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Understanding Children's Development

Understanding Children's Development

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By (author) Peter K. Smith, By (author) Helen Cowie, By (author) Mark Blades

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  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Ltd
  • Format: Paperback | 830 pages
  • Dimensions: 188mm x 244mm x 32mm | 1,578g
  • Publication date: 3 October 2011
  • Publication City/Country: Chichester
  • ISBN 10: 1405176016
  • ISBN 13: 9781405176019
  • Edition: 5, Revised
  • Edition statement: 5th Revised edition
  • Illustrations note: Illustrations, ports
  • Sales rank: 110,905

Product description

This leading child development text has been widely acclaimed for its international coverage and its rigorous research-based approach. It begins by introducing the ways in which psychologists study developmental processes before going on to consider all major aspects of development from conception through to adolescence.

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Author information

Peter K. Smith is Professor of Psychology and Head of the Unit for School and Family Studies at Goldsmiths, University of London. Helen Cowie is Research Professor and Director of the UK Observatory for the Promotion of Non-Violence at the University of Surret in the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences. Mark Blades is Senior Lecturer in Psychology at the University of Sheffield.

Back cover copy

"Understanding Children's Development" is the UK's best-selling developmental psychology textbook and has been widely acclaimed for its international coverage and rigorous research-based approach. This dynamic text emphasizes the practical and applied implications of developmental research. It begins by introducing the ways in which psychologists study developmental processes before going on to consider all major aspects of development from conception through to adolescence.For the fifth edition, the entire text has been updated to take account of developments in the field, whilst retaining all the content and features that have made it so popular amongst both students and lecturers. Major revisions include: New and expanded chapters on antisocial behavior and on children and mediaNew material on many topics such as: children and day care; developments in cognitive neuroscience; the physical punishment debate; changes in the adolescent brainExtended coverage of prosocial behavior, family contexts and involving children in researchExpanded artwork program and full-color designEach chapter provides lucid discussion of the material, enlivened by the inclusion of revealing case studies, real-world examples, 'Stop and Think' boxes and ideas for classroom debate.Online teaching and learning resources to accompany the text are available at www.wiley.com/college/smith

