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Upgrading and Repairing PCs

Upgrading and Repairing PCs

Mixed media product Upgrading & Repairing PC's (W/DVD)

By (author) Scott Mueller

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  • Publisher: Que Corporation,U.S.
  • Format: Mixed media product | 1200 pages
  • Dimensions: 180mm x 236mm x 66mm | 1,973g
  • Publication date: 1 April 2013
  • ISBN 10: 0789750007
  • ISBN 13: 9780789750006
  • Edition: 21, Revised
  • Edition statement: 21st Revised edition
  • Sales rank: 99,634

Product description

For 25 years, Upgrading and Repairing PCs has been the world's #1 guide to PC hardware: The single source for reliable information on troubleshooting and fixing problems, adding hardware, optimizing performance, and building new PCs. Now, better than ever, this 21st edition offers beefed-up coverage of the newest hardware innovations and maintenance techniques, plus more than two hours of new DVD video. Scott Mueller delivers practical answers about PC processors, mother-boards, buses, BIOSes, memory, SSD and HDD storage, video, audio, I/O, input devices, networks, Internet connectivity, power, and much more. You'll find the industry's best coverage of diagnostics, testing, and repair-plus cutting-edge discussions of improving performance via overclocking and other techniques. Mueller has taught thousands of professionals in person and millions more through his books and videos-nobody knows more about keeping PCs running perfectly. Whether you're a professional technician, a small business owner trying to save money, or a home PC enthusiast, this is the only PC hardware book you need! NEW IN THIS EDITION * The newest processors, including Intel's 3rd generation Ivy Bridge Core i-Series processors and AMD's 2nd generation Trinity CPUs * 3TB (and larger) disks, 4K sectoring, partition alignment, faster SATA disk interfaces, and SSD (solid state drive) hard drive replacements * New firmware innovations, from full UEFI BIOS support to built-in motherboard flash BIOS upgrade utilities * Integrated video and audio, including 5.1/7.1 surround sound, HDMI, and DisplayPort connections, and Windows 8 compatible multi-touch touchscreen technology * Updated PCI Express 3.0, 4.0 interfaces, and Power Supply specifications for powering high-end video cards * Emerging interfaces such as SATA Express, USB 3.0, and Thunderbolt * Updated coverage of building PCs from scratch-from choosing and assembling hardware through BIOS setup and troubleshooting ON THE DVD Get 2 hours of up-to-the minute, studio-quality how-to videos-all playable on your DVD player or computer! In this edition, Scott Mueller offers true insider information about several of the key components in a PC, including motherboards, solid-state drives, and more. You will see a detailed tour of a modern high-performance motherboard, showing all the components from the processor socket and CPU voltage regulators to the audio and network chipsets, and more. You'll learn how all the devices on the board are interconnected, so you can more easily understand their importance. There is a detailed segment comparing solid-state drives (SSDs) to conventional hard disk drives (HDDs), explaining all the differences and similarities between them in an easy to understand fashion. Finally, there are several segments on building a state-of-the art system from scratch using a high-performance overclockable motherboard and processor combination. You'll see tips on how to best prepare the components, how to assemble the system properly, how to make the front panel connections much easier to deal with, and finally how to route the cables for maximum airflow and ease of future upgrades or repairs. This DVD also contains the complete 19th and 20th editions of this book in printable form, plus extensive technical reference material, a comprehensive glossary, and more!

