Aims of Argument : A Text and Reader
The "Aims of Argument" is a process-oriented introduction to argumentation with unique coverage of the aims, or purposes, of argument - to inquire, to convince, to persuade, and to mediate. In contrast to other approaches, the focus on aims provides rhetorical context that helps students write, as well as read, arguments.
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- Paperback | 768 pages
- 162.6 x 226.1 x 33mm | 1,224.71g
- 01 Sep 2002
- McGraw-Hill Education - Europe
- Mayfield Publishing Co ,U.S.
- United States
- 4th Revised edition
- Illustrations (some col.) , maps
Table of contents
*Indicates that the reading selection is new to this edition PART ONE, Resources for Reading and Writing ArgumentsChapter One, Understanding ArgumentWhat Is Argument?What Is Rhetoric?An Example of ArgumentDiscussion of "You Have a Right!"Four Criteria of Mature ReasoningWhat Are the Aims of Argument?Where are the Aims of Argument Used?A Good Tool for Understanding and Writing Arguments: The Writer's NotebookWhy Keep a Notebook?Notebook OptionsKeeping a Print NotebookKeeping an Electronic NotebookWays of Using a NotebookChapter Two, Reading An ArgumentThe First Encounter: Seeing the Whole Text in ContextThe Second Encounter: Reading and Analyzing the TextWrestling With Difficult PassagesUsing Paraphrase to Aid ComprehensionAnalyzing the Reasoning of an ArgumentThe Third Encounter: Responding Critically to an Argument Chapter Three, Analyzing Arguments: A Simplified Toulmin MethodA Preliminary Critical ReadingA Step-by-Step Demonstration of the Toulmin MethodFind the ExceptionsAnalyzing the ReasonsList the ReasonsExamine the ReasonsAnalyzing EvidenceNoting RefutationsSummarizing Your AnalysisA Final Note about Logical AnalysisChapter Four, Reading and Writing about Visual ArgumentsUnderstanding Visual Arguments"Reading" ImagesAnalysis: Five Common Types of Visual Arguments[FOUR-COLOR Visual Argument INSERT] Chapter Five, Writing Research-Based ArgumentsFinding an IssueUnderstand That an Issue Is More Than Just a TopicKeep Abreast of Current EventsResearch the NewsResearch Your Library's Periodicals IndexesInquire into the IssueFinding SourcesField Research Library and Online Research Internet ResearchEvaluating SourcesEliminate Inappropriate SourcesCarefully Record Complete Bibliographic InformationRead the Source CriticallyInquire into the SourceConsider How You Might Use the SourceUsing SourcesTaking NotesSuggestions for Taking NotesParaphrasingSummarizingCreating an Annotated BibliographyIncorporating and Documenting Source Material in the Text of Your ArgumentDifferent Styles of DocumentationInstructions for Using MLA and APA StyleDirect QuotationsIndirect QuotationsCreating a Works-Cited or Reference List PART TWO, The Aims of ArgumentChapter Six, Looking for Some Truth: Arguing to InquireInquiry and Interpretation in Academic WritingThe Writing Project: Exploratory Essay, Part OneConversations and Dialogue in InquiryInquiry Again: Digging DeeperThe Writing Project: Part TwoThe Writing Project: Part ThreeAfter Drafting Your EssayInquiry: Summing Up the AimChapter Seven, Making Your Case: Arguing to ConvinceThe Nature of Convincing: Structure and StrategyCase StructureCase StrategyThinking about AudienceFormulating the ThesisChoosing ReasonsArranging ReasonsUsing EvidenceIntroducing and Concluding the ArgumentThe Process of Writing a Convincing ArgumentChapter Eight, Motivating Action: Arguing to PersuadeWhen to Convince and When to Persuade: A Matter of Emphasis: Reading a Persuasive EssayPrinciplesUsing the Forms of AppealThe Process of Writing a Persuasive Essay Chapter Nine, Resolving Conflict: Arguing to Negotiate and MediateResolving Conflict and the Other Aims of ArgumentThe Process of Negotiation and MediationUnderstanding the Spirit of Negotiation and MediationUnderstanding the Opposing PositionsDefining the Problem in Terms of the Real InterestsInventing Creative OptionsGathering More DataReaching a Solution Based on Agreed-upon PrinciplesThe Mediatory EssayAnalyzing a Mediatory EssayThe Process of Writing a Mediatory Essay Part Three, Two Case Books for ArgumentChapter Ten, Casebook on 09/11/01 and After: Coping With TerrorismGetting Oriented* PhotographsI. Recalling the Attack * TIMOTHY TOWNSEND, At Ground Zero: The First Hours * KEN KESEY, The Real War* RESHMA MEMON YAQUB, You People Did This* Photograph, Author and SonII. Getting InformedA. General Information* STEPHEN ZUNES, 10 Things to Know About the Middle East* PAUL WILKINSON, Types of TerrorismB. Impact on the United States* MATTHEW COOPER et al., A Clear and Present Danger* STEVEN LEVY, Technology: A High-Tech HomefrontC. Understanding Terrorism* JIM LANDERS, The Roots of Conflict* Dallas Morning News, Regional Maps and Timeline* JIM LANDERS, Bin Laden Allies Want Islamic Unity* Dallas Morning News, Mapping Sponsors of Terrorism* GREGG JONES, Cradle of a Holy War* Agence France-Presse, News Photograph* Associated Press, News Photograph* JERROLD M. POST, Terrorist Psycho-Logic: Terrorist Behavior as a Product of Psychological ForcesD. Conclusion: The Future of Terrorism?