Advanced Engine Performance Diagnosis

Advanced Engine Performance Diagnosis

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Based on the premise that simple problems should always be checked first, this practical, hands-on book introduces the diagnosis and troubleshooting of automotive engine control systems. With a very technical but easy-to-read and understand presentation this book serves as a single source for information on advanced engine performance diagnosis. KEY TOPICS: Topics include digital storage oscilloscopes, fuel injection and ignition system diagnoses, five-gas exhaust analysis, emission testing, and more. This edition has been updated to include even more detailed scope (DSO) and current ramping tests plus extensive scan tool diagnosis. MARKET: For those who need to pass the ASE Engine Performance certification test as well as the Advanced Level Engine Performance (L1) test.
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Product details

  • Mixed media product | 544 pages
  • 205.7 x 274.3 x 25.4mm | 1,065.95g
  • Pearson
  • United States
  • English, Spanish
  • 3rd edition
  • 0131132547
  • 9780131132542

Table of contents

(NOTE: Each chapter begins with Objectives and concludes with a Summary, Review Questions, and ASE Certification-Type Questions section.)

1. The Diagnostic Process.

Just-in-Time Knowledge.

Think of a Funnel.

Finding the Root Cause.

The 5 Why's.

The 8-Step Diagnostic Procedure.

Step #1: Verify the Problem.

Step #2: Perform a Thorough Visual Inspection.

Step #3: Retrieve the Diagnostic Trouble Codes.

Step #4: Check for Technical Service Bulletins (TSBs).

Step #5: Look at Scan Tool Data.

Step #6: Narrow the Problem to a System or Cylinder.

Step #7: Repair the Problem and Determine the Root Cause.

Step #8: Verify the Repair and Clear Any Stored DTCs.

Troubleshooting Fundamentals.

Principle 1-6.

Typical Noncomputer Problems.

Rough Idle (Possible Stalling).

Missing on Acceleration.

Poor Fuel Economy.

Pings on Acceleration.


Funnel Diagnostics.

2. Diagnostic Trouble Code Retrieval.

Computer Precautions.

How Diagnostic Trouble Codes Are Set.

Using a Scan Tool.

Hard Codes Verses Soft Codes.

Methods for Clearing Diagnostic Trouble Codes.

Flash Code Retrieval on OBD I General Motors Vehicles.

Scan Tool DTC Retrieval on General Motors Vehicles.

Retrieving Ford Diagnostic Codes.

Flash Code Retrieval on DaimlerChrysler Vehicles.

Scan Tool DTC Retrieval on a DaimlerChrysler Vehicle.

Honda Problem Diagnosis.

Retrieving Honda Diagnostic Trouble Codes.

Clearing Honda Diagnostic Trouble Codes.

Toyota Problem Diagnosis.

Retrieving OBD II Codes - 16 PIN.

OBD II Active Tests.

Types of Diagnostic Trouble Codes.

Clearing OBD II Diagnostic Trouble Codes.

3. Technical Service Bulletins and Scan Tool Data.

Technical Service Bulletins.

Vehicle Identification.

Vehicle Safety Certification Label.

VECI Label.

Calibration Codes.

Casting Numbers.

Service Information.

Types of Technical Service Bulletins.

Scan Tool Testing.

Scan Data Retrieval Procedure.

Injector Pulse Width Problem Diagnosis.

Oxygen Sensor Activity.

The Need for Fuel Trim.

Short-Term Fuel Trim.

Long-Term Fuel Trim.

Using Fuel Trim as a Diagnostic Aid.

Fuel Trim Cell Diagnosis.

Generic and OEM Data.

4. OBD II.

On-Board Diagnostics Generation II (OBD II) Systems.

Diagnostic Executive and Task Manager.


Diagnostic Trouble Code Priority.

OBD II Monitor Information Summary.

Enabling Criteria.

OBD II Drive Cycle.

OBD II DTC Numbering Designation.

Freeze Frame and Failure Records.

MIL On/Off and Drive Cycles.

Fuel Trim and Misfire Codes.

Generic OBD II.

Diagnosing Problems Using Mode Six.

5. Digital Meters and Scopes.

Test Lights.

Self-Powered Test Lights.

LED Test Light.

Logic Probe.

Digital Multimeters.

Measuring Amperes.

AC/DC Clamp-On Digital Multimeter.

Measuring Voltage.

Measuring Resistance.

Electrical Unit Prefixes.

How to Read Digital Meters.

RMS Versus Average.

Resolution, Digits, and Counts.


Analog Versus Digital Storage Oscilloscope.

Oscilloscope Display Grid.

Setting the Time Base.

Setting the Volts Per Division.

DC Coupling.

AC Coupling.

Pulse Trains.

Using Scope Leads.

Measuring Battery Voltage with a Scope.

Scope Probe Attenuation.

6. Advanced Starting and Charging Systems Diagnosis.

Purpose and Function of a Battery.

Battery Ratings.

Symptoms of a Weak or Defective Battery.