Table of contents

Preface to Fifth Edition Acknowledgments PART I THEORIES AND METHODS CHAPTER 1 Studying Development Development Observed What is 'Development'? Baltes's Conceptualization of Life-Span Development Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Model of Human Development Obtaining Information about Behavior and Development What Degree of Control? Recording Data Reliability and Validity Participant Characteristics Children/Young People as Researchers Working With the Data: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods Objectivity and Bias Ethical Issues What Implications does Psychological Knowledge have for Society? The Rights of Children The Well-being of Children The Scientific Status of Psychology Chapter Summary Discussion Points Further Reading CHAPTER 2 Biological and Cultural Theories of Development Genetics and the Groundplan for Development Twin Studies Adoption Studies Genes, and Shared and Non-Shared Environment Identifying Genes and the Human Genome Project Chromosomal Abnormalities Down Syndrome The Brain and Developmental Neuroscience How Behavior Develops: Nature and Nurture Birdsong: An Example of Behavioral Development Rigidity and Flexibility Imprinting and the Concept of Sensitive Periods Individual and Social Learning Processes Social Learning, Tradition and Culture Communication Systems in Mammals Teaching Thinking in Primates The Evolution of High Intelligence The Evolution of 'Mindreading' and of Metarepresentational Thought Apes, Humans, and Culture Evolution and Human Behavior Evolutionary Theory Sociobiology and Human Behavior Box 2.1: Parent-offspring weaning conflicts among the Bofi farmers and foragers of Central Africa Evolutionary Psychology and Evolutionary Developmental Psychology Criticisms of the Evolutionary Approach Culture and Development Cultural-Ecological Models Box 2.2: Development through participation in sociocultural activity Social Constructionist Approaches Deconstructing Developmental Psychology Chapter Summary Discussion Points Further Reading PART II PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT AND BIRTH CHAPTER 3 Prenatal Development and Birth From Conception to Birth Germinal Stage Embryonic Stage Fetal Stage Sex Hormones and Male-Female Differentiation Fetal Learning Box 3.1: Newborn and fetal response to the human voice Prenatal Risks Pregnancy Sickness The Nature of Birth Interaction Immediately after Birth Breastfeeding Premature and Low Birthweight Babies Box 3.2: Cognitive status, language attainment and prereading skills of 6-year-old very preterm children and their peers: the Bavarian longitudinal study Early Social Behavior and Social Interactions Behaviors that Operate Primarily in Social Situations Behaviors to which Social Responses are given An Ability to Learn An Enjoyment of Contingent Responding by Others Imitation The Respective Roles of Infant and Caregiver Very Early Bonding: The Work of Klaus and Kennell Temperament The Millennium Cohort Study (MCS): Patterns of Infant Care in the UK at 9 Months Chapter Summary Discussion Points Further Reading PART III THE SOCIAL WORLD OF THE CHILD CHAPTER 4 Parents and Families The Development of Attachment Relationships Who are Attachments Made With? The Security of Attachment Implications of Infant Attachment Security Is the Strange Situation Valid Cross-Culturally? Box 4.1: Infant-mother attachment among the Dogon of Mali Why do Infants Develop Certain Attachment Types? Disorganized Attachment and Unresolved Attachment Representations Attachment beyond Infancy and Internal Working Models The Adult Attachment Interview Are Attachment Types Stable over Time? Are Attachment Types Stable over Generations? Attachment Theory as a Paradigm Bowlby's 'Maternal Deprivation' Hypothesis Box 4.2: The effect of early institutional rearing on the behavior problems and affectional relationships of 4-year-old children Care Outside the Family: Childminding and Day Care The NICHD Longitudinal Study Day Care: An Overview Fathers Grandparents Types of Family Lesbian and Gay Parents Styles of Parenting Conflict between Parents Divorce Step-Parenting Physical Punishment and the 'Smacking' Debate Child Maltreatment and Abuse The Assessment and Extent of Child Maltreatment and Abuse The Effects of Child Maltreatment and Abuse Causes of Child Maltreatment and Abuse Models of Parenting The Millennium Cohort Study (MCS): Patterns of Child Care in the UK at 3 and 5 Years Chapter Summary Discussion Points Further Reading CHAPTER 5 Siblings and the Peer Group Early Peer Relationships Siblings Siblings in the Home Environment Sibling Influences: Play, Teaching Sibling Influences: Conflict and Social Comparison Sibling Influences: Theory of Mind Twins and Multiplets Only Children Family Size, Birth Order, Intelligence and Creative Lives Peer Relationships in Preschool and School Measuring Peer Relationships: Sociometry The Concept of Sociometric Status Box 5.1: Dimensions and types of social status: a cross-age perspective A Social Information Processing Model Rejected Children Subtypes of Rejected Children Popular and Controversial Children Perceived Popularity Neglected Children, Loneliness and Social Withdrawal Friendship What Characterizes Friendship? Origins of Friendship Conceptions of Friendship Quality of Friendship Box 5.2: Monthly instability in early adolescent friendship networks and depressive symptoms The Importance of Peer Relations and Friendship A Long-term Study of Correlates of Childhood Friendship and Sociometric Status Enemies Social Skills Training Family and Peer Relationships Group Socialization Theory and the Role of the Peer Group: How Important are Families? Chapter Summary Discussion Points Further Reading CHAPTER 6 Developing Emotional Intelligence and Social Awareness How Children Begin to Understand Self and Others The Infant's Recognition of Self How Children Categorize Others Emotional Development