people are components. Ordinary concepts provide a pragmatically useful way of thinking about the world, but being incoherent they cannot provide a satisfactory grasp of reality. Reality, as predicate, is a matter of degree: concepts are true or false of reality in different degrees. The concept of the Absolute is only a way of attempting to understand something that cannot be fully comprehended. Bradley tries to establish these conclusions by arguing that reality must have a unitary togetherness that cannot be captured by the ordinary conception of many distinct things in relation, and that all concrete reality must somehow be psychical in nature..... Francis Herbert Bradley OM (30 January 1846 - 18 September 1924) was a British idealist philosopher. His most important work was Appearance and Reality (1893). Life: Bradley was born at Clapham, Surrey, England (now part of the Greater London area). He was the child of Charles Bradley, an evangelical preacher, and Emma Linton, Charles's second wife. A. C. Bradley was his brother. Educated at Cheltenham College and Marlborough College, he read, as a teenager, some of Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. In 1865, he entered the University College, Oxford. In 1870, he was elected to a fellowship at Oxford's Merton College where he remained until his death in 1924. Bradley is buried in Holywell Cemetery in Oxford. During his life, Bradley was a respected philosopher and was granted honorary degrees many times. He was the first British philosopher to be awarded the Order of Merit. His fellowship at Merton College did not carry any teaching assignments and thus he was free to continue to write. He was famous for his non-pluralistic approach to philosophy. His outlook saw a monistic unity, transcending divisions between logic, metaphysics and ethics. Consistently, his own view combined monism with absolute idealism. Although Bradley did not think of himself as a Hegelian philosopher, his own unique brand of philosophy was inspired by, and contained elements of, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's dialectical method. Philosophy: Bradley rejected the utilitarian and empiricist trends in English philosophy represented by John Locke, David Hume, and John Stuart Mill. Instead, Bradley was a leading member of the philosophical movement known as British idealism, which was strongly influenced by Kant and the German idealists, Johann Fichte, Friedrich Schelling, and Hegel, although Bradley tended to downplay his influences. In 1909, Bradley published an essay entitled "On Truth and Coherence" in the journal Mind (reprinted in Essays on Truth and Reality). The essay criticises a form of infallibilist foundationalism in epistemology. The philosopher Robert Stern has argued that in this paper Bradley defends coherence not as an account of justification but as a criterion or test for truth. Moral philosophy: Bradley's view of morality was driven by his criticism of the idea of self used in the current utilitarian theories of ethics. He addressed the central question of "Why should I be moral?.."
- Paperback | 342 pages
- 203 x 254 x 18mm | 680g
- 06 Nov 2017
- Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
- Illustrations, black and white