Battery Service Safety Considerations.

Battery Visual Inspection.

Battery Voltage Test.

Battery Load Testing.

Capacitance Testing.

Jump Starting.

Battery Charging.

Battery Service.

Battery Electrical Drain Test.

Battery Electrical Drain Testing Using an Ammeter.

Procedure for Battery Electrical Drain Test.

Finding the Source of the Drain.

What to Do if the Battery Drain Still Exists After All the Fuses are Disconnected.

Cranking Circuit.

Diagnosing Starter Problems Using Visual Inspection.

Starter Testing on the Vehicle.

Testing a Starter Using a Scan Tool.

Voltage-Drop Testing.

Starter Drive-to-Flywheel Clearance.

How a Generator Works.

Generator Construction.

Checking Charging System Voltage.

Testing a Generator Using a Voltmeter.

Testing a Generator Using a Scan Tool.

AC Ripple Voltage Check.

AC Current Check.

Charging System Voltage-Drop Testing.

Generator Output Test.

How to Determine Minimum Generator Output.

Testing a Generator Using a Scope.

7. Ignition System Components and Operation.

Ignition System Operation.

Ignition Coils.

Primary Circuit Operation.

Distributor Ignition.

Waste-Spark Ignition Systems.

Ignition Control Circuits.

Compression Sensing Ignition.

Coil-on-Plug Ignition.

Ion-Sensing Ignition.

Ignition Timing.

Initial Timing.

Knock Sensors.

Spark Plugs.

8. Ignition System Diagnosis and Service.

Checking for Spark.

Electronic Ignition Troubleshooting Procedure.

Ignition Coil Testing Using an Ohmmeter.

Pickup Coil Testing.

Testing Magnetic Sensors.

Testing Hall-Effect Sensors.

Testing Optical Sensors.

Ignition System Diagnosis Using Visual Inspection.

Testing for Poor Performance.

Testing for a No-Start Condition.

Ignition System Service.

Firing Order.

Distributor Cap and Rotor Inspection.

Spark Plug Wire Inspection.

Spark Plug Service.

Quick and Easy Secondary Ignition Tests.

Ignition Timing.

Scope-Testing the Ignition System.

Scope-Testing a Waste-Spark Ignition System.

Ignition System Troubleshooting Guide.

9. Gasoline and Alternative Fuels.



Distillation Curve.

Normal and Abnormal Combustion.

Octane Rating.

Gasoline Grades and Octane Number.

Seasonally Blended Gasoline.

Octane Improvers.

Oxygenated Fuels.

Alcohol Additives - Advantages and Disadvantages.

Testing Gasoline for Alcohol Content.

Combustion Chemistry.

Air-Fuel Ratios.

High-Altitude Octane Requirements.

Valve Recession and Unleaded Fuel.

Reformulated Gasoline.

General Gasoline Recommendations.

Alternative Fuels.

Hybrid Electric Vehicles.

Fuel Cells.

10. Throttle Position and Temperature Sensors Diagnosis.

Engine Coolant Temperature Sensors.

Stepped ECT Circuits.

Testing the Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor.

Intake Air Temperature Sensor.

Testing the Intake Air Temperature Sensor.

Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor.

Temperature Sensor Diagnostic Trouble Codes.

Throttle Position Sensors.

TP Sensor Computer Input Functions.

PCM Uses for the TP Sensor.

Testing the Throttle Position Sensor.

Testing a TP Sensor Using the MIN/MAX Function.

Testing the TP Sensor Using a Scan Tool.

TP Sensor Diagnostic Trouble Codes.

11. MAP and MAF Sensors Diagnosis.

Air Pressure - High and Low.

Principles of Pressure Sensors.

Construction of Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) Sensors.

Ceramic Disc MAP Sensor.

PCM Uses of the MAP Sensor.

Barometric Pressure Sensor.

Testing the MAP Sensor Using a DMM.

Testing the MAP Sensor Using a Scan Tool.

Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor.

MAP/BARO Diagnostic Trouble Codes.

Airflow Sensors.

Mass Airflow Sensor.

Karman Vortex Sensors.

PCM Uses for Airflow Sensors.

Testing Mass Airflow Sensors.

12. Oxygen Sensor Diagnosis.

Oxygen Sensors.

Zirconia Oxygen Sensors.

Titania Oxygen Sensor.

Wide-Band Oxygen Sensors.

Closed Loop and Open Loop.

PCM Uses of the Oxygen Sensor.

Testing an Oxygen Sensor Using a Digital Voltmeter.

Testing the Oxygen Sensor Using the Min-Max Method.

Testing an Oxygen Sensor Using a Scan Tool.

Testing an Oxygen Sensor Using a Scope.

Oxygen Sensor Waveform Analysis.



Classifications of Hash.

Hash Interpretation.

Negative O2S Voltage.

False O2S Readings.

Post Catalytic Converter Oxygen Sensor Testing.

Oxygen Sensor Inspection.