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Author information

Scott Mueller is the president of Mueller Technical Research (MTR), an international research and corporate training firm. Since 1982, MTR has produced the industry's most in-depth, accurate, and effective seminars, books, articles, videos, and FAQs covering PC hardware and data recovery. MTR maintains a client list that includes Fortune 500 companies, the U.S. and foreign governments, major software and hardware corporations, as well as PC enthusiasts and entrepreneurs. Scott's seminars have been presented to several thousands of PC support professionals throughout the world. Scott personally teaches seminars nationwide covering all aspects of PC hardware (including troubleshooting, maintenance, repair, and upgrade), A+ Certification, and data recovery/forensics. He has a knack for making technical topics not only understandable, but entertaining; his classes are never boring! If you have ten or more people to train, Scott can design and present a custom seminar for your organization. Although he has taught classes virtually nonstop since 1982, Scott is best known as the author of the longest-running, most popular, and most comprehensive PC hardware book in the world, Upgrading and Repairing PCs, which has become the core of an entire series of books, including Upgrading and Repairing PCs, Upgrading and Repairing Laptops, and Upgrading and Repairing Windows. Scott's premiere work, Upgrading and Repairing PCs, has sold more than two million copies, making it by far the most popular and longest-running PC hardware book on the market today. Scott has been featured in Forbes magazine and has written several articles for PC World magazine, Maximum PC magazine, the Scott Mueller Forum, various computer and automotive newsletters, and the Upgrading and Repairing PCs website. Contact MTR directly if you have a unique book, article, or video project in mind or if you want Scott to conduct a custom PC troubleshooting, repair, maintenance, upgrade, or data-recovery seminar tailored for your organization: Mueller Technical Research Web: www.muellertech.com Email: info@muellertech.com Forum: www.forum.scottmueller.com Scott has a forum exclusively for his readers at www.forum.scottmueller.com. Anybody can view the forum, but posting is only available to registered members. If you have suggestions or comments about the book or new book or article topics you would like to see covered, send them to info@muellertech.com.

Table of contents

Introduction 1 1 Development of the PC 5 Computer History: Before Personal Computers 5 Timeline 5 Electronic Computers 10 Modern Computers 10 From Tubes to Transistors 11 Integrated Circuits 13 History of the PC 14 Birth of the Personal Computer 14 The IBM Personal Computer 15 The PC Industry 30 Years Later 16 2 PC Components, Features, and System Design 19 What Is a PC? 19 Who Controls PC Software? 20 Who Controls PC Hardware? 23 White-Box Systems 26 System Types 26 System Components 28 3 Processor Types and Specifications 29 Microprocessor History 29 The First Microprocessor 29 PC Processor Evolution 32 16-Bit to 64-Bit Architecture Evolution 34 Processor Specifications 35 Data I/O Bus 42 Address Bus 42 Internal Registers (Internal Data Bus) 44 Processor Modes 44 Processor Benchmarks 49 Comparing Processor Performance 49 Cache Memory 53 Processor Features 60 System Management Mode (SMM) 60 Superscalar Execution 61 MMX Technology 62 Dynamic Execution 64 Dual