Routing Protocols and Concepts: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide

Routing Protocols and Concepts: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide

Mixed media product Cisco Systems Networking Academy Program (Hardcover)

By (author) Rick Graziani, By (author) Allan Johnson

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  • Publisher: Cisco Press
  • Format: Mixed media product | 640 pages
  • Dimensions: 204mm x 240mm x 34mm | 1,260g
  • Publication date: 1 March 2012
  • Publication City/Country: Indianapolis
  • ISBN 10: 1587132729
  • ISBN 13: 9781587132728
  • Edition statement: Reprint
  • Illustrations note: black & white illustrations, black & white line drawings, colour line drawings, black & white tables, figures
  • Sales rank: 299,882

Product description

Each new purchase of an Exploration Companion guide comes with an exclusive coupon code that can be used to Save 65% on these two additional study resources: 1. CCNA Portable Command Guide, 2nd Ed, eBook (www.ciscopress.com/title/0132965739) 2. Routing Protocols and Concepts Companion Guide eBook (www.ciscopress.com/title/0132877538) Routing Protocols and Concepts, CCNA Exploration Companion Guide is the official supplemental textbook for the Routing Protocols and Concepts course in the Cisco Networking Academy(R) CCNA(R) Exploration curriculum version 4. This course describes the architecture, components, and operation of routers, and explains the principles of routing and the primary routing protocols. The Companion Guide, written and edited by Networking Academy instructors, is designed as a portable desk reference to use anytime, anywhere. The book's features reinforce the material in the course to help you focus on important concepts and organize your study time for exams. New and improved features help you study and succeed in this course: * Chapter objectives-Review core concepts by answering the focus questions listed at the beginning of each chapter. * Key terms-Refer to the updated lists of networking vocabulary introduced and turn to the highlighted terms in context in each chapter. * Glossary-Consult the comprehensive glossary with more than 150 terms. * Check Your Understanding questions and answer key-Evaluate your readiness with the updated end-of-chapter questions that match the style of questions you see on the online course quizzes. The answer key explains each answer. * Challenge questions and activities-Strive to ace more challenging review questions and activities designed to prepare you for the complex styles of questions you might see on the CCNA exam. The answer key explains each answer. Rick Graziani has been a computer science and networking instructor at Cabrillo College since 1994. Allan Johnson works full time developing curriculum for Cisco Networking Academy. Allan also is a part-time instructor at Del Mar College in Corpus Christi, Texas. How To-Look for this icon to study the steps you need to learn to perform certain tasks. Packet Tracer Activities- Explore networking concepts in activities interspersed throughout some chapters using Packet Tracer v4.1 developed by Cisco(R). The files for these activities are on the accompanying CD-ROM. Also available for the Routing Protocols and Concepts Course: Routing Protocols and Concepts CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide ISBN-10: 1-58713-204-4 ISBN-13: 978-1-58713-204-9 Companion CD-ROM The CD-ROM provides many useful tools and information to support your education: * Packet Tracer Activity exercise files v4.1* A Guide to Using a Networker's Journal booklet * Taking Notes: a .txt file of the chapter objectives * More IT Career Information * Tips on Lifelong Learning in Networking This book is part of the Cisco Networking Academy Series from Cisco Press(R). The products in this series support and complement the Cisco Networking Academy online curriculum.

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Author information

Rick Graziani teaches computer science and computer networking courses at Cabrillo College in Aptos, California. Rick has worked and taught in the computer networking and information technology field for almost 30 years. Prior to teaching, Rick worked in IT for various companies including Santa Cruz Operation, Tandem Computers, and Lockheed Missiles and Space Corporation. He holds an M.A. in computer science and systems theory from California State University Monterey Bay. Rick also does consulting work for Cisco and other companies. When Rick is not working, he is most likely surfing. Rick is an avid surfer who enjoys longboarding at his favorite Santa Cruz surf breaks. Allan Johnson entered the academic world in 1999 after 10 years as a business owner/operator to dedicate his efforts to his passion for teaching. He holds both an M.B.A. and an M.Ed. in occupational training and development. He is an information technology instructor at Del Mar College in Corpus Christi, Texas. In 2003, Allan began to commit much of his time and energy to the CCNA Instructional Support Team, providing services to Networking Academy instructors worldwide and creating training materials. He now works full time for the Academy in Learning Systems Development.

