Advanced English Grammar
This text prepares students for the complicated academic reading and writing they will encounter in university classes. Students practice identifying, analyzing, and paraphrasing the most common grammatical structures in authentic academic passages.-- Helps students make the transition from a knowledge of grammar rules to the ability to use difficult grammatical structures in their writing.-- Inductive exercises are followed by deductive reinforcement and clarification of rules with charts, explanations, and writing activities.-- Special research projects allow students to analyze grammar in textbooks or journal articles in their particular academic fields.
- Paperback | 384 pages
- 175.8 x 232.9 x 17.5mm | 666.85g
- 01 Jan 1995
- Pearson Education (US)
- Upper Saddle River, United States
Table of contents
Charts and Figures. Foreword by Betty Schrampfer Azar. Preface and Acknowledgments. To the Instructor. To the Student. THE VERB SYSTEM. 1. The Verb Tenses. Discovering the Grammar of the Verb System. Analyzing Verbs and Verbals. Explanation 1--Verbs and Verbals. Practicing with Verbs and Verbals. Discussion of the Verb Tenses. Analyzing Verb Tenses. Practicing the Verb Tenses. Explanation 2--Comparison of the Verb Tenses: Important Differences to Remember. Analysis of Tenses in a Long Piece of Writing. Explanation 3--Tenses in a Long Piece of Writing. Explanation 4--Time Frame. Explanation 4 (continued). 2. Voice: Active and Passive Sentences. Discovering the Grammar of Passive Voice. Explanation 1--Passive Voice. Practicing Active and Passive Forms. Explanation 2--When to Choose the Active Voice. Explanation 3--When to Choose the Passive Voice. Explanation 4--Coherence. Analyzing Cohesion. Using the Verb System to Write Cohesive Passages. Using the Verb System in Writing. 3. Auxiliary Verbs. Part I. Modal Auxiliary Verbs. Discovering the Grammar of Modals. Analyzing Modals. Explanation 1--Tricky Modals. Practicing Modals in Context. Part II. Emphatic Auxiliary Verbs. Explanation 2--Auxiliaries for Emphasis. Analyzing Emphatic Auxiliaries. Preparing for Standardized Tests. Research Projects. II. RELATIVE CONCEPTS. 4. Relative Clauses, Relative Phrases, and Cleft Sentences. Part I. Relative Clauses. Discovering the Grammar of Relative Clauses. Explanation 1--Relative Clauses. Analyzing Relative Clauses. Practicing Relative Clauses. Using Relative Clauses in Writing: Defining Summaries and Paraphrases. Part II. Relative Phrases--Adjective Phrases. Discovering the Grammar of Relative Phrases. Explanation 2--Forming Phrases from Relative Clauses. Discussion of Participial Phrases. Practicing Modifying Clauses and Phrases. Part III. Cleft Sentences--Another Way to Express Emphasis. Discovering the Grammar of Cleft Sentences. Explanation 3--Cleft Sentences. Practicing Cleft Sentences. Preparing for Standardized Tests. III. ADVERBIAL CONCEPTS. 5. Adverbial Expressing Relationships of Time, Place, Situation, Cause, Effect, and Purpose. Part I. Adverbials of Time, Place, and Situation. Discovering the Grammar of Adverbials. Explanation 1--Adverbials and Cohesion. Analyzing Concepts Expressed Through Adverbial Clauses, Phrases, and Conjunctions. Explanation 2--Conjunctions to Express Time Relationships. Analyzing Time Relationships. Explanation 3--Time Clause and Phrase Conjunction. Explanation 4--More Time Clause and Phrase Conjunctions. Explanation 5--Sequence of Tense in Adverbial Clauses of Time. Explanation 6--Practicing Adverbial Concepts of Time. Using Adverbials of Time and Situation in Writing. Part II. Adverbial Clauses of Cause/Effect and Reason/Result. Analyzing the Grammar of Cause and Effect. Explanation 7--Cause Clause and Phrase Subordinates (Conjunctions). Explanation 8--Result Clause and Phrase Conjunctions. Analyzing Some Confusing Words: Such and So. Explanation 9--Result Clauses with So...That and Such...That. Practicing So and Such. Explanation 10--So Versus Very. Using Adverbial Clauses and Phrases in Writing. Part III. Adverbial Clauses to Express Purpose. Analyzing Clauses of Purpose. Explanation 11--Purpose Clause and Purpose Phrase Conjunctions. Using Adverbial Concepts for Synthesizing and Summary Writing. 