Independent Bus Architecture 65 HT Technology 65 Multicore Technology 66 Hardware-Assisted Virtualization Support 68 Processor Manufacturing 69 Processor Re-Marking 74 PGA Chip Packaging 74 Single Edge Contact and Single Edge Processor Packaging 75 Processor Socket and Slot Types 75 Socket 478 78 Socket LGA775 79 Socket LGA1156 80 Socket LGA1366 81 Socket LGA1155 82 Socket LGA2011 83 Socket 939 and 940 83 Socket AM2/AM2+/AM3/AM3+ 84 Socket F (1207FX) 86 Socket FM1 86 Socket FM2 86 CPU Operating Voltages 87 Math Coprocessors (Floating-Point Units) 87 Processor Bugs and Steppings 88 Processor Code Names 88 P1 (086) Processors 89 P2 (286) Processors 90 P3 (386) Processors 91 P4 (486) Processors 92 P5 (586) Processors 93 AMD-K5 96 Intel P6 (686) Processors 96 Pentium Pro Processors 97 Pentium II Processors 97 Pentium III 99 Celeron 100 Intel Pentium 4 Processors 101 Pentium 4 Extreme Edition 104 Intel Pentium D and Pentium Extreme Edition 106 Intel Core Processors 108 Intel Core 2 Family 108 Intel (Nehalem) Core i Processors 110 AMD K6 Processors 114 NexGen Nx586 114 AMD-K6 Series 116 AMD K7 Processors 117 AMD Athlon 117 AMD Duron 118 AMD Athlon XP 118 Athlon MP 120 AMD K8 Processors 120 AMD Athlon 64 and 64 FX 120 AMD Sempron 124 AMD Athlon X2, 64 X2, and 64 FX 125 AMD K10 Processors (Phenom, Phenom II, Athlon II, Athlon X2, Sempron) 126 AMD "Bulldozer" and "Piledriver" FX Processors 128 AMD Fusion/HSA (Heterogeneous Systems Architecture) APUs 131 Processor Upgrades 132 Overclocking 133 Quartz Crystals 134 Modern PC Clocks 136 Overclocking Tips 138 Unlocking Cores 139 Bus Speeds and Multipliers 140 Processor Cooling 142 Heatsinks 143 Liquid Cooling 148 Thermally Advantaged Chassis 149 Processor Troubleshooting Techniques 151 4 Motherboards and Buses 155 Motherboard Form Factors 155 Obsolete Form Factors 156 ATX and Other Modern Form Factors 167 Processor Sockets/Slots 178 Chipsets 181 Chipset Evolution 181 Intel Chipsets 183 Intel Chipset Model Numbers 184 Intel Integrated Graphics Architecture 185 AMD Integrated Graphics Architecture 185 Traditional North/South Bridge Architecture 185 Hub Architecture 187 HyperTransport and Other Processor/Chipset Interconnects 188 Intel's Early 386/486 Chipsets 190 Fifth-Generation (P5 Pentium Class) Chipsets 190 Sixth-Generation (P6 Pentium Pro/II/III Class) Chipsets 192 Seventh/Eighth-Generation (Pentium 4/D, Core2, and Core i) Chipsets 195 Intel 915 Family 202 Intel 925X Family 203 Intel 945 Express Family 203 Intel 955X and 975X Family 204 Intel 96x Series 204 Intel 3x and 4x Series Chipsets 205 Intel 5x Series Chipsets 208 Intel 6x Series Chipsets 211 Intel 7x Series Chipsets 213 Third-Party Chipsets for Intel Processors 215 SiS Chipsets 215 ULi Electronics Chipsets 215 ATI Chipsets 216 VIA Chipsets 216 NVIDIA Chipsets for Intel Processors 216 Chipsets for AMD Processors 217 AMD Athlon Chipsets 217 AMD Athlon 64 Chipsets 218 AMD 8000 (8151) Chipset 219 AMD (Formerly ATI) Chipsets for Athlon 64, Sempron, Phenom 220 Third-Party Chipsets for AMD Processors 226 VIA Chipsets 226 SiS Chipsets 227 NVIDIA Chipsets 227 Super I/O Chips 228 Motherboard Connectors 228 System Bus Types, Functions, and Features 239 The Processor Bus (FSB) 245 Types of I/O Buses 245 The ISA Bus 245 The Micro Channel Bus 246 The EISA Bus 246 Local Buses (VESA, PCI, PCI Express, AGP) 246 System Resources 254 Interrupts 254 DMA Channels 259 I/O Port Addresses 259 Motherboard Selection Criteria (Knowing What to Look For) 260 Chipset Documentation 262 5 BIOS 