* PAUL WILKINSON, Analysis of Terrorist Weapons and the Liberal State ResponseIII. Assessing and Responding to Interpretations and ArgumentsA. Initial Readings of 9/11* from "Talk of the Town," The New Yorker (9/24/01)Hendrik HertzbergJohn UpdikeAharon AppelfeldSusan Sontag* JOHN D. FRENCH, Beyond Words, Without Words, and Finding Words: Responding to the CatastropheB. Arguments: Right and Left* JOHN O'SULLIVAN, Their Amerika: The Song of the Counter-Tribalists* WILLIAM BENNETT, America Was Attacked Because It Is Good* STANLEY FISH, Condemnation Without Absolutes* CHALMERS JOHNSON, BlowbackC. A Conflict of Cultures?* SAMUEL P. HUNTINGTON, The Clash of Civilizations?* EDWARD W. SAID, The Clash of Ignorance D. Conclusion: Two Philosophical Interpretations* CHARLES KRAUTHAMMER, The Enemy Is Not Islam: It Is Nihilism* JAMES ATLAS, Among the Lost: Illusions of ImmortalityTerrorism: For Further Reading and ResearchChapter 11, Casebook on Marriage and Family: Responding to a Changing InstitutionGetting Oriented: Then and Now, Ideal and Real* PhotographsI. Facts About Families* SUZANNE M. BIANCHI and LYNNE M. CASPER, American FamiliesARLENE SKOLNICK, The Paradox of PerfectionII. Love and Marriage* LINDA WAITE and MAGGIE GALLAGHER, Happily Ever After?* LAURA KIPNIS, Against LoveCouples Eating and Drinking, Photo EssayTOM CHENEY, Cartoon* NORAH VINCENT, What Is This Thing Called Love?* ETHAN WATTERS, In My TribeThe Author and His Tribe at Play, PhotographIII. The Divorce DebateBARBARA DAFOE WHITEHEAD, The Making of a Divorce CultureSTEPHANIE COONTZ, The Future of Marriage* PATRICK F. FAGAN and ROBERT RECTOR, The Effects of Divorce on America* BARBARA EHRENREICH, In Defense of Splitting Up* WILLIAM JELANI COBB, Alone* DIANA JEAN SCHEMO, In Covenant Marriage, Forging Ties That Bind Two "Wedding" Days, PhotographsIV. The Changing FamilyMIDGE DECTER, The Madness of the American FamilyBETTY HOLCOMB, Families Are Changing - For the BetterDAVID POPENOE, A World without Fathers* LOUISE B. SILVERSTEIN and CARL F. AUERBACH, The Myth of the "Normal" Family* BARBARA LEBEY, American Families Are Drifting Apart* PAM HOUSTON, Creating Your OwnMarriage and Family: For Further Reading and ResearchPart Four, Readings: Issues and ArgumentsChapter 12, Feminism: Evaluating the Effects of Gender RolesCASSANDRA LANGER, What Is Feminism?KIRK ANDERSON, Cartoon*BETTY FRIEDAN, The Problem That Has No Name*SUZANNE FIELDS, Mission No Longer Impossible - Or Is It?*B. SMALLER, Cartoon*JOAN WILLIAMS, Reconstructive Feminism*GARY TRUDEAU, CartoonKATIE ROIPHE, The Independent Woman (and Other Lies)*ANNE ROIPHE, A Real Mother in the Modern WorldNAOMI WOLF, The Beauty MythLawman Jeans, A Magazine Advertisement for Women's Jeans*KATHA POLLITT, Women's Rights: As the World TurnsChapter 13, Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Rights: Responding to HomophobiaJEFFREY NICKEL, Everybody's Threatened by HomophobiaPETE HAMILL, Confessions of a HeterosexualGARY TRUDEAU, CartoonPETER J. GOMES, Homophobic? Reread Your BibleJONATHAN ALTER, Degrees of DiscomfortJONATHAN RAUCH, Beyond OppressionTONIA A. H. McNARON, In or Out in the Classroom?Chapter 14, The News and Ethics: Reading Journalism TodayJACK FULLER, What Is News? MICHAEL SCHUDSON, In All Fairness JIM SQUIRES, The Impossibility of Fairness MIKE TWOHY, CartoonW. LANCE BENNETT, Escaping the News Prison: How People See Beyond the Walls JAMES FALLOWS, Public Journalism: An Attempt to Connect the Media with the PublicChapter 15, Liberal Education and Contemporary Culture: What Should Undergraduates Learn?ARTHUR LEVINE and JEANETTE S. CURETON, College Life: An Obituary LOIS BERNSTEIN, PhotographMARK EDMUNDSON, On the Uses of Liberal Education: As Lite Entertainment for Bored College StudentsEARL SHORRIS, On the Uses of Liberal Education: As a Weapon in the Hands of the Restless PoorJOHN TAGG, The Decline of the Knowledge Factory: Why Our Colleges Must Change Chapter 16, Race and Class: Examining Social InequalityBRUCE ROBERTS, PhotographMICHAEL LIND, The Beige and the Black ABIGAIL AND STEPHAN THERNSTROM, Black Progress: How Far We've Come And How Far We Have to GoA. RAMEY, PhotographLINDA DARLING-HAMMOND, Unequal Opportunity: Race and Education SHELBY STEELE, The Recoloring of Campus Life PATRICIA J. WILLIAMS, The Distribution of DistressAppendix, A Short Guide to Editing and ProofreadingGlossary of Terms