American Legal History

American Legal History : Cases and Materials

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Revised and expanded in this third edition, American Legal History now features a new co-author, James Ely, who is a specialist on property rights. This highly acclaimed text provides a comprehensive selection of the most important documents in the field, which integrate the history of public and private law from America's colonial origins to the present. Devoting special attention to the interaction of social and legal change, it shows how legal ideas developed in tandem with specific historical events and reveals a rich legal culture unique to America. The book also deals with state and federal courts and looks at the relationship between the development of American society, politics, and economy, and how it relates to the evolution of American law. Introductions and instructive headnotes accompany each document, tying legal developments to broader historical themes and providing a social and political context essential to an understanding of the history of law in America. American Legal History, Third Edition, offers fresh material throughout and increased coverage of cases on such topics as slave law, politics, and terrorism. The authors have incorporated more cases dealing with minority rights, including Native American and Asian American rights, women's rights, and gender and gay rights. Two new chapters have been added to this edition: one on law and economics in modern America and New Federalism and the other on law, politics, and terrorism, including a full discussion of the USA Patriot Act. The "since 1945" portion includes up-to-date material and current cases. The section on English background and colonial America has been expanded. In addition, there is new material on the most recent developments in American constitutional and legal history. Setting the legal challenges of the twenty-first century in a broad context, American Legal History, Third Edition, is an essential text for students and teachers of constitutional and legal history, the judicial process, and the effects of law on society.show more

Product details

  • Hardback | 736 pages
  • 170 x 238 x 38mm | 1,260.98g
  • Oxford University Press Inc
  • New York, United States
  • English
  • 3rd Revised edition
  • 0195162242
  • 9780195162240

Table of contents

PREFACE; 1. LAW IN THE MORNING OF AMERICA: THE BEGINNINGS OF AMERICAN LAW, TO 1760; 1.1. The English Heritage and Magna Charta; 1.1.1. Magna Charta (1215); Note: Due Process and the Law of the Land; 1.1.1.2. Note: The Reformation and Tudor England; 1.2. The Virginia Colony; 1.2.1. Dale's Laws (1611); 1.3. The Beginnings of Constitutionalism in America; 1.3.1. The Mayflower Compact 1620; 1.3.2. John Winthrop, "A Model of Christian Charity" (1629); 1.3.2.1. Note: Roger Williams and Religious Liberty; 1.3.3. Roger Williams, The Bloudy Tenent of Persecution for Cause of Conscience (1644); 1.3.4. Roger Williams to The Town of Providence (1655); 1.3.5. The Laws of Liberties of Massachusetts (1648); 1.3.6. The Rhode Island Patent (1643); 1.3.6.1. Note: England's Civil War; 1.4. The Post-Restoration Colonial Governments; 1.4.1. The Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina (1669); 1.4.2. William Penn First Frame of Government (1682); 1.4.3. The New York Charter of Libertyes (1683); 1.5. The Glorious Revolution; 1.5.1. Note: The Case of the Seven Bishops (1688); 1.5.2. The English Bill of Rights (1689); 1.5.3. John Locke, "Of Civil Government" (1690); 1.6. The Sources of Law in America; 1.6.1. Note: Reception of the Common Law; 1.6.2. William Blackstone on Reception (1765); 1.6.3. Giddings v Brown (1657); 1.7. Law and Colonial Society; 1.7.1. Morality and Colonial Law; 1.7.1.1. "A Horrible Case of Beatiality," Plymouth Colony (1642); 1.7.2. Marriage, Women, and the Family; 1.7.2.1. William Blackstone on Women in the Eyes of the Law (1765); 1.7.2.1.1. Note: Women and the Law in the Colonial Era; 1.7.2.2. An Act of Concerning Feme-Sole Traders (1718); 1.7.2.3. Widows of New York and Taxes; 1.7.3. Children, Apprenticeship, Education; 1.7.3.1. Virginia Apprenticeship Statute (1646); 1.7.3.2. Children's Education in Plymouth (1685); 1.7.4. White Indentured Servitude; 1.7.4.1. In re Wm. Wootton and John Bradye (1640); 1.7.4.2. South Carolina Servant Regulations (1761); 1.7.5. Slavery; 1.7.5.1. In re John Punch (1640); 1.7.5.2. In re Emanuel (1640); 1.7.5.3. Re Mulatto (1656); 1.7.5.4. Re Edward Mozingo (1672); 1.7.5.5. Moore vs. Light (1673); 1.7.5.6. Against Runnaway Servants, Act XVI (1657-8); 1.7.5.7. How Long Servants Without Indentures Shall Serve, Act XVIII (1657-58); 1.7.5.8. An Act for the Dutch and All Other Strangers for Trading to the Place, Act XVI (1659-60); 1.7.5.9. Run-aways, Act CII (1661-62); 1.7.5.10. Negro Women's Children to Serve According to the Condition of the Mother Act XII (1662); 1.7.5.11. An Act Declaring That Baptisme of Slaves Doth not Exempt Them From Bondage, Act II (1667); 1.7.5.12. An Act About the Casual Killing of Slaves, Act I (1669); 1.7.5.13. An Act For Preventing Negro Insurrections, Act X (1680); 1.7.5.14. The Germantown Protest Against Slavery (1688); 1.7.5.15. South Carolina Slave Code (1740); 1.7.5.16. An Act for the Better Ordering and Governing [of] Negroes and Other Slaves in this Province (1740); 1.7.5.17. The New York "Negro Plot" (1741); 1.7.6. Colonial Welfare Systems; 1.7.6.1. An Act for the Relief of the Poor (1742); 1.7.6.1.1. Note: Colonial Workforce; 1.7.7. Class Legislation and Sumptuary Laws; 1.7.7.1. Note: Class and Status in Early America; 1.7.8. Democracy and Deference; 1.7.8.1. The Incident of the Roxbury Carters (1705); 1.7.9. Law and the Colonial Economy; 1.7.10. The Laws and Liberties of Massachusetts (1648); 1.7.11. The Laws of South Carolina (1734); 1.8. Early Criminal Law; 1.8.1. The Salem Witch Trials (1692); 1.8.2. Increase Mather, Cases of Conscience Concerning Evil Spirits Personating Men (1692); 1.8.3. Cotton Mather, The Wonders of the Invisible World (1693); 1.9. Politics and Criminal Law: Toward a New America; 1.9.1. The Zenger Trial (1735); 2. LAW IN A REPUBLICAN REVOLUTION 1760-1815; 2.1. The American Revolution; 2.1.1. Jonathan Mayhew, "Unlimited Submission and Non-resistance to the Higher Powers" (1750); 2.1.1.1. Note: Litigation and the Coming of the Revolution; 2.1.2. James Otis, "The Rights of the British Colonies" (1764); 2.1.3. William Blackstone on the Imperial Constitution (1765); 2.1.4. The