World Civilizations: v. 1: The Global Experience

World Civilizations: v. 1: The Global Experience

Paperback

By (author) Peter N. Stearns, By (author) Michael Adas, By (author) Stuart B. Schwartz, By (author) Marc Jason Gilbert

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  • Publisher: Pearson Education (US)
  • Format: Paperback | 576 pages
  • Dimensions: 230mm x 274mm x 22mm | 1,238g
  • Publication date: 28 April 2010
  • Publication City/Country: Upper Saddle River
  • ISBN 10: 0205659586
  • ISBN 13: 9780205659586
  • Edition: 6, Revised
  • Edition statement: 6th Revised edition
  • Illustrations note: Illustrations (some col.), maps, ports.
  • Sales rank: 1,522,922

Product description

Designed for introductory-level survey courses in World History. The primary goal of World Civilizations is to present a truly global history--from the development of agriculture and herding to the present. Using a unique periodization, this book divides the main periods of human history according to changes in the nature and extent of global contacts. This global world history text emphasizes the major stages in the interactions among different peoples and societies, while at the same time assessing the development of major societies. Encompassing social and cultural as well as political and economic history, the book examines key civilizations in world history. World Civilizations balances this discussion of independent developments in the world's major civilizations with comparative analysis of the results of global contact.

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Author information

Peter N. Stearns Peter N. Stearns is provost and professor of history at George Mason University. He received his Ph.D. from Harvard University. Before moving to George Mason University, he taught at Rutgers University, the University of Chicago, and Carnegie Mellon, where he won the Robert Doherty Educational Leadership Award and the Elliott Dunlap Smith Teaching Award. He has taught world history for more than 15 years. He currently serves as chair of the Advanced Placement World History Committee and also founded and is the editor of the Journal of Social History. In addition to textbooks and readers, he has written studies of gender and consumerism in a world history context. Other books address modern social and cultural history and include studies on gender, old age, work, dieting, and emotion. His most recent book in this area is American Fear: Causes and Consequences of High Anxiety. Michael Adas Michael Adas is the Abraham Voorhees Professor of History and a board of governor's chair at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey. Over the past couple of decades his teaching has focused on patterns and processes of global and comparative history. His courses on race and empire in the early modern and industrial eras and on world history in the 20th century have earned him a number of teaching prizes. In addition to texts on world history, Adas has written mainly on the comparative history of colonialism and its impact on the peoples and societies of Asia and Africa. His books include Machines as the Measure of Men: Science, Technology, and Ideologies of Western Dominance, which won the Dexter Prize, and the recently published Dominance by Design: Technological Imperatives and America's Civilizing Mission. He is currently writing a global history of the First World War. Stuart B. Schwartz Stuart B. Schwartz was born and educated in Springfield, Massachusetts, and then attended Middlebury College and the Universidad Autonoma de Mexico. He has an M.A. and Ph.D. from Columbia University in Latin American history. He taught for many years at the University of Minnesota and joined the faculty at Yale University in 1996. He has also taught in Brazil, Puerto Rico, Spain, France, and Portugal. He is a specialist on the history of colonial Latin America, especially Brazil, and is the author of numerous books, notably Sugar Plantations in the Formation of Brazilian Society (1985), which won the Bolton Prize for the best book in Latin American History. He is also the author of Slaves, Peasants, and Rebels (1992), Early Latin America(1983), and Victors and Vanquished (1999). He has held fellowships from the Guggenheim Foundation and the Institute for Advanced Study (Princeton). For his work on Brazil he was recently decorated by the Brazilian government. He continues to read widely in the history and anthropology of Latin America, Africa, and early modern Europe. Marc Jason Gilbert Marc Jason Gilbert is the holder of an NEHsupported Chair in World History at Hawaii Pacific University in Honolulu, Hawaii. He is a former University System of Georgia Distinguished Professor of Teaching and Learning. He received his Ph.D in history in 1978 at UCLA, where he built his own program in world history out of a mixture of more traditional fields. He is a founding member of the World History Association and one of its initial elected officers.More than a decade ago, he founded and served as executive director of the Southeastern World History Association. He has codirected two Summer Institutes for Teaching Advanced Placement World History. He has attempted to bring a global dimension to the study of south and southeast Asian history in numerous articles and books, such as Why the North Won the Vietnam War.

