Anatomy and Physiology For Dummies
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Anatomy and Physiology For Dummies

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Description

Learn about the human body from the inside out Some people think that knowing about what goes on inside the human body can sap life of its mystery which is too bad for them. Anybody who's ever taken a peak under the hood knows that the human body, and all its various structures and functions, is a realm of awe-inspiring complexity and countless wonders. The dizzying dance of molecule, cell, tissue, organ, muscle, sinew, and bone that we call life can be a thing of breathtaking beauty and humbling perfection. Anatomy & Physiology For Dummies combines anatomical terminology and function so you'll learn not only names and terms but also gain an understanding of how the human body works. Whether you're a student, an aspiring medical, healthcare or fitness professional, or just someone who's curious about the human body and how it works, this book offers you a fun, easy way to get a handle on the basics of anatomy and physiology.
* Understand the meaning of terms in anatomy and physiology * Get to know the body's anatomical structures from head to toe * Explore the body's systems and how they interact to keep us alive * Gain insight into how the structures and systems function in sickness and health Written in plain English and packed with beautiful illustrations, Anatomy & Physiology For Dummies is your guide to a fantastic voyage of the human body.
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Product details

  • Paperback | 384 pages
  • 188 x 234 x 20mm | 550g
  • New York, United States
  • English
  • 3rd Edition
  • 1119345235
  • 9781119345237
  • 4,904

Back cover copy

Explore the body's inner workings Understand the body's structures and systems Grasp anatomical terminology

Take a fantastic voyage through the human body

Ready to find out what makes you tick? This book is a fun, easy way to get a handle on anatomy and physiology. It introduces you to the different cells, tissues, and organs of the human body--explaining what they do and how they work together. Whether you're a student, an aspiring MD, a fitness professional, or you're just curious about your body's parts and processes, this beautifully illustrated guide is a great place to start.

Inside... Scientific terminology made easy The anatomical structures and organization of the human body Bodily functions, from the senses to reproduction Components of the body's systems and how theyinteract How the body develops, repairs itself, and is affected by disease
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Table of contents