263 BIOS Basics 263 Motherboard ROM BIOS 267 ROM Hardware 267 ROM Shadowing 269 ROM Chip Types 269 ROM BIOS Manufacturers 273 BIOS Hardware/Software 274 Upgrading the BIOS 274 Where to Get Your BIOS Update 275 Determining Your BIOS Version 275 Checking the BIOS Date 275 Backing Up Your BIOS 276 Backing Up Your BIOS Setup (CMOS RAM) Settings 276 Upgrading a Flash BIOS 277 Motherboard CMOS RAM Addresses 285 Preboot Environment 287 Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) 289 UEFI and BIOS Limitations 290 UEFI Support 291 BIOS Setup 292 Running or Accessing the BIOS Setup Program 292 BIOS Setup Menus 292 Maintenance Menu 293 Main Menu 294 Advanced Menus 295 Security Menu 311 Power Menu 312 Boot Menu (Boot Sequence, Order) 314 Exit Menu 315 Additional BIOS Setup Features 316 PnP BIOS 317 PnP Device IDs 318 ACPI 318 BIOS/MBR Error Messages 319 BIOS Boot Error Messages 320 MBR Boot Error Messages 322 6 Memory 325 Memory Basics 325 ROM 327 DRAM 327 Cache Memory: SRAM 329 Memory Standards 331 Speed and Performance 332 Fast Page Mode DRAM 335 Extended Data Out RAM 336 SDRAM 337 DDR SDRAM 338 DDR2 SDRAM 340 DDR3 SDRAM 342 DDR4 SDRAM 344 RDRAM 345 Memory Modules 346 Registered Modules 351 SDR DIMM Details 352 DDR DIMM Details 353 DDR2 DIMM Details 353 DDR3 DIMM Details 353 Determining a Memory Module's Size and Features 354 Memory Banks 356 Memory Module Speed 357 Parity and ECC 357 Parity Checking 359 How Parity Checking Works 359 ECC 360 RAM Upgrades 361 Upgrade Options and Strategies 362 Purchasing Memory 364 Replacing Modules with Higher-Capacity Versions 366 Installing Memory Modules 366 Troubleshooting Memory 368 Memory Defect Isolation Procedures 372 The System Logical Memory Layout 374 7 The ATA/IDE Interface 377 An Overview of the IDE Interface 377 Precursors to IDE 377 IDE Origins 378 Origins of ATA 379 ATA Standards 380 ATA-1 (ATA Interface for Disk Drives) 382 ATA-2 (ATA Interface with Extensions-2) 382 ATA-3 (ATA Interface-3) 383 ATA/ATAPI-4 (ATA with Packet Interface Extension-4) 383 ATA/ATAPI-5 (ATA with Packet Interface-5) 384 ATA/ATAPI-6 (ATA with Packet Interface-6) 385 ATA/ATAPI-7 (ATA with Packet Interface-7) 386 ATA/ATAPI-8 386 PATA 387 PATA I/O Connector 387 PATA I/O Cable 390 Longer or Rounded Cables 392 PATA Signals 392 PATA Dual-Drive Configurations 393 PATA PIO Transfer Modes 396 PATA DMA Transfer Modes 396 SATA 398 SATA Standards and Performance 398 SATA Express 399 SATA Cables and Connectors 401 eSATA 404 SATA Configuration 407 Advanced Host Controller Interface (AHCI) 408 Non-Volatile Memory Express (NVMe) 409 SATA Transfer Modes 409 ATA Features 410 ATA Commands 410 ATA Security Mode 411 Host Protected Area 412 ATAPI 413 ATA Drive Capacity Limitations 413 Prefixes for Decimal and Binary Multiples 414 BIOS Limitations 415 CHS Versus LBA 416 CHS/LBA and LBA/CHS Conversions 417 BIOS Commands Versus ATA Commands 418 CHS Limitations (the 528MB Barrier) 419 CHS Translation (Breaking the 528MB Barrier) 421 The 2.1GB and 4.2GB Barriers 423 LBA-Assist Translation 425 The 8.4GB Barrier 427 The 137GB Barrier and Beyond 429 Operating System and Other Software Limitations 430 GPT and the 2.2TB Barrier 432 PATA/SATA RAID 434 Software RAID 436 8 Magnetic Storage Principles 439 Magnetic Storage 439 History of Magnetic Storage 439 How Magnetic Fields Are Used to Store Data 440 Read/Write Head Designs 443 Ferrite 444 Metal-In-Gap 444 Thin-Film 444 Magneto-Resistive Heads 445 Giant Magneto-Resistive Heads 446 Head Sliders 448 Data-Encoding Schemes 