Back cover copy

New! The most consistently novel feature of this sixth edition involves the enhanced focus on the evolution of interregional and ultimately global contacts. Each Part Opener clearly discusses the nature of contacts in the time period involved, and from the postclassical period onward this involves also the assessment of basic systems of interaction and exchange. This theme is recaptured in chapters on individual societies but also in the Part Retrospective. New! Each Part Opener clearly identifies leading themes and Big Concepts, and chapters on the major regions allow the concepts to be explored more fully and compared across regional lines. New! Chapter Updates: 20th century materials have been substantially revised, with particular attention to greater clarity and emphasis on the end of the Cold War and ensuing developments. The emergence of globalization, and resistance to globalization, have also been reexamined. All of the other chapters have been reviewed and updated as necessary. New! In-text Pronunciation Guide: New to the sixth edition is a pronunciation guide, which is intended to help familiarize students with new terminology by providing in-text pronunciations of key words and phrases that will help students become comfortable when discussing text passages. Pronunciations are also included in the glossary at the end of the text. New! Complete Redesign: The sixth edition of "World Civilizations: The Global Experience "has been thoroughly redesigned. The student-friendly text, maps, and global orientation help students easily recognize and distinguish geographical features and areas. Maps in the part introductions highlight major developments during each period and familiarize students with all areas of the world. Full-color photos help bring history to life.