Table of contents

Introduction Chapter 1 Introduction to Routing and Packet Forwarding Objectives Key Terms Inside the Router Routers Are Computers Routers Are at the Network Center Routers Determine the Best Path Router CPU and Memory CPU RAM ROM Flash Memory NVRAM Internetwork Operating System (IOS) Router Bootup Process Bootup Process Command-Line Interface Verifying Router Bootup Process IOS Version ROM Bootstrap Program Location of IOS CPU and Amount of RAM Interfaces Amount of NVRAM Amount of Flash Configuration Register Router Ports and Interfaces Management Ports Router Interfaces Interfaces Belong to Different Networks Example of Router Interfaces Routers and the Network Layer Routing Is Forwarding Packets Routers Operate at Layers 1, 2, and 3 CLI Configuration and Addressing Implementing Basic Addressing Schemes Populating an Address Table Basic Router Configuration Host Name and Passwords Configuring a Banner Router Interface Configuration Each Interface Belongs to a Different Network Verifying Basic Router Configuration Building the Routing Table Introducing the Routing Table show ip route Command Directly Connected Networks Static Routing When to Use Static Routes Dynamic Routing Automatic Network Discovery Maintaining Routing Tables IP Routing Protocols Routing Table Principles Asymmetric Routing Path Determination and Switching Functions Packet Fields and Frame Fields Internet Protocol (IP) Packet Format MAC Layer Frame Format Best Path and Metrics Best Path Comparing Hop Count and Bandwidth Metrics Equal-Cost Load Balancing Equal-Cost Paths Versus Unequal-Cost Paths Path Determination Switching Function Path Determination and Switching Function Details Path Determination and Switching Function Summary Summary Labs Check Your Understanding Challenge Questions and Activities To Learn More End Notes Chapter 2 Static Routing Objectives Key Terms Routers and the Network Role of the Router Introducing the Topology Examining the Connections of the Router Router Connections Serial Connectors Ethernet Connectors Router Configuration Review Examining Router Interfaces Interfaces and Their Statuses Additional Commands for Examining Interface Status Configuring an Ethernet Interface Configuring an Ethernet Interface Unsolicited Messages from IOS Reading the Routing Table Routers Usually Store Network Addresses Verifying Ethernet Addresses Commands to Verify Interface Configuration Ethernet Interfaces Participate in ARP Configuring a Serial Interface Examining Serial Interfaces Physically Connecting a WAN Interface Configuring Serial Links in a Lab Environment Verifying the Serial Interface Configuration Exploring Directly Connected Networks Verifying Changes to the Routing Table Routing Table Concepts Observing Routes as They Are Added to the Routing Table Changing an IP Address Devices on Directly Connected Networks Accessing Devices on Directly Connected Networks Pings from R2 to 172.16.3.1 Pings from R2 to 192.168.1.1 Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) Network Discovery with CDP Layer 3 Neighbors Layer 2 Neighbors CDP Operation Using CDP for Network Discovery CDP show Commands Disabling CDP Static Routes with "Next-Hop" Addresses Purpose and Command Syntax of the ip route Command ip route Command Configuring Static Routes Verifying the Static Route Configuring Routes to Two More Remote Networks Routing Table Principles and Static Routes Applying the Principles Resolving to an Exit Interface with a Recursive Route Lookup Exit Interface Is Down Static Routes with Exit Interfaces Configuring a Static Route with an Exit Interface Static Route and an Exit Interface Static Routes and Point-to-Point Networks Modifying Static Routes Verifying the Static Route Configuration Verifying Static Route Changes Static Routes with Ethernet Interfaces Ethernet Interfaces and ARP Sending an ARP Request Static Routes and Ethernet Exit Interfaces Advantages of Using an Exit Interface with Static Routes Summary and Default Static Routes Summary Static Routes Summarizing Routes to Reduce the Size of the Routing Table Route Summarization Calculating a Summary Route Configuring a Summary Route Default Static Route Most Specific Match Configuring a Default Static Route Verifying a Default Static Route Managing and Troubleshooting Static Routes Static Routes and Packet Forwarding Static Routes and Packet Forwarding Troubleshooting a Missing Route Troubleshooting a Missing Route Solving the Missing Route Summary Labs Check Your Understanding Challenge Questions and Activities To Learn More Floating Static Routes Discard Route Further Reading on Static Routing End Notes Chapter 3 Introduction to Dynamic Routing Protocols Objectives Key Terms Introduction to Dynamic Routing Protocols Perspective and Background Evolution of Dynamic Routing Protocols Role of Dynamic Routing Protocol Network Discovery and Routing Table Maintenance Purpose of Dynamic Routing Protocols Dynamic Routing Protocol Operation