6. Participial Phrases and Absolute Constructions. Part I. Participial Phrases. Discovering the Grammar of Participial Phrases. Explanation 1--Making Adjective and Adverb Clauses from Participial Phrases. Analyzing Participial Phrases. Explanation 2--Derivation of Participial Phrases. Practicing with Participial Phrases. Part II. Absolute Constructions. Discovering the Grammar of Absolute Constructions. Explanation 3--Derivation of Absolute Constructions. Analyzing Absolute Constructions. Practicing Relative Clauses, Relative Phrases, and Absolutes. Using a Variety of Grammatical Structures for Paraphrasing. Preparing for Standardized Tests: Relative Clauses, Participial Phrases, Cleft Sentences, Absolutes, and Appositives. 7. Adverbial Concepts of Contrast (Concession/Opposition) and Comparison. Part I. Clauses and Phrases of Concession. Analyzing the Grammar of Concession. Explanation 1--Subordinating Conjunctions and Prepositions of Concessions. Explanation 2--Coordinating Conjunctions of Concession. Clauses and Phrases of Opposition. Explanation 3--Subordinators of Opposition. Discovering the Meaning of Tricky Transitions: On the Contrary, Contrary to, On the Other Hand. Explanation 4--Contrary to, On the Contrary, On the Other Hand. Part III. Clauses of Comparison. Analyzing the Grammar of Comparison. Explanation 5--Comparative Structures. Practicing Adverbials of Comparison. Explanation 6--Special Comparatives of Proportion. Analysis of Comparatives of Proportion and Ratio. Practicing with Comparatives of Proportion and Ratio. Using Adverbial Subordinates of Cause/Effect, Concession, Opposition and Comparison in Writing. 8. Adverbial Clauses Expressing Condition. Discovering the Grammar of Conditional Sentences. Discussion: Real Conditionals--Present, Future Versus Past. Explanation 1--Conditionals. Reducing If-Clauses. Practicing Conditionals. Explanation 2--Occurrence of Real and Unreal Conditional Sentences. Analysis of Conditionals. Using Conditionals to Write Answers to Academic Questions. Explanation 3--Unusual Conditionals. Analyzing the Meaning of Conditionals. Using Conditionals in Writing. Analyzing Other Ways to Express Hypothetical Ideas. Explanation 4--Other Ways to Express Hypothetical Ideas. Using Adverbials for Synthesizing: Paraphrasing More Then One Source to Write a Summary. Preparing for Standardized Tests. Discussion: Predicting Test Answers. IV. NOUN CONCEPTS--NOUN CLAUSES, GERUNDS, INFINITES, ABSTRACT NOUN PHRASES. 9. Noun Clauses. Discovering the Grammar of Noun Clauses. Explanation 1--Noun Clause Versus Sentence. Analyzing Noun Clauses. Practicing Noun Clauses. Analyzing Noun Clauses (continued). Explanation 2--What Versus That. Analyzing Noun Clauses in Other Roles. Explanation 3--Summary of Noun Clauses in Apposition. Explanation 4--Subjunctive Noun Clauses. Analyzing Reduced Noun Clauses. Using Noun Clauses in Writing--Reported Speech. 10. Infinitives, Gerunds, and Abstract Noun Phrases: Expressing Noun Concepts and Other Ideas. Part I. Infinitives. Discovering the Grammar of Infinitives. Analyzing Infinitives as Other Parts of Speech. Explanation 1--Infinitives and Their Functions in Academic Writing. Using Infinitives in Writing. Part II. Gerunds. Discovering the Grammar of Gerunds. Discussion: Definition of Gerunds. Explanation 2--Gerunds and Their Functions in Academic Writing. Using Infinitives in Writing. Part III. Gerunds Versus Infinitives. Explanation 3--Subjects of Gerunds and Infinitives. Practicing Gerunds and Infinitives. Explanation 4--The Difference Between Gerunds and Infinitives as Subjects in a Sentence. Explanation 5--Differences Between Gerunds and Infinitives as Objects in a Sentence. How and When Gerund and Infinitive Objects are Used. Explanation 5(continued)--When to Use Infinitives and Gerunds as Objects of Verbs. Using Gerunds and Infinitives in Writing. Part IV. Abstract Noun Phrases. Explanation 6--Abstract Noun Phrase Formation. Discussion: Usage of Noun Clauses, Infinitives, Gerunds, and Abstract Noun Phrases. Using Noun Clauses, Infinitives, Gerunds, and Abstract Noun Phrases in Writing. Preparing for Standardized Tests. Review Chapter 1. Parts of Speech and Phrases. I. Parts of Speech. Explanation--Parts of Speech. Summary of Noun Phrases. II. Phrases. Review Chapter 2. Clauses and Sentences. I. Clauses. Explanation 1--Clauses. Explanation 2--Formation of Subordinate Clauses. II. Sentences. Explanation 3--Types of Simple Sentences. Definitions of Sentence Parts and Terms. III. Combining Clauses and Phrases into Sentences. Explanation 4--Conjunctions. IV. How Punctuation and Phrase Patterns Can Help You Choose Answers in Multiple-Choice Grammar Tests Like the TOEFL. Preparing for Standardized Tests. Appendix 1--Prepositions. Appendix 2--Articles. Appendix 3--Verbs That Take Infinitives and/or Gerunds. References. Index.