Table of contents

Maps xi Preface xiii Supplements xix About the Authors xxi Prologue xxiii PART I EARLY HUMAN SOCIETIES, 2.5 MILLION--1000 B.C.E.: ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT 2 CHAPTER 1 The Neolithic Revolution and the Birth of Civilization 10 Human Life in the Era of Hunters and Gatherers 11 DOCUMENT: Tales of the Hunt: Paleolithic Cave Paintings as History 15 Agriculture and the Origins of Civilization: The Neolithic Revolution 17 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Representations of Women in Early Art 21 The First Towns: Seedbeds of Civilization 22 THINKING HISTORICALLY: The Idea of Civilization in World Historical Perspective 24 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: The Neolithic Revolution as the Basis for World History 26 Further Readings 26 On the Web 26 CHAPTER 2 The Rise of Civilization in the Middle East and Africa 28 Early Civilization in Mesopotamia 28 Later Mesopotamian Civilization: A Series of Conquests 33 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Mesopotamia in Maps 34 DOCUMENT: Hammurabi's Law Code 35 Ancient Egypt 36 THINKING HISTORICALLY:Women in Patriarchal Societies 38 Egypt and Mesopotamia Compared 40 Civilization Centers in Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean 41 The Issue of Heritage 44 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: The Early Civilizations and the World 45 Further Readings 45 On the Web 46 CHAPTER 3 Asia's First Civilizations: India and China 48 The Indus Valley and the Birth of South Asian Civilization 50 Aryan Incursions and Early Aryan Society in India 53 DOCUMENT: Aryan Poetry in Praise of a War Horse 56 A Bend in the River and the Beginnings of China 56 iv Contents The Decline of the Shang and the Era of Zhou Dominance 60 THINKING HISTORICALLY: Nomadic Contacts and the Endurance of Asia's First Civilizations 62 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Mapping the Rise of Civilizations 64 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Contrasting Legacies: Harappan and Early Chinese Civilizations 66 Further Readings 66 On the Web 66 PART II THE CLASSICAL PERIOD, 1000 B.C.E.--500 C.E.: UNITING LARGE REGIONS 72 CHAPTER 4 Unification and the Consolidation of Civilization in China 80 Philosophical Remedies for the Prolonged Crisis of the Later Zhou 81 DOCUMENT: Teachings of the Rival Chinese Schools 85 The Triumph of the Qin and Imperial Unity 85 The Han Dynasty and the Foundations of China's Classical Age 89 THINKING HISTORICALLY: Xunzi and the Shift from Ritual Combat to "Real"War 90 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Capital Designs and Patterns of Political Power 96 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Classical China and the World 100 Further Readings 100 On the Web 101 CHAPTER 5 Classical Civilizations in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East 102 The Persian Empire: A New Perspective in the Middle East 104 The Political Character of Classical Greece 106 The Hellenistic Period 110 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Political Rituals in Persia 113 Greek and Hellenistic Culture 113 THINKING HISTORICALLY: Defining Social History 114 Patterns of Mediterranean and Middle Eastern Society 118 DOCUMENT: The Power of Greek Drama 119 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Persia, Greece, and the World 121 Further Readings 122 On the Web 122 CHAPTER 6 Religious Rivalries and India's Golden Age 124 The Age of Brahman Dominance 125 An Era of Widespread Social Change 127 THINKING HISTORICALLY: Inequality as a Social Norm 129 Religious Ferment and the Rise of Buddhism 132 The Rise and Decline of the Mauryas 134 7135A01_FM01.qxp_jm 10/12/09 10:14 AM Page iv Contents v Brahmanical Recovery and the Splendors of the Gupta Age 136 VISUALIZING THE PAST: The Pattern of Trade in the Ancient Eurasian World 138 Intensifying Caste and Gender Inequities and Gupta Decline 141 DOCUMENT: A Guardian's Farewell Speech to a Young Woman About to Be Married 142 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: India and the Wider World 143 Further Readings 144 On the Web 144 CHAPTER 7 Rome and Its Empire 146 The Development of Rome's Republic 147 Roman Culture 151 DOCUMENT: Rome and a Values Crisis 153 How Rome Ruled Its Empire 153 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Religions in Rome 156 The Evolution of Rome's Economic and Social Structure 156 THINKING HISTORICALLY: The Classical Civilizations in Comparative Perspective 158 The Origins of Christianity 159 The Decline of Rome 161 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Rome and the World 162 Further Readings 162 On the Web 163 CHAPTER 8 The Peoples and Civilizations of the Americas 164 Origins of American Societies 166 Spread of Civilization in Mesoamerica 171 DOCUMENT: Deciphering the Maya Glyphs 175 THINKING HISTORICALLY: Different Times for Different Peoples 176 The Peoples to the North 177 The Andean World 180 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Ancient Agriculture 183 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: American Civilizations and the World 184 Further Readings 184 On the Web 185 CHAPTER 9 The Spread of Civilizations and the Movement of Peoples 186 The Spread of Civilization in Africa 188 DOCUMENT: Myths of Origin 194 THINKING HISTORICALLY: Language as a Historical Source 198 Nomadic Societies and Indo-European Migrations 198 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Varieties of Human Adaptation and the Potential for Civilization 204 The Spread of Chinese Civilization to Japan 204 Political and Social Change 208 The Scattered Societies of Polynesia 209 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: The Emerging Cultures 214 Further Readings 214 On the Web 215 CHAPTER 10 The End of the Classical Era:World History in Transition, 200--700 C.E. 216 Upheavals in Eastern and Southern Asia 217 DOCUMENT: The Popularization of Buddhism 219 The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire 221 THINKING HISTORICALLY: The Problem of Decline and Fall 225 The Development and Spread of World Religions 226 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Religious Geography 229 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: The Late Classical Period and the World 230 Further Readings 230 On the Web 231 PART III THE POSTCLASSICAL PERIOD, 500--1450: NEW FAITH AND NEW COMMERCE 236 CHAPTER 11 The First Global Civilization: The Rise and Spread of Islam 244 Desert and Town: The Pre-Islamic Arabian World 245 The Life of Muhammad and the