Dynamic Routing Protocol Advantages Static Routing Usage, Advantages, and Disadvantages Dynamic Routing Advantages and Disadvantages Classifying Dynamic Routing Protocols IGP and EGP Distance Vector and Link-State Routing Protocols Distance Vector Routing Protocol Operation Link-State Protocol Operation Classful and Classless Routing Protocols Classful Routing Protocols Classless Routing Protocols Dynamic Routing Protocols and Convergence Metrics Purpose of a Metric Metrics and Routing Protocols Metric Parameters Metric Field in the Routing Table Load Balancing Administrative Distance Purpose of Administrative Distance Multiple Routing Sources Purpose of Administrative Distance Dynamic Routing Protocols and Administrative Distance Static Routes and Administrative Distance Directly Connected Networks and Administrative Distance Summary Activities and Labs Check Your Understanding Challenge Questions and Activities To Learn More Chapter 4 Distance Vector Routing Protocols Objectives Key Terms Introduction to Distance Vector Routing Protocols Distance Vector Technology Meaning of Distance Vector Operation of Distance Vector Routing Protocols Routing Protocol Algorithms Routing Protocol Characteristics Comparing Routing Protocol Features Network Discovery Cold Start Initial Exchange of Routing Information Exchange of Routing Information Convergence Routing Table Maintenance Periodic Updates Maintaining the Routing Table RIP Timers Bounded Updates Triggered Updates Random Jitter Routing Loops Defining a Routing Loop Implications of Routing Loops Count-to-Infinity Condition Preventing Routing Loops by Setting a Maximum Metric Value Preventing Routing Loops with Hold-Down Timers Preventing Routing Loops with the Split Horizon Rule Route Poisoning Split Horizon with Poison Reverse Preventing Routing Loops with IP and TTL Distance Vector Routing Protocols Today RIP and EIGRP RIP EIGRP Summary Activities and Labs Check Your Understanding Challenge Questions and Activities To Learn More Chapter 5 RIP Version 1 Objectives Key Terms RIPv1: Distance Vector, Classful Routing Protocol Background and Perspective RIPv1 Characteristics and Message Format RIP Characteristics RIP Message Format: RIP Header RIP Message Format: Route Entry Why Are So Many Fields Set to Zero? RIP Operation RIP Request/Response Process IP Address Classes and Classful Routing Administrative Distance Basic RIPv1 Configuration RIPv1 Scenario A Enabling RIP: router rip Command Specifying Networks Verification and Troubleshooting Verifying RIP: show ip route Command Verifying RIP: show ip protocols Command Verifying RIP: debug ip rip Command Passive Interfaces Unnecessary RIP Updates Impact Network Stopping Unnecessary RIP Updates Automatic Summarization Modified Topology: Scenario B Boundary Routers and Automatic Summarization Processing RIP Updates Rules for Processing RIPv1 Updates Example of RIPv1 Processing Updates Sending RIP Updates: Using debug to View Automatic Summarization Advantages and Disadvantages of Automatic Summarization Advantages of Automatic Summarization Disadvantage of Automatic Summarization Discontiguous Topologies Do Not Converge with RIPv1 Default Route and RIPv1 Modified Topology: Scenario C Propagating the Default Route in RIPv1 Summary Activities and Labs Check Your Understanding Challenge Questions and Activities To Learn More Chapter 6 VLSM and CIDR Objectives Key Terms Classful and Classless Addressing Classful IP Addressing High-Order Bits IPv4 Classful Addressing Structure Classful Routing Protocol Classless IP Addressing Moving Toward Classless Addressing CIDR and Route Summarization Classless Routing Protocol VLSM VLSM in Action VLSM and IP Addresses CIDR Route Summarization Calculating Route Summarization Summary Activities and Labs Check Your Understanding Challenge Questions and Activities To Learn More Chapter 7 RIPv2 Objectives Key Terms RIPv1 Limitations Summary Route VLSM RFC 1918 Private Addresses Cisco Example IP Addresses Loopback Interfaces RIPv1 Topology Limitations Static Routes and Null Interfaces Route Redistribution Verifying and Testing Connectivity RIPv1: Discontiguous Networks Examining the Routing Tables How Classful Routing Protocols Determine Subnet Masks RIPv1: No VLSM Support RIPv1: No CIDR Support 192.168.0.0/16 Static Route Configuring RIPv2 Enabling and Verifying RIPv2 Auto-Summary and RIPv2 Disabling Auto-Summary in RIPv2 Verifying RIPv2 Updates VLSM and CIDR RIPv2 and VLSM RIPv2 and CIDR Verifying and Troubleshooting RIPv2 Verification and Troubleshooting Commands show ip route Command show ip interface brief Command show ip protocols Command debug ip rip Command ping Command show running-config Command Common RIPv2 Issues Authentication Summary Activities and Labs Check Your Understanding Challenge Questions and Activities To Learn More Chapter 8 The Routing Table: A Closer Look Objectives Key Terms The Routing Table Structure Lab Topology Routing Table Entries Level 1 Routes