Declaratory Act (1766); 2.1.5. An Act for the Better Securing the Dependency of his Majesty's Dominions in America Upon the Crown and Parliament of Great Britain; 2.1.6. The Declaration and Resolves of the Continental Congress (1774); 2.1.7. Tom Paine, Common Sense (1776); 2.2. Republican State Constitutionalism; 2.2.1. The Virginia Declaration of Rights (1776); 2.2.1.1. The People the Best Governors (1776); 2.2.2.1.1. Note: The Pennsylvania Constitution of (1776); 2.2.3. Slavery and the New Nation; 2.2.3.1. Somerset v. Stewart (1772); 2.3.3.2. The Pennsylvania Gradual Abolition Act (1780); 2.3.3.3. Massachusetts Constitution of 1780; 2.3.3.4. Commonwealth v. Jennison (1783); 2.3.3.5. Virginia Manumission Act; 2.3.3.6. North Carolina Statute on Slave Murder; 2.3.3.7. Jefferson on Slavery Notes on the State of Virginia (1784); 2.3.4. Religion; 2.3.4.1. The Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (1786); 2.3.4.2. New Hampshire Constitution (1784); 2.3.5. Religion and Law Reform; 2.3.5.1. Thomas Jefferson Notes on the State of Virginia (1785); 2.4. Republican National Constitutionalism; 2.4.1. The Articles of Confederation (1781); 2.4.2. The Philadelphia Convention (1787); 2.4.3. Debating the Constitution; 2.4.3.1. Antifederalist Critiques of the Constitution: Elbridge Gerry's Report on the Constitution as Printed in Massachusetts Centinel (1787); 2.4.3.2. Federalist, Number 10 (1787); 2.4.3.3. Federalist, Number 78 (1788); 2.4.3.4. The Northwest Ordinance (1787); 2.5. The New Republic; 2.5.1. The Bill of Rights; 2.5.2. James Madison, "Property" (1792); 2.5.3. Hamilton versus Madison on Presidential Power (1793); 2.5.4. George Washington Farewell Address (1796); 2.5.5. The Sedition Act (1798); 2.5.6. The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (1798-1799); 2.5.7. Thomas Jefferson First Inaugural Address (1801); 2.6. Courts and Judges in the New Nation; 2.6.1. The Judiciary Act (1789); 2.6.2. Jefferson versus Hamilton on the Bank of the United States (1791); 2.6.3. Calder v. Bull (1798); 2.6.4. Marbury v. Madison (1803); 3. THE ACTIVE STATE AND THE MIXED ECONOMY 1812-1860; 3.1. The Golden Age of American Law; 3.2. Commerce, Legislative Promotion, and Law in the New Republic; 3.2.1. The New York Seamboat Monopoly and the Federal Commerce Power; 3.2.1.1. Livingston v. Van Ingen (1812); 3.2.1.1.1. Note: The Mix of Economies, Politics, and Law; 3.2.1.2. Gibbons v. Ogden (1824); 3.2.1.2.1. Note: The Effect of Gibbons; 3.2.2. The Second Bank of the United States; 3.2.2.1. McCulloch v. Maryland (1819); 3.2.2.1.1. Note: A Court Opinion as Political Theory; 3.2.2.2. Andrew Jackson Veto Message (1832); 3.2.2.2.1. Note: Jacksonian Economics; 3.2.2.2.2. Note: A Federal Common Law; 3.2.2.2.3. Note: Canals, Internal Improvements, and the States; 3.2.3. State Constitutions and the Active State; 3.2.3.1. Ohio Constitution (1851); 3.2.3.2. Massachusetts Constitution (1817); 3.2.3.3. Mississippi Constitution (1832); 3.3. Substantive Law and Economic Growth; 3.3.1. The Advent of the Corporation; 3.3.1.1. Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819); 3.3.1.1.1. Note: The Politics of the Dartmouth College Case; 3.3.1.2. Charles River Bridge Company v. Warren Bridge Company (1837); 3.3.1.2.1. Note: The Limited Liability of Stockholders; 3.3.2. Labor in an Industrializing Society; 3.3.2.1. Note: The Traditional Theory of Labor Conspiracy; 3.3.2.2. Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842); 3.3.2.2.1. Note: The Fellow Servant Rule; 3.3.2.3. Farwell v. The Boston and Worcester Railroad Co. (1842); 3.3.2.3.1. Note: Chief Justice Shaw and Labor; 3.3.2.3.2. Note: Fellow Servants and Slaves; 3.3.3. Property; 3.3.3.1. Van Ness v. Pacard (1829); 3.3.3.1.1. Note: Eminent Domain; 3.3.3.2. Parhan v. The Justices of Decatur County (1851); 3.3.3.3. Barron v. Baltimore (1833); 3.3.3.4. Joesph Angell, A Treatise on the Law of Watercourses (1854); 3.3.3.4.1. Note: Water Rights in the East; 3.3.3.5. Cary v. Daniels (1844); 3.3.3.5.1. Note: Water Rights in the West; 3.3.3.6. Walter Prescott Webb, The Great Plains (1831); 3.3.3.7. Irwin v. Phillips, et al. (1855); 3.3.3.7.1. Note: Law and Westward Migration; 3.3.4. The Growth of Contract Law in the Nineteenth Century; 3.3.4.1. Seixas and Seixas v. Woods (1804); 3.3.4.2. McFarland v. Newman (1839); 3.3.4.3. Icar v. Suares (1835); 3.3.4.4. Seymour v. Delancey, et al. (1824); 3.3.4.4.1. Note: Contracts and the Emerging Speculative Economy; 3.3.4.4.2. Note: Toward the Future; 3.3.4.5. Ryan v. New York Central Railroad Co. (1866); 3.3.4.6. Fent et al. v. Toledo, Peoria & Warsaw Railway Co. (1871); 3.3.4.7. An Act to Establish the Responsibility of Railroad Corporations, Companies, and Persons Owning or Operating, Railroads, for Damages by Fires Communicated by Locomotive Engines (1887); 3.3.4.7.1. Note: Wrongful Death and Tort Law; 4. SLAVERY, THE CIVIL WAR, RECONSTRUCTION, AND SEGREGATION; 4.1. Slavery and State Law; 4.1.1. Race and the Law of Negro Slavery; 4.1.1.1. Thomas R.R. Cobb, An Inquiry into the Law of Negro Slavery (1858); 4.1.2. The Power of the Master over the Slave; 4.1.2.1. State v. Mann (1829); 4.1.2.1.1. Note: Harriet Beecher Stowe on Southern Judges; 4.1.2.2. Souther v. Commonwealth (1851); 4.1.2.3. State v. Hoover (1839); 4.1.2.4. Mitchell v. Wells (1859); 4.1.2.4.1. Note: The Somerset Precedent in America; 4.2. Slavery and the Constitution; 4.2.1. The Problem of Fugitive Slaves; 4.2.1.1. Prigg v. Pennsylvania; 4.2.1.1.1. Note: Prigg and the Use of History; 4.2.1.1.2. Note: Prigg and Its Aftermath; 4.2.1.1.3. Note: Northern States'-Rights Arguments; 4.2.2. Slavery, the Territories, and Interstate Comity; 4.2.2.1. Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857); 4.2.2.1.1. Note: The Reacton to Dred Scott; 4.2.2.2. Abraham Lincoln "House Divided" Speech (1858); 4.2.2.2.1. Note: The Next Dred Scott Decision; 4.3. Secession and Constitutional Theory; 4.3.1. South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification (1832); 4.3.2. President Jackson's Proclamation Regarding Nullification (1832); 4.4. Nullification and Succession; 4.4.1. Declaration of the Immediate Causes Which Induce and Justify the Secession of South Carolina (1860); 4.4.2. Abraham Lincoln, First Inaugural Address (1861); 4.5. The Civil War and Emancipation; 4.5.1. Abraham Lincoln, The Emancipation Proclamation (1863); 4.5.1.1. Note: The Effect of The Emancipation Proclamation; 4.5.2. Abraham Lincoln, Second Inaugural Address (1865); 4.6. Reconstruction and Its Aftermath: Political Change, Black