Genesis of Islam 250 The Arab Empire of the Umayyads 253 THINKING HISTORICALLY: Civilization and Gender Relationships 260 From Arab to Islamic Empire: The Early Abbasid Era 262 VISUALIZING THE PAST: The Mosque as a Symbol of Islamic Civilization 264 DOCUMENT: The Thousand and One Nights as a Mirror of Elite Society in the Abbasid Era 266 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Early Islam and the World 267 Further Readings 268 On the Web 268 CHAPTER 12 Abbasid Decline and the Spread of Islamic Civilization to South and Southeast Asia 270 The Islamic Heartlands in the Middle and Late Abbasid Eras 271 DOCUMENT: Ibn Khaldun on the Rise and Decline of Empires 276 An Age of Learning and Artistic Refinements 276 The Coming of Islam to South Asia 280 VISUALIZING THE PAST: The Patterns of Islam's Global Expansions 281 THINKING HISTORICALLY: Conversion and Accommodation in the Spread of World Religions 286 The Spread of Islam to Southeast Asia 288 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Islam: A Bridge Between Worlds 290 Further Readings 290 On the Web 290 7135A01_FM01.qxp_jm 10/12/09 10:14 AM Page v vi Contents CHAPTER 13 African Civilizations and the Spread of Islam 292 African Societies: Diversity and Similarities 293 Kingdoms of the Grasslands 297 DOCUMENT: The Great Oral Tradition and the Epic of Sundiata 300 VISUALIZING THE PAST: The Architecture of Faith 303 The Swahili Coast of East Africa 303 Peoples of the Forest and Plains 305 THINKING HISTORICALLY: Two Transitions in the History of World Population 306 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Internal Development and Global Contacts 310 Further Readings 310 On the Web 311 CHAPTER 14 Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe 312 Civilization in Eastern Europe 312 The Byzantine Empire 314 VISUALIZING THE PAST:Women and Power in Byzantium 317 The Split Between Eastern and Western Christianity 318 THINKING HISTORICALLY: Eastern and Western Europe: The Problem of Boundaries 321 The Spread of Civilization in Eastern Europe 321 The Emergence of Kievan Rus' 323 DOCUMENT: Russia Turns to Christianity 324 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Eastern Europe and the World 326 Further Readings 326 On the Web 326 CHAPTER 15 A New Civilization Emerges in Western Europe 328 Stages of Postclassical Development 329 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Peasant Labor 331 DOCUMENT: European Travel: A Monk Visits Jerusalem 337 THINKING HISTORICALLY:Western Civilization 339 Western Culture in the Postclassical Era 340 Changing Economic and Social Forms in the Postclassical Centuries 342 The Decline of the Medieval Synthesis 346 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Medieval Europe and the World 348 Further Readings 349 On the Web 349 CHAPTER 16 The Americas on the Eve of Invasion 350 Postclassic Mesoamerica, 1000--1500 C.E. 351 Aztec Society in Transition 357 DOCUMENT: Aztec Women and Men 359 Twantinsuyu:World of the Incas 360 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Archeological Evidence of Political Practices 362 THINKING HISTORICALLY: The "Troubling" Civilizations of the Americas 364 The Other Peoples of the Americas 367 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: The Americas and the World 370 Further Readings 370 On the Web 370 CHAPTER 17 Reunification and Renaissance in Chinese Civilization: The Era of the Tang and Song Dynasties 372 Rebuilding the Imperial Edifice in the Sui-Tang Era 373 DOCUMENT: Ties That Bind: Paths to Power 378 Tang Decline and the Rise of the Song 380 Tang and Song Prosperity: The Basis of a Golden Age 384 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Footbinding as a Marker of Male Dominance 388 THINKING HISTORICALLY: Artistic Expression and Social Values 390 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: China's World Role 392 Further Readings 392 On the Web 393 CHAPTER 18 The Spread of Chinese Civilization: Japan, Korea, and Vietnam 394 Japan: The Imperial Age 395 The Era of Warrior Dominance 400 THINKING HISTORICALLY: Comparing Feudalisms 402 Korea: Between China and Japan 406 Between China and Southeast Asia: The Making of Vietnam 409 VISUALIZING THE PAST:What Their Portraits Tell Us: Gatekeeper Elites and the Persistence of Civilizations 412 DOCUMENT: Literature as a Mirror of the Exchanges Between Civilized Centers 415 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: In the Orbit of China: The East Asian Corner of the Global System 415 Further Readings 416 On the Web 416 CHAPTER 19 The Last Great Nomadic Challenges: From Chinggis Khan to Timur 418 The Transcontinental Empire of Chinggis Khan 420 DOCUMENT: A European Assessment of the Virtues and Vices of the Mongols 424 The Mongol Drive to the West 426 VISUALIZING THE PAST: The Mongol Empire as a Bridge Between Civilizations 429 The Mongol Interlude in Chinese History 430 THINKING HISTORICALLY: The Global Eclipse of the Nomadic Warrior Culture 434 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: The Mongol Linkages 436 Further Readings 437 On the Web 437 CHAPTER 20 The World in 1450: Changing Balance ofWorld Power 438 Key Changes in the Middle East 439 The Rise of the West 442 7135A01_FM01.qxp_jm 10/12/09 10:14 AM Page vi Contents vii VISUALIZING THE PAST: Population Trends 443 DOCUMENT: Bubonic Plague 444 Western Expansion: The Experimental Phase 447 Outside the World Network 448 THINKING HISTORICALLY: The Problem of Ethnocentrism 450 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: 1450 and the World 451 Further Readings 451 On the Web 452 PART IV THE EARLY MODERN PERIOD, 1450--1750: THEWORLD SHRINKS 458 CHAPTER 21 The World Economy 466 The West's First Outreach:Maritime Power 466 THINKING HISTORICALLY: Causation and the West's Expansion 471 Toward a World Economy 472 VISUALIZING THE PAST:West Indian Slaveholding 475 Colonial Expansion 477 DOCUMENT:Western Conquerors: Tactics and Motives 478 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: The World Economy-- And the World 483 Further Readings 484 On the Web 484 CHAPTER 22 The Transformation of the West, 1450--1750 486 The First Big Changes: Culture and Commerce, 1450--1650 487 The Commercial Revolution 492 The Scientific Revolution: The Next Phase of Change 495 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Versailles 497 Political Change 497 THINKING HISTORICALLY: Elites and Masses 498 The West by 1750 500 DOCUMENT: Controversies About Women 501 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Europe and the World 504 Further Readings 504 On the Web 505