450 Frequency Modulation Encoding 451 Modified FM Encoding 451 Run Length Limited Encoding 452 Encoding Scheme Comparisons 453 Partial-Response, Maximum-Likelihood Decoders 455 Capacity Measurements 455 Areal Density 456 Perpendicular Magnetic Recording 458 9 Hard Disk Storage 461 Definition of a Hard Disk 461 Hard Drive Advancements 462 Form Factors 463 5 1/4-Inch Drive 464 3 1/2-Inch Drive 465 2 1/2-Inch Drive 465 1.8-Inch Drive 466 1-Inch Drives 466 HDD Operation 466 The Ultimate HDD Analogy 469 Tracks and Sectors 470 ECC 472 Disk Formatting 477 Basic HDD Components 482 Hard Disk Platters (Disks) 483 Recording Media 484 Read/Write Heads 485 Head Actuator Mechanisms 487 Air Filters 494 Hard Disk Temperature Acclimation 495 Spindle Motors 495 Logic Boards 496 Cables and Connectors 497 Configuration Items 497 Hard Disk Features 498 Capacity 498 Performance 500 Reliability 504 10 Flash and Removable Storage 507 Alternative Storage Devices 507 Flash Memory Devices 507 CompactFlash 509 SmartMedia 509 MultiMediaCard 510 SecureDigital 510 Sony Memory Stick 510 ATA Flash PC Card 511 xD-Picture Card 511 SSD (Solid-State Drive) 511 USB Flash Drives 516 Comparing Flash Memory Devices 517 SD Cards Speed Class and UHS Speed Class Markings 519 File Systems Used by Flash Memory 520 Flash Card Readers 520 Card Readers 520 ReadyBoost Support 521 Cloud-Based Storage 522 Floppy Disk Drives 523 Tape Drives 523 11 Optical Storage 525 Optical Technology 525 CD-Based Optical Technology 526 CDs: A Brief History 526 CD Construction and Technology 527 Mass-Producing CDs 527 Writable CDs 539 MultiRead Specifications 545 MultiPlay and MultiAudio 547 DVD 547 DVD History 548 DVD Construction and Technology 549 DVD Tracks and Sectors 550 Handling DVD Errors 554 DVD Capacity (Sides and Layers) 555 Data Encoding on the DVD Disc 558 Recordable DVD Standards 559 Multiformat Rewritable DVD Drives 566 BD 567 HD-DVD 569 Optical Disc Formats 570 CD Formats 570 DVD Formats and Standards 578 Optical Disc File Systems 582 Ripping/Copying Discs 587 "For Music Use Only" CD-R/RW Discs 588 CD Copy Protection 588 CD Digital Rights Management 589 DVD and Blu-ray Copy Protection 589 Optical Drive Performance Specifications 593 CD Data Transfer Rate 593 CD Drive Speed 593 DVD Drive Speed 595 Access Time 598 Buffer/Cache 598 Direct Memory Access and Ultra-DMA 598 Interface 598 Loading Mechanism 599 Other Drive Features 600 How to Reliably Record Optical Discs 600 Booting from a Floppy Disk with Optical Drive Support 601 Bootable Optical Discs-El Torito 601 LightScribe and LabelFlash 602 Troubleshooting Optical Drives 602 Caring for Optical Media 606 Updating the Firmware in an Optical Drive 607 12 Video Hardware 609 Display Adapters and Monitors 609 Video Display Adapters 610 Video Adapter Types 610 Integrated Video/Motherboard Chipsets 611 CPUs with Integrated Video 616 Video Adapter Components 617 Identifying the Video and System Chipsets 619 Video RAM 620 The DAC 624 Video Display Interfaces 624 The System Interface 624 The Display Interface 626 TV Display Interfaces 641 3D Graphics Accelerators 642 How 3D Accelerators Work 642 APIs 645 Dual-GPU Scene Rendering 648 Monitors 650 Display Specifications 650 LCD Technology 661 LED Backlit Technology 663 CRT Display Technology 663 Plasma Display Technology 665 LCD and DLP Projectors 666 Using Multiple Monitors 667 Dualview 667 Homogeneous Adapters 668 Heterogeneous Adapters 668 Choosing the Best Display Hardware for a Particular Task 668 Video Troubleshooting