Freedom, and the Nadir of Black Rights; 4.6.1. Political Change; 4.6.1.1. Articles of Impeachment of Andrew Johnson (1868); 4.6.1.1.1. Note: The Courts and the Politics of Reconstruction; 4.6.2. Black Freedom; 4.6.2.1. Mississippi Black Codes (1865); 4.6.2.2. An Act to Confer Civil Rights on Freedmen, and for Other Purposes; 4.6.2.3. An Act to Amend the Vagrant Laws of the State; 4.6.2.4. An Act to Protect All Persons in the United States in Their Civil Rights, and Furnish Means of Their Vindication (1866); 4.6.2.4.1. Note: The Civil Rights Act and the Fourteenth Amendment; 4.6.2.4.2. Note: Andrew Johnson's Veto of the 1866 Civil Rights Act; 4.6.2.4.3. The Freedmen's Bureau; 4.6.2.4.4. The Civil Rights Act of 1875; 4.6.3. The End of Civil Rights; 4.6.3.1. The Slaughterhouse Cases (1873); 4.6.3.1.1. Note: The Slaughterhouse Legacy; 4.6.3.1.2. Note: Civil Rights Cases (1883); 4.6.4. Race and Segregation in Nineteenth-Century Law Society; 4.6.4.1. Roberts v. The City of Boston (1850); 4.6.4.1.1. Note: Free Blacks and the Law; 4.6.4.2. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896); 4.6.4.2.1. Note: Separate But Equal in the North; 4.6.5. Segregation on the Eve of a New Century (1898); 5. NINETEENTH-CENTURY LAW AND SOCIETY 1800-1900; 5.1. Race; 5.1.1. Native Americans; 5.1.1.1. Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831); 5.1.1.1.1. Note: The Federal Government and Native Americans; 5.1.1.2. Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock; 5.1.2. Asians; 5.1.2.1. Yick Wo v. Hopkins; 5.1.2.1.1. Note: The Chinese and Jim Crow; 5.1.2.1.2. Note: Chinese Exclusion; 5.1.2.2. United States v. Wong Kim Ark (1898); 5.1.2.2.1. Note: Gentlemen's Agreement (1907); 5.1.2.3. Oregon v. Charley Lee Quong, Ah Lee, and Lee Jong (1879); 5.1.3. Latinos and Hispanics; 5.1.3.1. California ex. Re. M. M. Kimberly v. Pablo de la Guerra (1870); 5.2. Gender and Domestic Relations; 5.2.1. The Rights of Women; 5.2.1.1. "The Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments" (1848); 5.2.1.2. The New York Married Women's Property Acts (1848); 5.2.1.3. An Act for the More Effectual Protection of the Property of Married Women (1848); 5.2.2. An Act to Amend an Act Entitled "An Act for the More Effectual Protection of the Property of Married Women" (1849); 5.2.2.1. Note: Married Women and the Law; 5.2.3. Bradwell v. Illinois (1873); 5.2.4. Minor v. Happersett (1875); 5.2.4.1. Note: the Case of United States vs Susan B. Anthony (1873); 5.2.5. Marriage and Divorce; 5.2.5.1. "The Nature of Marriage and How Defined" (1881); 5.2.5.2. Wightman v. Coates (1833); 5.2.5.3. Reynolds v. United States (1879); 5.2.5.3.1. Note: Divorce; 5.2.5.4. Waldron v. Waldron; 5.2.6. Birth Control and Abortion; 5.2.6.1. State v. Slagle (1880); 5.2.6.1.1. Note: Abortion and the Quickening Doctrine; 5.2.6.2. People v. Sanger (1918); 5.3. Crime and Criminal Justice; 5.3.1. Crime and Punishment; 5.3.1.1. On Crimes and Punishments (1764); 5.3.1.2. "The Causes of Crime" (1880); 5.3.1.2.1. Note: The Police and the Prison; 5.3.2. The Cause of Crime; 5.3.2.1. State v. Felter (1868); 5.3.2.1.1. Note: Insanity Tests; 5.3.2.2. Bill Bell v. The State (1885); 5.3.2.2.1. Note: The South and Self-Defense; 5.3.3. Late-Nineteenth-Century Crime and Morality; 