Producing Emotions Recognizing Emotions in Others Box 6.1: Changes in embarrassment as a function of age, sex and situation Understanding Others' Emotions, Desires and Beliefs Developing Emotional Intelligence Emotional Regulation Emotional Intelligence (EI) Box 6.2: Trait emotional intelligence and children's peer relationships at school Self-Concept and Self-Esteem Early Sex Differences and the Development of Gender Identity Sex Differences among Children in Western Societies Awareness of Gender Identity and Sex Differences Cross-cultural Studies Theories of Sex-Role Identification Biological Factors Social Constructionist Approaches Social Learning Theory Cognitive-developmental Theory and Gender Schemas Social Cognitive Theory Maccoby's Attempt at Synthesis Children's Knowledge and Beliefs about National Groups Ethnic Awareness and Preference Emphasizing Diversity Chapter Summary Discussion Points Further Reading CHAPTER 7 Play Characteristics of Playful Behavior Exploration and Play The Development of Play Play Types and Sequences Physical Activity Play Rough-and-tumble Play Play with Objects Fantasy and Sociodramatic Play Box 7.1: Universal, developmental, and variable aspects of young children's play: a cross-cultural comparison of pretending at home Imaginary Companions Language Play War Toys and War Play Video and Computer Games Games with Rules Factors Affecting Play Play in Different Cultures The Play Ethos Play Theorists The Benefits of Play: The Evidence The Forms of Play Correlational Studies Box 7.2: Boys' and girls' uses of objects for exploration, play, and tools in early childhood Experimental Studies Play Therapy The Benefits of Play: An Overview Chapter Summary Discussion points Further Reading CHAPTER 8 Children and Media Children's Use of the Media Children and Television Learning from Television Sesame Street Television in Relation to Other Activities Influence of Television: Stereotypes Influence of Television: Aggression and Violence A Longitudinal, Correlational Study on Adolescents A Two-site Longitudinal Study Computer Games Box 8.1: Media use and school achievement-boys at risk? Advertising to Children Unhealthy Food Products Children's Understanding of Advertisements Product Placement and Advergames Effects of Advertising on Children Box 8.2: Exploring the relationship between children's knowledge of text message abbreviations and school literacy outcomes Media Interventions Restrictive Interventions Co-viewing Media Literacy Chapter Summary Discussion Points Further Reading CHAPTER 9 Helping Others and Moral Development The Development of Prosocial Behavior Experimental Studies Observational Studies Factors Influencing Prosocial Behavior in the Family and in School Box 9.1: Child-rearing and children's prosocial initiations towards victims of distress Prosocial Behavior in School and the Peer Group Peer Support Systems in Schools Sex Differences in Prosocial Behavior Box 9.2: The effects of primary division, student-mediated conflict resolution programs on playground aggression Cross-cultural Differences in Prosocial Behavior The Development of Moral Reasoning Piaget's Theory Kohlberg's Theory Early Criticisms of Kohlberg's Theory Later Revisions of Kohlberg's Theory The Domain Approach to Moral Development The Age of Moral Responsibility in the Context of Youth Crime Can We Teach Moral Values? Emotional Literacy The PATHS Intervention Results of the PATHS Intervention Chapter Summary Discussion Points Further Reading CHAPTER 10 Social Dominance, Aggression and Bullying Dominance in Children Social Dominance in Younger Children Social Dominance in Older Children Aggression in Children Types and Typologies of Aggressive Behavior Developmental Changes in Aggression Is Aggression Maladaptive? Box 10.1: Strategies of control, aggression and morality in preschoolers: an evolutionary perspective Origins of Aggression: Genetic Factors and Temperament Callous-unemotional Traits Origins of Aggression: Parenting Origins of Aggression: Peer Group Factors Origins of Aggression: Neighborhood Factors Delinquency Interventions Bullying in School Finding out about Bullying Types of Bullying Cyberbullying Incidence and Structural Features of Bullying Causes of Bullying Consequences of being Victimized Interventions against Bullying Large-scale School-based Intervention Programs Box 10.2: Bully/victim problems among schoolchildren: basic facts and effects of a school-based intervention program Chapter Summary Discussion Points Further Reading PART IV CHILDREN'S DEVELOPING MINDS CHAPTER 11 Perception Methods for Studying Infants' Perception Preference Technique Box 11.1: Is face-processing species-specific in the first year of life? Habituation Conditioning Summary of Methods Visual Perception Investigating Infants' Visual Perception Pattern Perception Face Perception Box 11.2: Effects of prior experience on 4.5-month-old infants'object segregation Perceptual Constancies Object Separation Depth perception Auditory Perception Effects of the Environment on Perceptual Development Intermodal Perception Chapter Summary Discussion Points Further Reading CHAPTER 12 Language Main Areas of Language Development Sequences in Language Development Shared Rhythms Babbling and Echolalia First Words and Sentences Box 12.1: Facilitating children's syntax development Gleitman's Syntactic Bootstrapping Hypothesis Barrett's Multi-Route Model From 3 to 5 Years The Development of Discourse and Narrative Skills Taking Account of One's Own and Others' Perspective The Role of Fantasy and Make-Believe Mastering the Convention of Different Genres Pre-Reading and Pre-Writing Skills Box 12.2: Categorizing sounds and learning to read: a causal connection Dyslexia Explanations of Dyslexia Theories of Language Development The Innate Basis of Language: Chomsky's Views Pinker and the Evidence from Pidgin and Creoles Language and Cognition: A Piagetian Perspective