and Maintenance 669 Troubleshooting Video Cards and Drivers 670 Video Drivers 672 Maintaining Monitors 672 Testing Monitors 673 Adjusting Monitors 674 Bad Pixels 675 Troubleshooting Monitors 676 Repairing Monitors 677 13 Audio Hardware 679 Audio Hardware Concepts and Terms 680 The Nature of Sound 680 Evaluating the Quality of Your Audio Hardware 680 Sampling 681 Early PC Sound Cards 682 Limitations of Sound Blaster Pro Compatibility 682 Microsoft Windows and Audio Support 682 DirectX and Audio Support Hardware 683 Core Audio APIs for Windows 683 3D Gaming Audio Standards 684 Legacy Audio Support Through Virtualization 685 Audio Hardware Features 686 Basic Connectors 686 Audio Signal Processing Methods 688 Advanced Audio Features 688 Volume Control 690 MIDI Support Features 691 Data Compression 692 Sound Drivers 693 Sound Cards for Sound Producers 693 Motherboard Chipsets with Integrated Audio 694 Intel "Azalia" HD Audio 694 Troubleshooting PC Audio Problems 694 Sound Card and Onboard Audio Problems 695 Speakers 698 Speaker Selection Criteria 698 Theater and Surround Sound Considerations 699 Microphones 700 14 External I/O Interfaces 703 Introduction to Input/Output Ports 703 Serial Versus Parallel 703 Universal Serial Bus (USB) 704 IEEE 1394 (FireWire or i.LINK) 718 Comparing USB and IEEE 1394 (FireWire) 722 Thunderbolt Technology 728 Low-Speed External Connections 729 Serial Ports 730 Parallel Ports 734 15 Input Devices 739 Keyboards 739 Enhanced 101-Key Keyboard 739 103/104-Key Windows Keyboard 740 Keyboard Technology 742 Keyswitch Design 742 The Keyboard Interface 747 Typematic Functions 749 Keyboard Scan Codes 749 International Keyboard Layouts 750 Keyboard/Mouse Interface Connectors 751 USB Keyboards 753 Keyboards with Special Features 754 Keyboard Troubleshooting and Repair 754 Cleaning a Keyboard 755 Keyboard Recommendations 756 Pointing Devices 757 Mouse Sensitivity 758 Ball-Type Mice 758 Optical Mice 759 Pointing Device Interface Types 760 Scroll Wheels 762 Mouse Troubleshooting 764 Cleaning Your Mouse 765 Alternative Pointing Devices 765 Touchscreen Technology 770 Wireless Input Devices 771 Power Management Features of Wireless Input Devices 772 Troubleshooting Wireless Input Devices 773 16 Internet Connectivity 775 Internet Connectivity Trends 775 Broadband Internet Access Types 775 Cable TV 776 Digital Subscriber Line 779 Wireless Broadband 783 Cellular Broadband 3G and 4G Services 783 Satellite Broadband 784 ISDN 787 Leased Lines 788 Comparing High-Speed Internet Access 789 Dial-Up Modems 790 56Kbps Modems 791 Internet Connection Security 794 Having a Backup Plan in Case of Service Interruptions 795 Sharing Your Internet Connection 795 Routers for Internet Sharing 796 Modem/Router Status LEDs 797 17 Local Area Networking 799 Defining a Network 799 Types of Networks 800 Requirements for a Network 801 Client/Server Versus Peer Networks 801 Client/Server Networks 802 Peer-to-Peer Networks 803 Comparing Client/Server and Peer-to-Peer Networks 804 Network Architecture Overview 804 Wired Ethernet 806 Wireless Ethernet 807 Bluetooth 813 Hardware Elements of Your Network 814 NICs for Wired Ethernet Networks 814 Network Cables for Wired Ethernet 816 Wired Network Topologies 824 Switches for Ethernet Networks 827 Wireless Ethernet Hardware 831 Network Protocols 836 IP and TCP/IP 836 IPX and NetBEUI 837 Other Home Networking Solutions 838 HomePNA 838 Power Line Networking 839 Putting Your Network Together 840 Network Adapters 840 Cables and Connections