Parent and Child Routes: Classful Networks Level 1 Parent Route Level 2 Child Route Parent and Child Routes: Classless Networks Routing Table Lookup Process Steps in the Route Table Lookup Process The Route Lookup Process Longest Match: Level 1 Network Routes Longest Match Example: Level 1 Ultimate Route Longest Match: Level 1 Parent and Level 2 Child Routes Example: Level 1 Parent Route and Level 2 Child Routes Example: Route Lookup Process with VLSM Routing Behavior Classful and Classless Routing Behavior Topology Changes Classful Routing Behavior: no ip classless Classful Routing Behavior: Search Process Example: R2 Operating with Classful Routing Behavior Classless Routing Behavior: ip classless The Route Lookup Process Classless Routing Behavior: Search Process Example: R2 Operating with Classless Routing Behavior Classful Route on R3 Classful vs. Classless Routing Behavior in the Real World Summary Activities and Labs Check Your Understanding Challenge Questions and Activities To Learn More End Notes Chapter 9 EIGRP Objectives Key Terms Introduction to EIGRP EIGRP: An Enhanced Distance Vector Routing Protocol Roots of EIGRP: IGRP The Algorithm Path Determination Convergence EIGRP Message Format Protocol-Dependent Modules RTP and EIGRP Packet Types EIGRP Packet Types Hello Protocol EIGRP Bounded Updates DUAL: An Introduction Administrative Distance Authentication Basic EIGRP Configuration EIGRP Network Topology Autonomous Systems and Process IDs Autonomous System Process ID The router eigrp Command The network Command The network Command with a Wildcard Mask Verifying EIGRP Examining the Routing Table Introducing the Null0 Summary Route R3 Routing Table EIGRP Metric Calculation EIGRP Composite Metric and the K Values The Composite Metric Verifying the K Values EIGRP Metrics Examining the Metric Values Bandwidth Delay Reliability Load Using the bandwidth Command Calculating the EIGRP Metric Bandwidth Delay Adding Bandwidth and Delay DUAL DUAL Concepts Successor and Feasible Distance Feasible Successors, Feasibility Condition, and Reported Distance Topology Table: Successor and Feasible Successor Topology Table: No Feasible Successor Finite State Machine DUAL FSM No Feasible Successor More EIGRP Configurations The Null0 Summary Route Disabling Automatic Summarization Manual Summarization Determining the Summary EIGRP Route Configure EIGRP Manual Summarization EIGRP Default Route Fine-Tuning EIGRP EIGRP Bandwidth Utilization Configuring Hello Intervals and Hold Times Summary Activities and Labs Check Your Understanding Challenge Questions and Activities To Learn More Chapter 10 Link-State Routing Protocols Objectives Key Terms Link-State Routing Link-State Routing Protocols Introduction to the SPF Algorithm Link-State Routing Process Step 1: Learning About Directly Connected Networks Links Link States Step 2: Sending Hello Packets to Neighbors Step 3: Building the Link-State Packet Step 4: Flooding Link-State Packets to Neighbors Step 5: Constructing a Link-State Database Shortest Path First (SPF) Tree Building the SPF Tree Determining the Shortest Path Generating a Routing Table from the SPF Tree Implementing Link-State Routing Protocols Advantages of a Link-State Routing Protocol Builds a Topological Map Fast Convergence Event-Driven Updates Hierarchical Design Requirements of a Link-State Routing Protocol Memory Requirements Processing Requirements Bandwidth Requirements Comparison of Link-State Routing Protocols Summary Activities and Labs Check Your Understanding Challenge Questions and Activities To Learn More Chapter 11 OSPF Objectives Key Terms Introduction to OSPF Background of OSPF OSPF Message Encapsulation OSPF Packet Types Hello Protocol Neighbor Establishment OSPF Hello and Dead Intervals Electing a DR and BDR OSPF LSUs OSPF Algorithm Administrative Distance Authentication Basic OSPF Configuration Lab Topology The router ospf Command The network Command OSPF Router ID Determining the Router ID Highest Active IP Address Verifying the Router ID Loopback Address OSPF router-id Command Modifying the Router ID Duplicate Router IDs Verifying OSPF Examining the Routing Table The OSPF Metric OSPF Metric Reference Bandwidth OSPF Accumulates Cost Default Bandwidth on Serial Interfaces Modifying the Cost of the Link The bandwidth Command The ip ospf cost Command The bandwidth Command vs. the ip ospf cost Command OSPF and Multiaccess Networks Challenges in Multiaccess Networks Multiple Adjacencies Flooding of LSAs Solution: Designated Router DR/BDR Election Process Topology Change DR/BDR Election Timing of DR/BDR Election OSPF Interface Priority More OSPF Configuration Redistributing an OSPF Default Route Topology Fine-Tuning OSPF Reference Bandwidth Modifying OSPF Intervals Summary Activities and Labs Check Your Understanding Challenge Questions and Activities To Learn More Appendix Check Your Understanding and Challenge Questions Answer Key Glossary of Key Terms Index 1587132060 TOC 11/9/2007