Cognitive-Functional Linguistics Adult-Child Speech A Continuing Debate Chapter Summary Discussion Points Further Reading CHAPTER 13 Cognition: Piaget's Theory Underlying Assumptions: Structure and Organization The Stages of Cognitive Development The Sensori-Motor Stage Reinterpretations of Piaget: The Sensori-Motor Stage The Pre-Operational Stage The Pre-Conceptual Period Box 13.1: Piaget's mountains revisited: changes in the egocentric landscape The Intuitive Period Reinterpretations of Piaget: The Pre-Operational Stage Box 13.2: Conservation accidents The Concrete Operational Stage Reinterpretations of Piaget: The Concrete Operational Stage The Formal Operational Stage Reinterpretations of Piaget: The Formal Operational Stage Piaget's Theory: An Overview Educational Implications Chapter Summary Discussion Points Further Reading CHAPTER 14 Cognition: The Information Processing Approach Information Processing Limitations Stage-Like Performance in Information Processing Problem-solving Strategies Box 14.1: The origins of scientific reasoning Attention Memory Development Encoding Strategies Retrieval Strategies How Do Memory Strategies Develop? Metacognition Knowledge and Memory Development Constructive Memory and Knowledge Structures Summary of Information Processing Approach Children's Eyewitness Research Children's Suggestibility Box 14.2: The effects of stereotypes and suggestions on preschoolers' reports Why are Children Misled? The Cognitive Interview Achieving Best Evidence The Effects of Stress on Children's Recall Summary of Eyewitness Research and Suggestibility Chapter Summary Discussion Points Further Reading CHAPTER 15 Children's Understanding of Mind The False-Belief Task Box 15.1: Beliefs about beliefs: representations and constraining function of wrong beliefs in young children's understanding of deception Children's Knowledge of Mind Before About 4 Years of Age Distinguishing Mental States in Language Understanding the Relationship between Seeing and Knowing Understanding the Appearance-Reality Distinction Predicting Behavior When is Theory of Mind Achieved? Theory of Mind After 4 Years of Age Theories about the Development of Understanding the Mind Do Children with Autism Lack an Understanding of Other's Minds? Box 15.2: Domain specificity in conceptual development: neuropsychological evidence from autism How Far Can a Deficit in Understanding Mental Representations Contribute to an Explanation of ASD? Chapter Summary Discussion Points Further Reading CHAPTER 16 Learning in a Social Context The Challenge of Vygotsky Individual Mental Functioning: Its Sociocultural Origins Cole's Work with the Kpelle The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) Hedegaard's Teaching Experiment Language and Thought The Impact of Bruner Scaffolding in Practice Box 16.1: Capturing and modeling the process of conceptual change Guided Participation in Sociocultural Activity Collective Argumentation The Community of Inquiry Implications for Education Box 16.2: Mathematics in the streets and in schools The Role of Peers as Tutors Computer-Assisted Learning (CAL) Is Synthesis Possible? Chapter Summary Discussion Points Further Reading CHAPTER 17 Intelligence and Attainment The Development of Intelligence Tests The First Tests Revisions of the Binet-Simon Scale Other Intelligence Scales Reliability and Validity Reliability Validity The Early Uses of Intelligence Tests Concepts of Intelligence Sternberg's Theory of Intelligence Box 17.1: People's conceptions of intelligence Savants Box 17.2: Calendar counting in 'idiot savants'. How do they do it? Intelligence in a Social-Cultural Context The Use of Intelligence Tests Children with Learning Difficulties Gifted Children Attainment Tests Chapter Summary Discussion Points Further Reading CHAPTER 18 Deprivation and Enrichment: Risk and Resilience Deprivation Extreme Deprivation and Neglect Feral Children The Koluchova Twins Genie The Effects of Institutional Rearing on Children's Development Early Studies During and After World War II (1939-45) Later Studies in Other Cultures Romanian Adoptees: The English and Romanian Adoptees (ERA) Study Socially Disadvantaged Children Social Disadvantage in the UK The Impact of Racial Prejudice and Discrimination Street Children Growing up with Political Violence Box 18.1: Children and political violence: an overview Explanatory Models The 'Deficit' and 'Difference' Models Risk and Protective Factors Risk-focused Intervention Interventions: The Role of Families Nurture Groups Compensatory Education Programs in the USA USA Compensatory Programs Evaluated Box 18.2: Lasting effects of early education: a report from the Consortium of Longitudinal Studies Compensatory Education Programs in the UK Sure Start A Continuing Debate Chapter Summary Discussion Points Further Reading PART V ADOLESCENCE CHAPTER 19 Adolescence The Biological and Physical Changes of Puberty Variations in Physical Maturation Rates The Secular Trend in Age of Puberty Theories Concerning Pubertal Timing Psychological Effects of Puberty Effects of Physical Changes Box 19.1: The associations among perceived pubertal timing, parental relations and self-perception in Turkish adolescents Effects of Hormones Brain Development at Puberty Effects of Cognitive Changes Effects of Early and Late Maturation Sexual and Romantic Development Lesbian and Gay Adolescents Adolescence as a Period of Turmoil, or 'Storm and Stress' Identity Development and the 'Identity Crisis' Conflicts with Parents Mood Disruption The 'Isle of Wight' Study Relations with Peers and Risk-Taking Behaviors Box 19.2: Cultural bases of risk behavior: Danish adolescents Adolescence in Different Cultures Margaret Mead and Samoa Broad and Narrow Socialization Historical Changes in Adolescent Behavior Sexual Attitudes and Behavior Leisure Pursuits and ICT Adolescent Mental Health Chapter Summary Discussion Points Further Reading References Index