5.3.3.1. People v. Plath (1885); 5.3.4. The Federeal Government, Crime, and Morality; 5.3.4.1. Ex parte Jackson (1877); 5.3.4.1.1. Note: Morality and Free Speech; 6. LAWYERS AND THE RISE OF THE REGULATORY STATE 1850-1920; 6.1. The Lawyer in American Society; 6.1.1. Alexis de Tocqueville on Lawyers and Judges (1835); 6.2. Legal Education; 6.2.1. Christopher C. Langdell, A Selection of Cases on the Law of Contracts (1871); 6.2.1.1. Note: Critics of Langdellian Assumptions; 6.3. Legal Theory in the Late Nineteenth Century; 6.3.1. Thomas M. Cooley, A Treatise on the Constitutional Limitations Which Rest upon the Legislative Power of the Sates of the American Union; 6.3.1.1. Note: Social Tension in the 1890s; 6.3.2. Christopher G. Tiedemann, A Treatise on the limitations of Police Power in the United States (1886); 6.3.3. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., The Common Law (1881); 6.3.4. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., "The Path of the Law" (1897); 6.4. The Growth of Economic Regulation; 6.4.1. Property Rights and Police Power; 6.4.2. David J. Brewer, "Protection to Private Property from Public Attack" (1891); 6.5. State Regulation and the Public Interest; 6.5.1. States and Labor Law; 6.5.1.1. New Jersey Child Labor Act (1851); 6.5.1.2. Illinois Criminal Syndicalism Act (1887); 6.5.1.3. New York Worker's Compensation Act (1910); 6.5.2. Worker's Compensation and the Question of Causation; 6.5.2.1. Ives v. South Buffalo Railway Co. (1911); 6.5.3. Eminent Domain; 6.5.3.1. Colorado Constitution (1876); 6.5.3.1.1. Note: The Evolution of Takings Jurisprudence; 6.6. Federal Regulation and the Public Interest; 6.6.1. The Interstate Commerce Commission; 6.6.1.1. Interstate Commerce Act (1887); 6.6.1.1.1. Note: Judicial Reaction to the Interstate Commerce Commission; 6.6.2. Trustbusting: The Statutory Basis; 6.6.2.1. Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890); 6.6.3. Federal Commerce Power; 6.6.3.1. United States v. E.C. Knight & Co. (1892); 6.6.3.1.1. Note: Anti-Trust Law in the Progressive Era; 6.6.3.2. Populist Platform Adopted at St. Louis (1892); 6.6.4. Taxation of Income; 6.6.4.1. Joesph H. Choate, Arguments for Appellant in the Income Tax Cases (Pollock v. Farmers' Loan and Trust Co.) (1895); 6.7. Judicial Reaction to the Regulatory State; 6.7.1. The Origins of Substantive Due Process; 6.7.1.1. Wynehamer v. The People (1856); 6.7.2. Bond Repudiation and Judicial Review; 6.7.3. The Bradley Dissent in Slaughterhouse; 6.7.3.1. The Slaughterhouse Cases (1873); 6.7.4. Reaffirmation of the Police Power; 6.7.4.1. Munn v. Illinois (1877); 6.7.4.1.1. Note: Federal Judicial Review of State Rate Regulations; 6.7.5. Substantive Due Process in the State Courts; 6.7.5.1. In re Jacobs (1885); 6.7.5.1.1. Note: Labor and the Law; 6.7.6. Liberty of Contract; 6.7.6.1. llgeyer v. Louisiana (1897); 6.7.7. Liberty of Contract and Workplace Regulation; 6.7.7.1. Holden v. Hardy (1898); 6.7.7.2. Lochner v. New York; 6.7.7.3. Muller v. Oregon (1908); 6.7.8. Toward a Federal Police Power; 6.7.8.1. Champion v. Ames (1903); 6.7.8.1.1. Note: The Growth of Federal Police Power; 6.7.8.1.2. Note: Child Labor; 7. TOTAL WAR, CIVIL LIBERTIES, AND CIVIL RIGHTS; 7.1. Individual Rights in a Changing Culture; 