Between Computers 842 Switch/Access Point 842 18 Power Supplies 845 The Power Supply 845 Primary Function and Operation 845 Voltage Rails 846 The Power Good Signal 848 Power Supply Form Factors 849 Modern Form Factors 852 Power Switches 866 ATX and Newer 866 PC/XT/AT and LPX Power Switches 868 Motherboard Power Connectors 870 AT/LPX Power Supply Connectors 870 ATX and ATX12V Motherboard Power Connectors 872 Backward and Forward Compatibility 885 Dell Proprietary (Nonstandard) ATX Design 887 Additional Power Connectors 887 Peripheral Power Connectors 887 Floppy Power Connectors 888 Serial ATA Power Connectors 889 PCI Express Auxiliary Graphics Power Connectors 890 Power Supply Specifications 893 Power Supply Loading 893 Power Supply Ratings 895 Other Power Supply Specifications 896 Power Factor Correction 898 SLI-Ready and CrossFireX Certifications 900 Safety Certifications 900 Power-Use Calculations 901 Power Savings 903 80 Plus 903 ENERGY STAR 904 Advanced Power Management 904 Advanced Configuration and Power Interface 905 Power Cycling 908 Power Supply Troubleshooting 911 Overloaded Power Supplies 912 Inadequate Cooling 913 Using Digital Multimeters 913 Specialized Test Equipment 916 Power Supply Recommendations 918 Modular Cables 919 Sources for Replacement Power Supplies 919 Power-Protection Systems 919 Surge Suppressors (Protectors) 921 Network and Phone Line Surge Protectors 922 Line Conditioners 922 Backup Power 922 Real-Time Clock/Nonvolatile RAM (CMOS RAM) Batteries 925 Modern CMOS Batteries 925 Obsolete or Unique CMOS Batteries 927 CMOS Battery Troubleshooting 928 19 Building or Upgrading Systems 929 System Components 929 Before You Start: How to Decide What to Build 931 Case and Power Supply 933 Processor 934 Motherboard 935 Memory 936 I/O Ports 937 Hard Disk/Solid-State Drives 938 Removable Storage 939 Input Devices 939 Video Card and Display 940 Audio Hardware 940 Accessories 941 Hardware and Software Resources 942 System Assembly and Disassembly 942 Assembly Preparation 943 Installing the CPU and Heatsink 946 Installing Memory Modules 952 Mounting the New Motherboard in the Case 953 Preparing a Modular Power Supply 958 Connecting the Power Supply 958 Connecting I/O and Other Cables to the Motherboard 961 Installing the Drives 962 Installing a Video Card 967 Installing Additional Expansion Cards 969 Replacing the Cover and Connecting External Cables 969 System Startup 969 Installing the OS 971 Troubleshooting New Installations 972 20 PC Diagnostics, Testing, and Maintenance 975 PC Diagnostics 975 Diagnostics Software 975 The POST 976 Peripheral Diagnostics 989 Operating System Diagnostics 989 Commercial Diagnostics Software 990 Free/User Supported Diagnostics 991 The Boot Process 991 The Hardware Boot Process: Operating System Independent 992 The DOS Boot Process 996 The Windows 9x/Me Boot Process 997 Windows 2000/XP Startup 997 Windows Vista/7 Startup 998 Windows 8 Startup 998 PC Maintenance Tools 999 Hand Tools 1000 Safety 1003 Test Equipment 1004 Special Tools for the Enthusiast 1009 Preventive Maintenance 1011 Active Preventive Maintenance Procedures 1011 Passive Preventive Maintenance Procedures 1016 Troubleshooting Tips and Techniques 1021 Repair or Replace? 1021 Basic Troubleshooting Steps 1021 Troubleshooting by Replacing Parts 1022 Troubleshooting by the Bootstrap Approach 1023 Problems During the POST 1024 Problems Running Software 1024 Problems with Adapter Cards 1025 Top Troubleshooting Problems 1025 9780789750006, ToC, 2/18/2013