Introduction 1


About This Book 2


Foolish Assumptions 2


Icons Used in This Book 3


Beyond the Book 3


Where to Go from Here 4


Part 1: Locating Physiology on the Web of Knowledge 5


Chapter 1: Anatomy and Physiology: The Big Picture 7


Scientifically Speaking 7


How anatomy and physiology fit into science 8


Anatomy, gross and otherwise 10


A Little Chat about Jargon 11


Creating better communication 11


Establishing precise terminology 11


Looking at the Body from the Proper Perspective 13


Getting in position 13


Dividing the anatomy 15


Mapping out your regions 15


Casing your cavities 19


Organizing Yourself on Many Levels 21


Level I: The cellular level 23


Level II: The tissue level 23


Level III: The organ level 23


Level IV: The organ system level 23


Level V: The organism level 24


Chapter 2: What Your Body Does All Day 27


Transferring Energy: A Body's Place in the World 28


Building Up and Breaking Down: Metabolism 28


Why your cells metabolize 29


How your cells metabolize 30


Staying in Range: Homeostasis 33


Maintaining a constant temperature: Thermoregulation 34


Swimming in H2O: Fluid balance 35


Adjusting the fuel supply: Blood glucose concentration 35


Measuring important variables 36


Growing, Replacing, and Renewing 37


Growing 37


Replacing 37


Repairing parts 39


Healing wounds 39


Lasting parts 40


Chapter 3: A Bit about Cell Biology 43


The Functions of Cells 43


Building themselves 44


Building tissues 45


Transforming energy 45


Making and transporting products 45


Communicating 46


Seeing the Inside of Eukaryotic Cells 46


Containing the cell: Cell membrane 48


Controlling the cell: Nucleus 51


Cytoplasm 51


Internal membranes 52


Powering the cell: Mitochondria 52


The protein factory 53


Lysosomes 54


Building Blocks That Build You 54


Joining together: The structure of macromolecules 54


Polysaccharides 55


Lipids 55


Proteins 56


Nucleic acids 57


Genes and Genetic Material 58


Traiting you right 59


Gene structure 59


Synthesizing protein 60


The Cell Cycle 62


Cells that divide, cells that don't 62


Interphase 64


DNA replication 64


Mitosis 64


Organizing Cells into Tissues 67


Connecting with connective tissue 67


Continuing with epithelial tissue 68


Mixing it up with muscle tissue 70


Getting nervous about nervous tissue? 70


Part 2: Sizing Up the Structural Layers 71


Chapter 4: Getting the Skinny on Skin, Hair, and Nails 73


Functions of the Integument 74


Structure of the Integument 75


Touching the epidermis 75


Exploring the dermis 79


Getting under your skin: The hypodermis 81


Accessorizing Your Skin 81


Now hair this 81


Nailing nails 82


Nothing's bland about glands 82


Your Skin Saving You 84


Controlling your internal temperature 85


Your skin is sensational 85


Your skin is self-healing 86


Pathophysiology of the Integument 86


Skin cancer 86


Dermatitis 87


Alopecia 87


Nail problems as signs of possible medical conditions 88


Chapter 5: Scrutinizing the Skeletal System 89


Reporting for Duty: The Jobs of Your Skeleton 90


Checking Out the Skeleton's Makeup 90


Caring about connective tissue 90


The structure of a bone 93


Classifying bones 94


Bone Growth and Remodeling 95


The Axial Skeleton 96


Keeping your head up: The skull 97


Setting you straight on the curved spinal column 99


Being caged can be a good thing 101


The Appendicular Skeleton 102


Wearing girdles: Everybody has two 103


Going out on a limb: Arms and legs 105


Joints and the Movements They Allow 110


Categorizing the types of joints 110


Knowing what your joints can do 111


Pathophysiology of the Skeletal System 113


Abnormal curvature 113


Osteoporosis 113


Cleft palate 114


Arthritis 114


Fractures 115


Chapter 6: Muscles: Setting You in Motion 117


Functions of the Muscular System 118


Supporting your structure 118


Moving you 118


Poised positioning 119


Maintaining body temperature 119


Pushing things around inside 119


Talking about Tissue Types 121


Defining unique features of muscle cells 121


Skeletal muscle 123


Cardiac muscle 125


Smooth muscle 125


Getting a Grip on the Sliding Filament 126


Assembling a sarcomere 126


Telling the fiber to contract 127


Contracting and releasing the sarcomere 128


Naming the Skeletal Muscles 129


Starting at the top 130


Twisting the torso 132


Spreading your wings 135


Getting a leg up 136


Pathophysiology of the Muscular System 138


Muscular dystrophy 139


Muscle spasms 139


Fibromyalgia 140


Part 3: Talking to Yourself 141


Chapter 7: The Nervous System: Your Body's Circuit Board 143


Integrating the Input with the Output 144


Nervous tissues 144


Neurons 145


Neuroglial cells 146


Nerves 147


Ganglia and plexuses 147


Integrated Networks 147


Central nervous system 148


Peripheral nervous system 149


Thinking about Your Brain 150


Keeping conscious: Your cerebrum 152


Making your moves smooth: The cerebellum 152


Coming up roses: Your brain stem 153


Regulating systems: The diencephalon 154


Following fluid through the ventricles 154


Blood-brain barrier 155


Transmitting the Impulse 156


Across the neuron 156


Across the synapse 158


Making Sense of Your Senses 161


Touch 162


Hearing and balance 162


Sight 163


Olfaction 164


Taste 165


Pathophysiology of the Nervous System 166


Chronic pain syndrome 166


Multiple sclerosis 166


Macular degeneration 166


Chapter 8: The Endocrine System: Releasing Chemical Messages 167


Homing In on Hormones 168


Hormone chemistry 168


Hormone sources 169


Hormone receptors 171


Grouping the Glands 172


The taskmasters: The hypothalamus and pituitary 173


Controlling metabolism 175


Getting the gonads going 178


Enteric endocrine 180


Other endocrine glands 182


Pathophysiology of the Endocrine System 183


Abnormalities in insulin metabolism 183


Thyroid disorders 184


Androgen insensitivity 186


Part 4: Exploring the Inner Workings of the Body 187


Chapter 9: The Cardiovascular System: Getting Your Blood Pumping 189


Getting Substances from Here to There 190


Carrying Cargo: Your Blood and What's in It 190


Watering down your blood: Plasma 190


Transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide: Red blood cells 191