7.1.1. Louis D. Brandeis and Samuel D. Warren, "The Right to Privacy" (1890); 7.2. World War I and Civil Liberties; 7.2.1. The Suppression of Dissent During World War I; 7.2.1.1. Paul Murphy, World War I and the Origins of Civil Liberties in the United; 7.2.2. Censorship During World War I; 7.2.2.1. Schench v. United States (1919); 7.2.2.1.1. Note: Debs v. United States (1919); 7.2.2.2. Abrams et al. V. United States (1919); 7.2.2.2.1. Note: The Abrams Dissent; 7.3. Radicals and Civil Liberties; 7.3.1. Note: Civil Liberties and Fourteenth Amendment Incorporation; 7.3.2. Whitney v. California (1927); 7.4. World War II and Legal Developments; 7.4.1. The Flag Salute Cases; 7.4.1.1. West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette (1943); 7.4.2. The Japanese Internment; 7.4.2.1. Note: Executive Order-No. 9066; 7.4.2.2. Hirabayashi v. United States (1943); 7.4.2.3. Korematsu v. United States (1944); 7.4.2.3.1. Note: Ex parte Endo (1944); 7.4.2.3.2. Note: The Internment Cases a Generation Later; 7.5. Civil Liberties and Criminal Justice in Crisis Times; 7.5.1. The Emergence of Criminal Due Process; 7.5.1.1. Weeks v. United States (1914); 7.5.1.2. Olmstead v. United States (1928); 7.5.1.2.1. Note: Prohibitiona nd the Law; 7.6. Crime in the Cities; 7.6.1. Roscoe Pound and Felix Frankfurter, Criminal Justice in Cleveland (1922); 7.7. Civil Rights and Racial Justice; 7.7.1. Race and the Franchise; 7.7.2. Race and Education; 7.7.2.1. Missouri ex re. Gaines v. Canada (1938); 7.7.2.1.1. Note: Beyond Gaines; 7.7.3. Racial Justice and Criminal Law; 7.7.3.1. James Harmon Chadbourn, "Lynching and the Administration of Justice, and the Supreme Court; 8. RIGHTS, LIBERTY, AND SCIENCE IN MODERN AMERICA; 8.1. Civil Rights; 8.1.1. Race; 8.1.1. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Kansas (1954); 8.1.2. "Southern Declaration on Integration" (1956); 8.1.2.1. Note: Race and the Constitution; 8.1.3. Martin Luther King, Jr., "Letter from Birmingham City Jail" (1963); 8.2. Civil Rights Act of 1964; 8.3. Affirmative Action; 8.3.1. Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978); 8.3.1.1. Note: The Futre of Affirmative Action in Education; 8.3.2. City of Richmond v. J.A. Croson Company (1989); 8.3.2.1. Note: The Aftermath of Croson; 8.4. Gender; 8.4.1. Griswold v. Connecticut (1965); 8.4.1.1. Note: The Debate in Griswold; 8.4.2. Roe v. Wade (1973); 8.4.2.1. Note: The Future of Roe; 8.4.3. Johnson v. Transportatoin Agency, Santa Clara County (1987); 8.4.3.1. Note: Affirmative Action and Sexual Harassment; 8.4.4. Homosexual Rights; 8.4.4.1. Romer v. Evans (1996); 8.4.5. Same Sex Marriages; 8.4.5.1. Baker v. State (1999); 8.4.5.2. Vermont Civil Union Act (2000); 8.4.5.3. Defense of Marriage Act; 8.5. Civil Liberties; 8.5.1. Dennis et al. V. United States (1951); 8.5.1.1. Note: Free Speech and Internal Security; 8.5.2. New York Times v. Sullivan (1964); 8.5.3. Offensive Speech; 8.5.3.1. Engel v. Vitale (1962); 8.5.3.2. Employment Division, Department of Human Resources of Oregon v. Smith (1990); 8.5.3.2.1. Note: Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993; 8.6. Criminal Justice; 8.6.1. Miranda v. Arizona (1966); 8.6.1.1. Note: The Supreme Court and Criminal Justice; 8.6.1.2. Note: Surge in Incarceration; 