Oxygen Sensor-Related Diagnostic Trouble Codes.

13. Fuel Delivery System Diagnosis.

Fuel Delivery System.

Fuel Supply System.

Electric Fuel Pumps.

Fuel Filters.

Fuel Pump Testing.

Fuel Pump Current Draw Test.

Fuel Pump Current Ramping.

Fuel Pump Replacement.

Fuel Supply-Related Diagnostic Trouble Codes.

14. Fuel-Injection System Diagnosis and Service.

Port Fuel-Injection Pressure Regulator Diagnosis.

Diagnosing Electronic Fuel-Injection Problems Using Visual Inspection.

Scan Tool Vacuum Leak Diagnosis.

Port Fuel-Injection System Diagnosis.

Testing for an Injector Pulse.

Checking Fuel-Injector Resistance.

Injector Resistance Table.

Measuring Resistance of Grouped Injectors.

Pressure-Drop Balance Test.

Injector Voltage Drop Test.

Exhaust Gas Balance Test.

Scope Testing Fuel Injectors.

Injector Current Ramping.

Idle Air Speed Control Diagnosis.

Fuel Injection Service.

Fuel System Scan Tool Diagnostics.

15. Emission Control Devices Operation and Diagnosis.

Need for Evaporative Emission Control.

Vapor Canister Storage.

Vapor Purging.

Non-Enhanced Evaporative Control Systems.

Enhanced Evaporative Control Systems.

Diagnosing the EVAP System.

Locating Leaks in the System.

Evaporative System Monitor.

EVAP System-Related Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs).

Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems.

NOx Formation.

Controlling NOx.

EGR System Operation.

Positive and Negative Backpressure EGR Valves.

Computer-Controlled EGR.

EGR Valve Position Sensors.

OBD II EGR Monitoring Strategies.

Diagnosing a Defective EGR System.

OBD II EGR System Monitor.

EGR-Related OBD-II Diagnostic Trouble Codes.

Crankcase Ventilation.

PCV Valves.

Orifice-Controlled Systems.

Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV) System Diagnosis.

PCV Monitor.

PCV-Related Diagnostic Trouble Code.

Air Pump System.

Air Distribution Manifolds and Nozzles.

Air Pump System Diagnosis.

Air-Related Diagnostic Trouble Code.

Catalytic Converters.

Ceramic Monolith Catalytic Converter.

OBD II Catalytic Converter Performance.

Converter Damaging Conditions.

Diagnosing Catalytic Converters.

OBD II Catalytic Converter Monitor.

Catalytic Converter Replacement Guidelines.

Catalytic Converter-Related Diagnostic Trouble Code.

16. Exhaust Emission Testing.

Exhaust Analysis Testing.

Exhaust Analysis and Combustion Efficiency.

Baselining a Failed Vehicle.

What to Do After Baselining.

HC Too High.

CO Too High.

Measuring Oxygen (O2) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2).

Photochemical Smog Formation.

Testing for Oxides of Nitrogen.

Correcting High HC Emissions.

Correcting High CO Emissions.

Correcting High HC and CO Emissions.

Correcting High NOx Emissions.

Exhaust Gas Summary Chart.

17. Engine Condition Diagnosis.

Typical Engine-Related Complaints.

Engine Smoke Diagnosis.

Engine Noise Diagnosis.

Oil Pressure Testing.

Oil Pressure Warning Lamp.

Compression Test.

Wet Compression Test.

Running Compression Test.

Cylinder Leakage Test.

Cylinder Power Balance Test.

Power Balance Test Procedure.

HC Balance Test.

Testing Relative Compression.

Diagnosing Head Gasket Failure.

Vacuum Testing.

Exhaust Restriction Test.

Testing Backpressure with a Vacuum Gauge.

Testing Backpressure with a Pressure Gauge.

Timing Chain Slack Diagnosis.

Diagnosing Head Gasket Failure.

Dash Warning Lights.

18. Symptom-Based Diagnosis.

Engine Hesitates, Sags, or Stumbles During Acceleration.

Rough Idle or Stalling.

Spark Knock (Ping or Detonation).

Engine Cranks Okay, but Is Hard to Start.

Engine Does Not Crank or Cranks Slowly.

Poor Fuel Economy.

Dieseling or Run-On.


Lack of Power.


Cuts Out or Misses.

Rich Exhaust.

Lean Exhaust.

Symptoms of a Defective Component.

Excessive CO Exhaust Emissions.

Excessive HC Exhaust Emissions.

Excessive NOx Exhaust Emissions.

Answers to Even-Numbered Multiple Choice Questions.

Appendix 1. Sample ASE Engine Performance (A8) Certification Test.

Appendix 2. Sample ASE Advanced Level (L1) Engine Performance Certification Test.

Appendix 3. Engine Performance (A8) ASE Certification Test Correlation Chart.

Appendix 4. Engine Performance (A8) NATEF Certification Test Correlation Chart.

English Glossary.

Spanish Glossary.

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