Plugging along with platelets 192


Putting up a good fight: White blood cells 192


Looking at Your Blood Vessels 193


Starting with the arteries 193


Cruising through the capillaries 194


Visiting the veins 196


Cardiac Anatomy 197


Sizing up the heart's structure 197


Examining the heart's tissues 199


Supplying blood to the heart 200


Cardiac Cycle 201


Generating electricity 201


Moving blood through the heart 204


The heartbeat 205


Physiology of Circulation 206


On the beating path: The circuits of blood through the heart and body 206


Putting your finger on your pulse 208


Going up, going down, holding steady: Blood pressure 208


Not going with the flow 209


Pathophysiology of the Cardiovascular System 210


Cardiac disorders 210


Vascular disorders 211


Blood disorders 212


Chapter 10: The Respiratory System: Breathing Life into Your Body 215


Functions of the Respiratory System 215


Nosing around Your Respiratory Anatomy 216


Nose 216


Pharynx 217


Trachea 219


Lungs 219


Diaphragm 220


Breathing: Everybody's Doing It 220


Normal breathing 221


Breathing under stress 221


Controlled breathing 222


Gas Exchange 224


The respiratory membrane 224


The trade-off 225


Pathophysiology of the Respiratory System 226


Hypoxemia 226


Airway disorders 227


Lungs 228


Chapter 11: The Digestive System: Beginning the Breakdown 231


Functions of the Digestive System 232


The Alimentary Canal 233


Examining the walls of the digestive tract 233


Starting with the mighty mouth 234


Pharynx and esophagus: Not Egyptian landmarks 235


Stirring it up in your stomach 236


Moving through the intestines 238


Accessory Organs 240


The liver delivers 241


Pancreas 243


The Breakdown 244


Pathophysiology of the Digestive System 246


Diseases of the oral cavity 246


Disorders of the stomach and intestines 246


Bowel syndromes 248


Diseases of the accessory organs 249


Chapter 12: The Urinary System: Cleaning Up the Act 253


Functions of the Urinary System 253


Structures of the Urinary System 255


Putting out the trash: Kidneys 255


Holding and releasing 257


The Yellow River 259


Composition of urine 259


Filtering the blood 261


Selectively reabsorbing 261


Expelling urine 263


Maintaining Homeostasis 264


Fluid balance and blood pressure 264


Regulating blood pH 265


Pathophysiology of the Urinary System 267


Kidney pathologies 267


Urinary tract pathologies 268


Chapter 13: The Lymphatic System: Living in a Microbe Jungle 271


Functions of the Lymphatic System 272


Loving Your Lymphatic System 273


Lymphing along 273


Structures of the lymphatic system 274


Identifying Immune System Cells 277


Looking at leukocytes 278


Lymphocytes 279


Phagocytizing leukocytes 280


Examining Immune System Molecules 280


Histamine 281


Chemical defense 281


Antigens 281


Antibodies 282


Complement system proteins 283


Immune System Mechanisms 284


Phagocytosis 284


Degranulation 285


Inflammation is swell 285


Adaptive Immunity 286


Cell-mediated immunity 286


Humoral immunity 287


Secondary immunity 289


Immunization 289


Pathophysiology of the Immune System 289


The immune system and cancer 289


Immune-mediated diseases 290


Infectious diseases 292


Part 5: Life's Rich Pageant: Reproduction and Development 295


Chapter 14: The Reproductive System 297


Functions of the Reproductive System 297


Producing Gametes 298


Meiosis 299


Female gametes: Ova 299


Male gametes: Sperm 301


Determining sex 302


The Female Reproductive System 303


Organs of the female reproductive system 303


Cycling approximately monthly 307


The Male Reproductive System 310


The organs of the male reproductive system 310


Seminal fluid and ejaculation 312


Pausing for Pregnancy 313


Steps to fertilization 313


Implantation 314


Adapting to pregnancy 314


Labor and delivery 316


Pathophysiology of the Reproductive System 318


Infertility 318


Sexually transmitted infections 318


Premenstrual syndromes 319


Endometriosis 319


Cryptorchidism 320


Hypogonadism 320


Erectile dysfunction 320


Pathophysiology of pregnancy 320


Pregnancy loss 322


Chapter 15: Change and Development over the Life Span 323


Programming Development 324


Stages of development 324


Dimensions of development 324


Development before Birth 326


Free-floating zygote to protected embryo 326


Dividing development into trimesters 329


The Human Life Span 331


Changes at birth 331


Infancy and childhood 333


Adolescence 334


Young adulthood 335


Middle age 336


Growing creaky 336


Part 6: The Part of Tens 341


Chapter 16: Ten (Or So) Chemistry Concepts Related to Anatomy and Physiology 343


Energy Can Neither Be Created Nor Destroyed 344


Everything Falls Apart 344


Everything's in Motion 345


Probability Rules 345


Polarity Charges Life 346


Water Is Special 346


Fluids and Solids 347


Under Pressure 348


Redox Reactions Transfer Electrons 348


Chapter 17: Ten Phabulous Physiology Phacts 349


Unique to You: Hands, Fingers, Thumbs 349


Nothing's Better than Mother's Milk 350


It's Apparent: Your Hair Is Different 350


The Only Thing You Have to Fear Is 351


You Smell Well! 352


Microbes: We Are Their World 353


The Pesky Appendix 354


Talkin' about Breath Control 355


Taking Your First Breath 355


Is Blood Really Blue? 356


Index 357
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About Erin Odya

Erin Odya is an anatomy and physiology teacher at Carmel High School in Carmel, Indiana, one of Indiana's top schools. Maggie Norris is a freelance science writer living in the San Francisco Bay Area.
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