8.7. Science and Law; 8.7.1. Definition of Death; 8.7.1.1. In the Matter of Karen Quinlan (1976); 8.7.1.1.1. Note: Right to Die; 8.7.2. Surrogate Parenting; 8.7.2.1. In the Matter of Baby M (1988); 8.7.3. The Challenge of DNA; 8.7.4. Science and Environmental Law; 8.7.4.1. TVA v. Hill (1978); 8.7.4.1.1. Note: The Fate of Hill; 8.7.5. Cyberspace; 8.7.5.1. Intel v. Hamidi (2003); 9. LAW AND THE ECONOMY IN MODERN AMERICA; 9.1. Regulatory State; 9.1.1. Deregulation; 9.1.1.1. The Staggers Act (1980); 9.1.1.2. The Contours of Environmental Regulation; 9.1.1.3. Howard Latin, "Ideal Versus Real Regulatory Efficiency: Implementation of; 9.1.1.4. Bruce A. Ackerman and Richard B. Stewart, "Reforming Environmental Law" (1985); 9.1.1.5. William J. Clinton, Executive Order 12866 (1933); 9.1.2. Anti-Trust Policy; 9.2. Economic Activity; 9.2.1. Contract; 9.2.1.1. Williams v. Walker-Thomas Furniture Company (1965); 9.2.2. Torts; 9.2.2.1. Greenman v. Yuba Power Porducts, Inc. (1962); 9.2.2.2. Fassoulas v. Ramey (1984); 9.2.2.2.1. Note: Legislative Reform of the Tort System; 9.2.2.3. BMW of North America, Inc v. Gore (1996); 9.2.2.3.1. Note: Beyond Gore; 9.2.2.3.2. Note: Tobacco Litigation; 9.2.3. Property; 9.2.3.1. Lionshead Lkae, Inc, v. Wayne Tp. (1952); 9.2.3.1.1. Note: Zoning; 9.2.3.1.2. Note: Eminent Domain; 9.2.3.2. Hawaii Housing Authority v. Midkiff (1984); 9.2.3.2.1. Note: Eminent Domain beyond Midkiff; 9.2.3.2.2. Note: Regulatory Takings; 9.2.3.3. Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council (1992); 9.2.3.3.1. Note: Residential Leases; 9.2.3.4. Javins v. First National Reality Corporation (1970); 9.2.3.4.1. Note: Entitlements and "New Property"; 9.3. New Federalism; 9.3.1. Untied States v. Lopez (1995); 9.3.1.1. Note: New Directions in Commerce Clause Jurisprudence; 9.3.2. Printz v. United States (1997); 10. LAW POLITICS, AND TERROR; 10.1. The Modern Presidency and Separation of Powers; 10.1.1. New York Times Company v. United States, United States v. Washington Post Company (1971); 10.1.1.1. Note: The Modern Persidency; 10.1.2. Untied States v. Nixon (1974); 10.1.2.1. Note: The Resignation of Richard Nixon; 10.2. The Impeachment of Bill Clinton; 10.2.1. House Committee on the Judiciary Resolutions of Impeachment Against William Jefferson Clinton, President of the United States, for High Crimes and Misdemeanors (1998); 10.2.1.1. The Senate Vote on President Clinton; 10.3. Political Questions, the Presidential Election of 2000, and the Supreme Court; 10.3.1. Bush v. Gore (2000); 10.3.1.1. Note: The Supreme Court Decision and the Political Process; 10.4. Terror, Liberty, and the Presidency; 10.4.1. Note: The USA PATRIOT Act of 2001; 10.4.2. The Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA PATRIOT) Act of 2001, H.R. 3162 Section-by-Section Analysis; 10.5. The Patriot Act: For and Against; 10.5.1. The USA Patriot Act: Preserving Life and Liberty; 10.5.2. The USA Patriot Act and Government Actions that Threaten Our Civil Liberties; 10.5.3. The Policies of War: Refocus the Mission; 10.5.4. Zelman v. Simmons-Harris (2002); 10.5.4.1. Note: Homeland Security Act; Appendix: The Constitution of the United States; NOTES; SOURCES AND CREDITS; INDEX OF CASESshow more

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